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,c,\tY Oj, 



or THB 






XTnd&r Qovemm»nt Orders. 





or TBI 

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Urifder Government Orders. 










Under G-ovemm^nt Orders. 





:-.,,-.' J ^y/ 

The names of contribatora are given in tbe body of tbe book. 
Special acknowledgments are dae to Messrs. H. F. Silcock, C.S. 
and A. Gamine^ C.S. 

* Mnch valuable help was also received from Messrs. B. 6. Joyner, 
C.E. and E. K. Reinold, C.K and from Messrs. A. H. Spiy, C.S. 
and 6. F. M. Grants C.S., former Collectors of the District 

August 188i. 





Cliapter I.— Descriptioii. faoe 

Position aiid Area ; Boiindaries ; Aspect 1-4 

Hills; Rivers; Wells; Climate 5-15 

Geology : ^ 

Gneissic Bpcks ; Kalddgi Series ; Introsive Bocks ; Bhima 
Series ; Inf ra-trappean Bocks ; Deccan Trap ; Laterite ; 
Later Tertiary Deposits ; Sub-a6rial Formations ; Soil . 16-50 

CShapter II.— Production. 


Iron ; Laterite ; Gneiss ; Green-stone ;. Quartzite ; Sand- 
stone ; lime-stone ; Olay-slate ; Trap ; Nitre ; Agates . 51-60 

Forests ; Trees 61-63 

Animals ; Birds ; Snakes ; Bees ; Fish 64-70 

CSiapter III.— Population. 

Census Details; Houses ; Villages ; Communities ; Movements. 71 - 78 
BrAhmamical Hindus : ^„ 

Brihmans 79-89 

Settled Classes 90-175 

Wandering Classes 176-212>/ 

Depressed Classes 213 - 218 

LingXyat Hindob : 

True lingdyats 219-237 

Affiliated Lingiyats 238-258 

Half lingiyats .259-279 

Jawb 280-281 

MasALuisB; Christians 282-306 

Cbapter IV.— Agriculture. 

Husbandmen ; Soil ; Arable Area ; Stock ; Holdings . . . 307 - 309 

Field Tools; Irrigation; Manure. 310-316 

Tillage ; Crops 317-323 

Famines ; Bat Plague 324-337 

Chapter V.— Capital. 

Capitalists ; Bills ; Currency ; Saving Classes ; Investments ; 
Lenders ; Account Books ; Interest ; Borrowers ; Labour 
Mortgage ; Wages ; Prices ; Weights and Measures . . . 338 • 353 


Chapter YI-— Trade and Grafts. pagb 

Roads ; Railways ; ToUa ; Ferries ; Rest Houses ; Post and 

Telegraph Offices 354-358 

Trading C'^* ses; Trade Centres; Markets; Fairs; Shop- 

keepe*-- / Cjurriers; Imports ; Exports .359-366 

Ceafts— v 

Dyeing ; Weaving ; Carpets ; Blankets ; Metal, Earth, and 

Leather Work ; Paper and Saltpetre 367-377 

Chapter VII.— History. 
Early History (b. c 200 - A. d. 550) ; Early Chalukyas 
(A.D. 550-610) ; Western Chalukyas (610-760); R&shtrakutas 
(760'-'^73); Western ChAlukyas (973-1190) ; Kalachuris 
(1162-1182) ; Sindas (1120 - 1180) ; Devgiri YAdavs (1150 - 
1310); Delhi Emperors (1295-1347); Bahmani Kings 
(1347 - 1489) ; Bijipur Kings (1489 - 1686) ; The Moghak 
(1686-1723); The NizAm (1723-1760); The Peshwds 
(1760-1778); Maisur Supremacy (1778-1787); The 
Peshwds (1787 - 1818) ; The British (1818 - 1884) . . . 378 - 454 

Chapter VIII.— The Land. 

Acquisition (1818 - 1858) ; Changes (1818 - 1864) ; Alienated 
Villages ; British Management (1818 - 1884) ; Survey Set- 
tlements (1843-1860); Revision Purvey (1874-1877); 

Season Reports (1865 - 1882) ; Staff . ^ 455-503 

Chapter IX. — Justice. ^ 

Civil Courts (1870 - 1883) ; CivU Suits (1870- 1882) ; RegU- 
tration; Magistracy; Police; Criminal Classes; Offences; 

Jails 504-511 

Chapter Z.— Finance. 

Balance Sheets; Land Revenue; Excise; Local Funds; 

Municipalities 512-517 

Chapter XI. — InBtmction. 

Schools ; Staff ; Cost ; Private Schools ; Progress ; Readers 
and Writers ; School Returns ; Town and Village Schools ; 

Libraries ; Newspapers 618 - 523 

Chapter XH— Health. 

Climate ; Diseases ; Hospitals ; Dispensaries ; Infirm People ; 

Vaccination ; Births and Deaths 624 - 528 

Chapter XIII.— Sub-Divisions. 

Boundaries ; Area ; Aspect ; Soil ; Water ; Stock ; Crop« j 

People .529-544 

Chapter Xrv.— Places 545-682 

APPENDIX 683-686 

INDEX 687-695 



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6oT» Phgiotox*' Offiet, Pb<wn,<88« 





Bija'pur, between 17° 28' and 1 5° 48' north latitude, and 75° 2*' Chapter ] 
and 70" 31' east longitiide, partly in the Bombay Deccan and partly Descriptioi 
in the Bombay Kanuttakj has an area of 5757 square milep, a 
population of 038,500 nr 110 to the square mJlo, and a realizable 
land revenue of about £120,000 (Rs. 12,0O,fJ0O).3 

This district is the most easterly part of the Bombay Presidency, U^mntli 

h*^ ' •iitc'd from tlie west coast by an avera^-e distance of about 

!•>' It forms a belt of lan<l aliout 1 10 miles from north to 

»outh and varying in bremlth from fifty mdes in the south and 
seventy-five miles in the centre to about five miles in the extretDC 
north. On the north and north-east the Bhima river separates it 
1 Sliolapur, the Akalkot state, and the Nizjim's territory ; on the 
antl f»oiith-eaHt it is l«>undod by the Sdgar district of iShilrfipur 
licbur Doab, both belonging to H. H. the Nizam ; on the 
•lie Nizam's districts of Kushtagi and Bbindgral and the 
la sub-division of Dbarwar; on the south-west the Malprabha 
8^parq,(es it from Navalgnnd in Dh^rwd,r and the Rilmdurg state ; 
and nu the west it is bounded by the states of Torgal, Mudhol, and 
Jn- ' ' '■], the Athni aub-division of i^elgaum, the Jath and Ka- 
n»j _ , and ilangalvedha in Sangn. Some outlying villages, 

nngie or in groups, are scattered in the Nizjlm's dominious to the 
fsmst, and in the Jath, Jamkhandi, and Ramdarg states to the west. 

For administrative purposes the district is distributed over eight Sub-Divjnc 
su' na, of whicli five, Indi, Bijdpur, Sindgi, Bagevadi, and 

h\ ■ il, are to the north, and three, B.igalkot, Hnngund, and 

Badami, to the south of the Krishna. As shown in the following 
statement these sub-d I visions have an average area of 720 square 
nules, lti7 villages, and about 80,000 people : 

BiJJpuR ADKiyrsTRATtrs DsrAiLs, 18S1. 





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' y. . r, , ,1 I .oology this chapter is cb'wDy cowiAicd from m.itorials »uvv\>ci\ \)V ^T. X. 
^ 7'bo iK'puLUion ami reveout) defcailB are (or \rA\ ■ 

[Bombay Gazetteer, 

ipter I. 
I Bcription. 

ihem Belt. 



Bijdpur is an excellent example of the influence of geolosric^l 
conditions on scenery. The landscape of ludi is as unlike 1 1 
scape of Badttmi as the ludi trap is unlike the Bddami sfn 
TKe Krishna divides the two types for some distance, but they 

nibet and run into one -> ■•♦^'•r in Muddebihnl. Here also i* 

found a third type, tht .alley, a well defined tract, nol 

intermediate between the •■tUtr two, mit closely related to the steril> 
trap country through which it passes and from which it has btt n 

The forty miles north of Bijapur, and the greater part of Siii ■ 
to the east of Bijdpur, are much like the wors t parts of S holtipnr . ; ■ 
Inddpur iu Poona. This tract has all the features of the open 
Decc an tr ap country, and has a strong resemblance to the downs 
on the coast of Bauffshire and Aberdeenshire in east Scotland. Hills 
there are none ; on the other hand it can hardly be called a plain 
for it ia not flat. It is a succession of low billowy uplands bare 
trees, gently rounded, and falling into intermediate narrow valli' -: 
On the uplands the soil, where there is soil, is very shallow, tillagr ;^ 
mostly confined to the valloys, which, enriched by the earth washed 
fromtheBlopes.yieldfaircrops. The top of every third or fourth upland 
looks down a stream-bed fringed with wild date trees and occasionally 
with a cluster of tiims or perhaps some fine old mangoes and 
tamarinds. Among the trees are one or two gardens and to one sidi 
rof fche gardens stands the village. A little further another gro^ 
of fine trees shades the village temple. The whole forms a pleasini 
oasis in the surrounding deaiyt. The barrenness of the country ani 
the dreariness of upland aftel" upland and valley after valley, each \ikt 
the last, are most depressing. Even thovillages seem to lack charact^? 
and to bo turned out on some standard plan. Though they goneralh 
lie on the banks of a stream, except on the best streams, th€ 
villages are seldom close enough to be within sight of one nnotherJ 
All are much in the same style ; smToundcd by a ruined wall witli 
one or more gates, the houses one-storeyed built of trap plaster 
with mud and with a blind wall running all round; so that, beit 
flat- roofed, they give the impression of being deserted. 

In spite of its general barrenness the trap country has excellen 
water. Many built wells yield a good supply, and streams ai 
common in whoso beds water can generally be found oven in the hot 
weather. The only irrigation is from wells by leather-bags watering 
two or three acres along the stream-beds beside the villages. The 
only considerable ponds or reservoirs whose waters are used foi 
irrigation are these at Mamdilpurand Kamatgi in Bijapur. 

In all this monotonous stretch of country there is nothing that can' 
be called a hill. Near the northern borders of Bijapur some uplands 
or vidlH running east and west stand above the level of the surround 
ing country, but they are really not so high as the ridge south of 
Bijapur which makes far loss show. During the rains, when 
the uplands are green and the valleys waving with millet, tho effect 
though tame is not nn pleasing. But about March, when the ci-opa 
are gone, when what spear-grass has not been burnt is bleached to 
a pole hay colonr^ when here and there the naked black trap shows 





patches, wben the whole surface qui vera in the Doon-tide 
d buming- blasts sweep across the treeless slopes, the country 
little better than a dcsort. nn<l recnlls tho old Musaluidn 
ig that the Adil Sh.ihi kim as their capital 

the des i ■!» ~ tn 'li.- 
from besu 

^^X tjlocltadilig 

Of;,'!!!.- (.'lose to liie auutu ui iiie old city of Bijdpnr. 

ib Don vStlcy 
[This rich tract ot deep black soil crosses the district from west to 

cast. The rocky trap uplands disappear, the sweeps are much longer 
ftod tnortf gradual, and iu many parLs there is a true plain. I'he 
|4»llue:ss of the soil is favourable to crops and trees. But except hdbhtd 
f(ftw trees are planted for fear of drawing birds which cause great 
ye to the crops. The villages are chiefly close to the Don river, 
stand on little hillocks of gray earth to which in the course of 
the village buildings have materially added. The Don valley 
off for water. Wells aro scarce and what water there is 
ish. In the valley, as in the Krishna valley further south, 
miage is much inor© careful than in the barren north, and the 
haabandmeu are much better off than their northern neighbours. 
lu the 1670 famine iu the Don valley granaries that had been closed 
for years were opened, and many of tho people made large sums. 
In February whon the whole valley is a sheet of magnificent millet, 
wheat, nnd golden ku8umbi, the prospect is extremely rich. By 
April nil is changed. Every crop except cotton is gone, and tho 
vttlley is a dusty dreary waste. 

The Dou valley and the rich alluvial plain of the Krishna are 

ee|>arated by a stretch of barren trnp. «<^fter crossing the Krishna 

Sholdpur-Kalildgi road the country completely changes. 

i of bare waving uplands is a rich plnin crossed from 

est to Oftst by two Hues of sandstone hH -■><'> to 300 feet 

* A. renmt writer, the late Sir Da^-id Woddcrbiirn, explained (Fortniijhtly Review, 

' -" XXVIII. 22.'>-227), by the ii ' ' ' '' tish rule th« 

ii.vl (IriitJ to a desert the n ihurn's h1o« 

-i.-ry hc'tirtcn Sbol.'ipnr and Uij.., J. ... Hijiipur U a 

[i<i<i«. That in MosalDiia times as at ]>i Itijiipnr was 

_ north of the city but to the south iu tbt* i 'iiu valley is 

by the IlimluatAni navijix Don pikke k'm klinoja ; Don n& itiktfion i/ule-i'i, that 

l>,iti liiiui crops who can eat (them) ; if the Don bear* no crups who can 

'li8 Bijiipur kings ajid unik-r the MarilhiU til' ' to the north 

!i. Iu 1631, during the HratMoghaUiege ot I ntly because 

had Viecu laid waatc by tlie Bijapiir tn.n,, , ;,... ..c.>ieging force 

hips as 'fetching grass and futd from long distances was a work 

II and buaiit.' The siege lasted oidy twenty days, still men uul 

(.rippled from want of food, that the Moghal army was forced to move 

. «4im«« lH>ttor snjiplied part of the country (Elliot and i>0W8on,VII. 30). 

"" -IlfT Bernier described the country of BijApur 

1 it is to the north, as very diHicult of access 

1 ,.,.11, lorage, and victuals. Thu city of Hijiipnr, he 

irrcn hiiui ; ttujre is almost no Roo'l water but in the 

lutionof tho OrP,it Moghal [1»571) Translation 171). In 

i;i7j d«»cril>ed the tvrenty nnles to the north and weet of 

'r. and not capable of improvement. In November 1808, 

• nt of the Kngliah as tho jiaramount power had iutro- 

iiito the Dccoan, Sir J<knic« Mackintosh <Lifc, I. 461, 

' ■ - -^li.a north of Bijapnr, saw no living creature 

.1 hare, anil a hcnl of deer. In the cluvew 

' :, , . !.'jii8hed by the sight of two mca o« borae- 

T!h«|>Uii> was rmtt iinkmtaad aDoultirAtmi. 

Chapter I 



Southern . 

[Bombay Gazetteer, i 


liigh wboso sides seem woody though the produce is seldom mot 
than brushwuod and prickly-pear. The plain though rich is bareJ 
and yiulds little drinking water, so that the villages are almost 
ranged along the banks of the rivers or close to the bases 
the hills. Both the mngea uf hills curve north-east towards thff! 
Krishna, so that the great black soil plains in the east of Bii;^alkolJ 
and along the north of Huugund are unbroken by hills. In themj 
drinking water is very scarce, and the \nilage8 are almost all along this] 
banks of the Krishna or of the Ghatprabha after it passes through tbo 
hills below Biigalkot. Soutb of the second range of hills, in the vall«_ 
in which Bagalkot and Kaladgi lie, the country is better wooded and 
the scenery improves. It is at its best during and just after the 
rains. TheJi the hills^ though low and not covered with auythingJ 
better than scrub, are all green ; the valley, dotted with low trees,! 
waves with early millet; and patches of red freshly- turned soil! 
brighten the green. Further south all over Badami and south-west 
Lfungund there are moro hills and they are rougher and steeper.J 
The black soil has given place to red uand^ and the timber if 
line is frequent. The villages on the fight sandy soil of Badaini arei 
small and poor, but in east Hungund, in the black plain of Bagalkot, 
and along the rich Krishna valley are many large and rich villages.] 
Within the space between the two ranges of hills lie several bcautifi 
lakes, notably those near Kendur and Mnshtagiri. Below 
dams of some of these lakes, as at Kendar, are pretty cocoam 
and plantain gardens watered by channels fed by the leakage ot 
the lake. Here and there detached masses of sandstone stand outi 
from tlie hills in jagged au^ fantastic shapes, or are scattered inj 
huge blocks, bearing temples on their summits. Except the steepi 
and quaintly-shaped sandstone cliffs of Bjidcimi, most of the hills are 
rounded and gently sloping. Between them are wide barren tract 
of rock and loose stones and many stretches of light land woody and] 
slightly tilled, brightened by patches of deep red, dull red, and ] 
white soil. Bddami, with its bold red cliffs cupped with brilliant 
green, its sheet of water in the gorge between the cliffs, its caves, 
and its fine old towers is a scene of much interest and beauty. 

It is the sudden passing from trap to sandstone that causes so J 
great a difference between the scenery of the north and the sout]i| 
of the district. Some inlying sandstone crops up at Mamdapur to 
the north, and there is trap west of Bilgi to the south. Otherwise 
the Krishna divides the trap from the sandstone as far east as 
Chimalgi about fifteen miles north-east oi Bagalkot. Hero the 
motaroorphic gi-anito baso crosses to the left hank and runs 
north-east to the Nizdm's border. At Muddobihdl, Bidekundi, and 
Basarkod terraces of sandstone ran out upon the granite and are in 
turn cappedby the last flowsof the Deccantntp. At Talikuti limestone ' 
supplants the sandstone, and in the north-west of Muddubihal the-' 
trap flows grow thicker and thicker, gradually covering everyLhing. 
South and west of the village of Mnddebiluil, where the motaniorphic 
granite forms a gently waving plain covered with scrub and boulders, 
the surface is too flat for beauty. But the country south of Ilkal, 
where the disintegrntiou of the granite has been much more irregidar, 
is very wild and weird, lliough Muddebihal baa little beauty it 



cnubunp the handsomest villaj^e in the district, Tdlikoti, which is built 
i>( the famous Tiilikoti lime&tone. The effott of tUe saudstono at 
Guledgadin BadHiui, about twelve milfls pouth-east of B^galkot, is 
hardlj- inferior; and the villac,'es south of the Krishna, though builf 
inucli in thu same stylo as those in the trap couutry, have generally 
AD air of more comfort and strength. Though the village sites lie 
-'iiwrmlly along the bases of hills, or on the banks of stream*?, where 

steep enough to make a fort, they sometimes stood on the 
II. lliB now town of Gulcdgud lies along the banks of a stream 

bottom of a hill and is uiiwalled. On the hill-top may be 
I the battered walla, the fallen houses, and the deserted temples 

old^tovm. , 

'nly in the south and south- we«t below the Krishna is the plain 

■nee of the district broken by hills of any size, and even in the 

lb there are few hills more than three hundred feet higlu The 

trn hills belong to the limestones, shales, and sandstones of the 

gi basin. Thougli they differ from the Sahyildri spurs in the 

ter of the rock, and are the results of earlier influences, the 

'■■' ~ ' ''3 of south Bijapur form two main ranges which 

f'j ■ east and west and may goographiailly be taken as 

o f t wo great ranges, the north Ghatprabha an<l the 

»»' 'm hiirS/wlieh from the Siihyadris stretch east across 

Brigaum, the north Ghatprabha range forming the water-parting 
Lri -i" •" rho Ghatprabha and the Krishna and the north Malprabha 
f> iiing the water-parting betweeuThe Ghatprabha and Che 

^' 'Fhe north Ghatprabha range, the water-parting 

^ iio Krishna and the GhatpnfVlia, begins at the Sahyjldris 

close U.I 1 he north of Manohar fort about forty miles north-east of 
Bel gaum and passes east across Belgaum. Except in one or two 
di't.a<:ho<l fragments the trap ceases to the west of Bijfipur limits. 
Still, though the rock changes, the line of higli land is maintained by 
two flat-topped scrub-covered ridges of sandstone hills, one which 
pasftcs south of Bilgi about fifteen, and the other which passes 
throdgh Kundargi and Anakvjidi about tive miles north of Kalddgi. 
Tlie Bilgi ridgi' falls into the plain about two miles to the east of 
llilgi. The Kundargi hills stretch oast along the north bank of the 
Ghatprabha about fifteen miles to near Yerkal or Herkal, about five 
mUea horth of Bdgalkot, where the range is cut by the Ghatprabha. 
lb rcftpjiears ou the east bank of the Ghatpmbha and stretches 
nhout ten niiks eiist :tnd eight miles north-oast to Sitaraani on the 
Krishna 'J"he last eighteen miles between the Ghatprabha and the 
Krislma have been named the Sita range. From the Kundargi 
hills, abotit five miles to the west of Tferkal, where they are crossed 
hy tho Ghatprabha, a range of hills stretches south-east. After 
about four miles, that is about a mile north-east of Bagalkot, the 
rangn in crossed by the Ghatjirabha. From the Ghatprabha it 
Htr twenty miles south-east to Amingad, tho eastern end 

«»f .ilprabha range. This cross lino of hills, which thus 

nnitoH tlio eastern ends of the north Gliatprabha and tho north 
Maljtrabha ranges, with its branches and intervening valleys, occu- 
pjuij a great part of the Bagalkot sub-diviaion. In somo places Uie 



[Bombay Qaxetteer, 


kpter I. 


I Kr'uhtta 

liilla are nigged and in others present wall-like Bcarps either with 
flat tabular summits or narrow-crested ridges. 

, The north Malprabha range or upland, the water-parting between 
the Ghatprabha and the Malprabha, starts from the ISahyadria neat 
the Tolkhat pass about thirty miles west of Belgaum. Acroa$ 
Belgnum and close to Bijiipur limits it continues trap, and, after 
the trap ceases, the highland is prolonged by irregular lines of 
sandstone hills which cross the centre of Bddanii and end at Ainingad. 
At Mutkavi in the south-west corncjr of Baddmi, inimediati'lf 
after the north Malprabha range enters the district, aspnr strctchi^ 
to the south-east and east, till it is crossed by the Maljirabha »> 
little to the south-east of Badrimi. East of the Malprabha the spttT 
reappears and stretches south-east in a broken line which ood» 
abruptly a few miles east of Gajeudragad on the western boundary 
of the Nizam's territory. Of the north Malprabha range the most 
notable hills are thoso at Guledgud, about ten miles south of 
Bdgalkot, and those round Baddmi. The Guledgnd kills are flat*j 
topped and capped with brushwood. The sandstone is close to tbo\ 
surface, and generally forms a scarp about twenty feet high near the 
top, whence the steep sides fall to the plain covered with prickly- 
pear. There is no tillage on tho top or aides and there is no specif 
hill population. Pig and panther are common and do much liarm. 
The Bddjlmi cliffs are perhaps the best examjile of tho steep 
sandstone hills of the south of the district. 'ITiey are broken 
into various shapes, huge masses of many thousand tons bein^ 
detached or partly detached and roUedoveron the plain. Little t€mple9 
have been built both on the "tops and in tho chasms of scTcral of 
tho separate rocks and on two of the greater and partly detached 
masses stand the two forts of Bddilrai. The top of the hills is flat, 
very broad, and covered with beautiful bright green scrub and the 
sides are rod sandstone cliffs. There is no cultivation either on tho 
sides or the top and no special hill population. There are a number 
of pig and a good many panthers. 

About fifteen miles east of the Bslddmi hills, in the south-west corner 
of Hunguud, on the right bank of the Malprabha, a striking group 
of detiiched Hat-topped hills rise 300 to 500 feet above the surrtuind- 
ing country. They are cap])ed with sandstone resting on granitoid 
gneiss and stretch twenty miles east-south-east parallel vrith the 
Gajeudragad ridge, and like it end in a bold bluff which overhangs 
the small town of Hanamsdgar in the Nizam's territory. These 
hills are tho eastmost extension of the rocks of the Kalddgi series. 

The great plain to the nortli of the Krishna is unbroken except by 
ajewbaro uplands. In tho south-west of Indi is a series of uplands 
covered with spear-grass and a few tat/nJ shrubs, wbich, beginning 
in tho villages of Satalgaon, Jagjivani, Inchgeri, and Kanur, stretch 
through tho north of the old revenue division of Horti. In tha 
Bonth-east of the sub-division there are a few bare uplands. South- 
west of the town of Biigevddi bare trap uplands or downs culminate 
in two small flat-toppod laterite hillocks which are conspicuous 
within a circuit of ten or twelve miles. In tho north-east rise two 
ridgea of low hilla. One runs west from Kam ankeri to Dix^d vad; 




the other of flat-topped latcrite beginB at a point a little to tho 
east of Masvinbal, and, stretching as far as Ingloahvar where a 
Bpur is thrown out in a northerly direction, ends near tlio village 
of Rabbinal. Th e Ingleshvar upland whi ch overhangs the val ley* 
of the Don, rnnning west and east, is flat-topped, and covered wtb 
loose stones and good soil. Just at Ingleshvar part of it is capped 
witli laterito. Ejisb of Ingleshvar ia a small flat-topped hill covered 
with black earth and small stones. There is also in tho south of 
the sub-division a short curved ridge cuvere<l with prickly-pear 
and scrub, which, rising at a point to the north-east of Devalpur 
and skirting the town of Nidgundi, ends to the south of Maremati. 
In the north-west corner of Mnddebihdl, a few hundred yards south 
of the village of Alkopa, is a low range of flat-topped sandstone 
hills. In the south of Muddebihal on tho north bank of the Krishna 
a series of low* sandstone terraces ruu out from under the trap. 
From the south and west, that is from the granite jtlain below, tho 
terraces form flat- topped hills, about 100 feet high, their sides and 
tops scantily covered with scrub and small blocks of stone. They 
run south-east until, beyond the town of Muddebihdl, they take an 
easterly turn towards tho Nizam's district of Sagar. Tho most 
remarkable hill in this part of tho country is in tho Nizam's 
territory, an ou tlying cone of trap at NagarbetUi about ten miles east 
of^IaddebihaL_^ _ 

The district is well supplied with rivers and streams. Of these 
the most imf>ortaut are the Krishna and its feeders the Bhima 
and the Don from the left or north, and the Ghatprabha and the 
Malprabha from the right or south.*. Of these four feeders the 
Bhima and the Don meet the Krishna outside the district, and the 
Ghatprabha and the Malprabha meet tbo Krishna within the district, 
tho Ghatprabha at ilaremati about fifteen miles east of Bilgi, and the 
Malprabha at Kapila Sangam about twenty miles further east. All 
of these are large rivers flowing throughout the year and during 
tho rainy season crossed only by boats. Except the Don, whoso 
water in the driest weather ia too salt to be generally drunk, these 
rivers supply fair drinking water. 

Th^ ; KiciHUNA rises among the Mahabaloshvar hills on the 
'»a8tej-n Uutik of the Sahyddris. Itflowa south-east through SatAra, 
.olhapur, lielgaum, and the Jamkhandi state, and for seventeen 
oiles forms the boundary between Jamkhandi and Bijdjiur. It 
jnters tho district near Gehnur, and, after a course of aboat 
fifty-four miles through the district, separating BijfSpur, Bdgevddi, 
and Mnddebibdl on the left or north from Biigalkot and Iluiiguud 
on the right or south, it passes into the Nizam's temtory. Just 
before quitting MuddebibJll, among the Jaldrug hills alx)ut 
twenty miles south-east of Muddebihal, tho river splits into a 
number of streams which force their way through a low range 
of granite hills and fsdl about 300 feet in a quarter of a mile. 
The banks of the chasm are huge castle-like masses of gi'anite red and pink glow among green brushwood and great 
thorny creepera. In dry weather the river breaks into white threads 
which wind among huge masses of granite and sharp veins and 




North Kt 




[Bombay Oa«ette«r. 



ipter I, 
) KruAna. 

dykes of basalt. When in flood the river is fully h quarter of i 
milt! \vif]p and tills the gorge frum bank to bank. Tlie w:it4i 
from rock to rock hiilf hidden by ppray with mighty ci. 
'clamour. From large deep holes columns of water and t?pray aho 
high in air and fall roaring back. As it leaps into tho wide pool 
the foot of the gorge the mass of water, dashing among inigh^ 
currents and eddies, rises in crested waves which as they clash at 
climb hurl their spray into mid air whirling and foaming witk 
inconceivable force and grandeur.' 

At its meeting >vith the Ghatprabha in tho rainy .season (Julyjj 
the Krishna is about 500 yards broad and the current runs i\n\ 
and a half feet the second.- About two and a half miles 
its meeting with the Mnlprabha at Dhanur, in the rain\ 
(June -October) tho stream from bank U) bank is about (]{}0 yjirdij 
broad, and where tho river leaves the district it is nearly 700 yardi] 
broad and its current runs two and a half feet the second.^ 
ordinary low-wat<3r level is 1617*37 feet and at this pointthe hight 
flood level is 1648"54 feet or a rise in extreme floods of thirty -oaj 
feet. Mud, silt, and sand gather daily along its Imnks, euttJiul 
tho remains of alligators, fishes, and river-shells. During the 
season the stream of water is small and in its black sandy lied 
be found pebbles swept from the vai'ious rocks through which 
river has passed. Among the pebbles brought down by the mountaii 
freshes are occasionally found nodules of a reddish brown and wbit< 
carnelian jasper, clialccdooy, and mocha stones. Ten feet below loi 
water tho rock of tho river bed is reached. 

The fall in tho passage* of tho Krishna through the district 
slight. Near Chimalgi, opposite to which it receives the Ghatprabha,] 
tho north bank of thu river is well marked and the south Ijank 
low and at times is flooded foi' aliuut 1000 yards from the river bank,' 
The floods hero rise to a height of about lifly-two foot and spre 
over nn area of about 1700 yards or nearly a mile broad. Excep' 
near Chimalgi the north bank of the river as a wale is mucli lowi 
than its south bank. During the rains the high-water rnns u] 
grooves in the land to the north and rtumd into tho river formin_ 
temporary islands many of which are covered with hnhhul bushes. 
Though its water is not used for irrigation, during tho fair weathe. 
hirge quantities of the vdiigi or egg-plaut are grown alung the north 
bank. The south bank is generally steep and on or near it aro 
many rich villages. There are many hdlhul plantations along the 
banks, which are bordered by quartzite hills with a few large trees. 
In the fair season carts cross tho river at the ford of Baluti about 
sixteen miles north of Bagalkot, During the i-aius there are ferries 
at Tungargi on tho Dkal road and at Kolhiir on tho Dhiirwdr road. 
Besides tho main tributaries numerous streams cut the bank on their 
way to join the Krishna, leaving intervening belts of high groun 

>7 flfl 

' McnUow Taylor's Noble Queen, I. 16 ; coinpars'l Memoir Goolocicftl Survay 
Imlia. .\II. 11. -1.1. »^^~ A 6 / 

'Captain Newlnilil in rjt'OJijgical Papers of Western India, .'U7. Tlic tcmpemture 
of the river one loot IkiIow H^j Burrace wjib found l)y Ciiiitain NcwIjoM (IH42- 1845) iu 
July to bo 7(i" 5'. Ditto. * Journal Asiatic Sucivty Ikbgal, X', (2), OSU, 

^ ^ 





,n»l making tho road which crosses them at right angles unovon 
nd difficult especiully during tbo rBins when thifl tract is partially 
loodod. Before the groat flood in the Krinhua in lHo3 which 
ashod away all trace of it, noar the village of Maokini about 
iwenty miles north-east of lidgaikot, was a deep reach called tjie 
Poison PooL At first this pool during the rains formed part of the 
iver, but afterwards it became separated from it. As the water 
■emained stagnant for many mouths in the year and as the earth 
kud rocks round it were cliarged with salt, the pool water became 
liscolourod, bitter, and so undrinkublo both to man and cattle that it 
ras said to bo fatal when drunk for any length of time. At the same 
imc the pool water was said to be healing in cases of skin diseases.^ 

The Bhima rises in the Sahy^dris near BhimAshankar and runs 

jast tor about 105 miles across the district of Poona. It then turns 

outh-east, and, after separating Poona from Ahmadnagar for about 

;hirty-fivo miles, and from Sholapur for about sixty miles, flows 

;hroogh Sholdpar for about fifty miles. It then turns east, and, 

ifter forming the southern boundary of Shold.pur for about sixteen 

iles, touches the Bijapnr district at Dasur. Below Dasur it 

iws east, and separating Bijapnr from iSholjipar for about thirty 

iiilefl, receives the Sina from the left, and leaving Sholapoi- 

mid ^^ki^ti^g Bijapur for fifty miles more, enters the Nizjlm's 

I V, and falls into the Krishna, to the east of the Sagar 

MiMi M.I, after a farther coarse of about 150 miles. The banks of 

the Bhima are ovorlain by layers of gravel and are 900 feet opart. 

They ri-se alxive high flood leve l which is about f orty-nine feet 

above the river becL The highest recor^i-d flood level is 13Sp2;i feet 

and the nrdinary low-water level is 1332'48 feet, that is a highest 

flood of forty»niae feet. The ordinary bed of the river is alhivial 

Boil and the rock-bod ia about ton feet below low-water level. 

Numerous strenms flowing towards the Bhima from the right afford 

m ampin supply of watt-r for general purposes and in some cases 

W^t irrigation. In seasons of favourable rainfall most of those 

JBbams continue Shallow thread.s of running water throughout 

he hot weather. Even after a scanty rainfall they hold water 

ithcr flowing or standing in deep pools. During the rainy raonthb 

June-October) the tributaries of the Bhima overflow their banks 

'or some distance leaving much silt on the flooded laud which thus 

becomes extraordinarily fertile. In Indi the land along the bank 

of the Bhima is a rolling plain whose monotony is relieved only by 

the villages with which it is dotted. The portion of the Sindgi 

ub-division on its banks is a black soil plain with gentle nndidatious 

md is dotted with many rich villages. In spite of its size the 

Bhima can l»e forded at several places during the fair weather. 

TheDoN^ with a drainage area of al>ont 400 square miles, rises 
in the Jath state, alx)ut four miles south of Jath, and flows east 
and then south-east till it turns towards the town of T alikoti in 
Mnddebihjil. Sonth of Talikoti it ci ' 'ip Nizjm's "district of 

Sagar, and winding through a rock after a total course of 


Tlte KrU 

The Bhn 


[Bombay OasettoerJ 



ipter I. 



\ Ohatprabha. 

about 125 miles, falls into the Krish na about thirteen miles 
of the Muddebihitl frontier. ATong its whole course the Doi 
steep banks of black soil more than ten feet high. Its chani 
very winding and seems to have more than once changed its cc 
The river runs along a narrow valley' on the top of the wat«r4 
between tiio Krishna nnd^tho Bhima. Taking the planes where 
ShoMpur-Hubli road crosses the river, the Don bed is 53^) 
above the Bhima bed a nd 2 30 feet aboYj0_the XriahnabeS] 
fall in the Don bed is as a rule very slight and the breadth of thel 
is not more than 200 feet. In heavy rains the water cannot 
off and sometimes comes down like a regular bore. The hij 
recorded flood level is llUo'TO feet which with a low-water loi 
1895S3 feet gives a highest flood height of about twenty feet. 
about thirty feet under the surface the bed is treacherous black i 
and can be crossed only in places where there is gravel. Fa? 
east in the Talikuti limestone the character of the river ch« 
The bed is of thin slippery slabs of limestone, and at one pointj 
Talikoti the descent is like going down a stair from one be 
limestone to another. During the rains there is a plentiful snj 
of fresh drinking water. After November the villages near the 
Don always suffer from want of cood drinking water as the water 
of the main stream and of several of its tributaries, specially of the 
Little Don near Ukali in Riigevddi, becomes brackish shortly after 
the rains have ceased.^ In the fair weather the stream of the Don 
runs very low. The deep black soil lands on the lianks of the Don 
are famous for their cold weather grain crops. The Don valley was 
the granary of old Bjj^pyr. Its importance to the old city i« 
preserved in the local saying, 'If the Don bears crops who can it 
(them); if the Don bears no crops who can eat?^'- Especiallv 
the old Titlikoti division the laud is extremely rich, and 
villages are adorned with gardens of mangoes and other fruit 

The nff^TPRAnTT^ rises near the edge of the SahyAdris almost 
twenty-five miles west of the town of Belgaum, After an 
coarse of about 140 miles through Belganm and the .' 
Mardtha states, it enters Biigalkot three miles north of Kaladj 

^ The following analyses of the water of the Little Don have be«n made by Si 
Major I. 6. Lyon, the Chemical Analyser to Government : 

LUtlc Don Water. 


(Equivslent Chloride of Sodlnm. 
Combined Sulpbtu-lc Add 


BUica . 

Total dLisolvcd SoliJg liy 








Oralnn por 




Ominii per 



673- 00) 


102 -20 


3 -SI 




* The Htniluat.-ini runs, Don pike koti kfidr m : Don iir pikr kon Ihdrrjn ; the Mar4.t 
mna Jar pitr! Don, txr f:fi(fil kon ; ua pik>l Von, lar khdU koii. 



igh Biigalkot it runs nearly east for abont twenty milea, and Chapter! 

^en immediat'ely below the town of Bagalkot turns suddouly north. Descriptio) 

reon Bagalkot and Yerkal, about five mijos north of Bdgalkot, 

iS its way through two chains of hills, a pretty country with * Kiver 

rsqne views of hill and water. Beyond the second range *it ^'■^^'"^f' 

|Dt<.T8 thti Krishna valley and falls into the Krishna about fifteen 

' "^ - rth-oast opposite Chnnalp. At the meeting of the 

abha ia nearly a hundred yards broad and in the 

^^_•.k^i<ll (J ulvj tlows about two and three quarters feet in a 

id.' Wliere it passes through black soil the banks are steep 

in Bilgsilkot are closely studded with villages. 

i < HADHA or JIalpari- rises near the edge of the Sahyddris The. 

.-two milea south-west of Bolgauin. After an easterly ^ ^ 
rtbont 100 miles through Belgaum and the Kamdurg state, i 
the Badami sub-division of the Bijftpur district about throe 
les 6outIi of Mutkavi. From this it flows east about twenty -five 
liles, forming the southern boundary of the B4.danii sub-division, 
pyord Tolachkod, the southera range of the north Malprabha hills 
t'jut fifteen niiles to the north-east where it turns north 
it eight miles flows between Badiimi and Hungnnd. It 
luies its north-east course and after flowing about twenty 
jugh Hungund falls into the Krishna at Kapila Sangam . 
sing through the Bddami hills on its way to the Krishna, 
kbha receives from the south the Bennihalla or Butter 
iirlnch lias its source about twenty miles south of Hubli in 
To the east of the Gajendragad hills an open level tract, 
eighteen miles long by about tw^ve broad, is marked by a 
light cmss ridge which has the appearance of having formerly been 
south bank either of the Malpnibha or of some other lost stream.^ 
icre the Malprabha passes thixiugh the sandstone country, as at 
lilioh in Hungnnd, the bed of tlie river ia whitish sand and the 
lAter a Invnly blue. The country Iwrdering it is hilly, the flat- 
^fone spurs occiisionally stretching three or four miles 
uk. Near Aiholi, as it turns and winds among the hills, 
river forms reaches of great beauty. At Nandikeshvar and 
ikal, about eight and ten miles south-west of Aiholi, the 
itry ia acain hilly, but the hills are too far from the river to 
the tl pf the valley. Further south where it forms the 

r.l ,, the scenery is marred by the level stretch of 

; plitiii. The banks are always stei-p where the river 
igh bliic-k soil, and in the north of Hungund are studded 
viUagCK. 'I'he highest recorded flood level is 1763*6(5 feet, 
,..:.!. .. 1 ^v-^ater level of 1742*88 feet gives a greatest flood 

-< tno feet. - — 

Indi, Muddebihdl, and B^gevddi, except in the villages on the WeUm^j 

.^T I I , 

I 4 Lkifill^ii^ iiJ. 

■' fornid the t^ * - -' "^ -ver one foot 

I Fa|jt;ra of 

I in either 11. L ..1 f.oMin niiul- 

ull of iiiuil. .Mal|iari is thu I'j-akrit form o£ 

I'.s* ^oulheru ALu-iitha Country, \\, 





[BomlMy ChMttofl^i 



banks of the Krishna and Bhima, the water-supply is generally fron^ 
wells ; in Bddami, Bagalkot, Bijapur, and Hungund it is general 
from the rivers ; in Sindgi it is chiefly from streamlets and welltL' 
* According to the Collector's stock return for 1882-83 there wen^ 
6W9 wells in the district, of which 3587 were with steps and 258p 
were without steps. The wells in the villages on the banks of tbr, 
Don show that the water-bearing strata are generally within twenlx' 
feet of the surface. The water in some of these wells is brackiav- 
but the water is occasionally used for irrigation.^ Brackish wdk- 
sometimes occur outside of the Don valley, especially near Hipparei 
in Sinjdgi where the water of one well showed 61*71 grains of sab 
in a gallon. 

Except in Bddami where there is much low bushy vegetation, and 
in Muddebihdl where the ground is marshy, the climate is dry and 
healthy. Over almost the whole district March and April are the 
hottest months in the year, the trap uplands of Indi and Sindgi in \ 
the north suffering especially from burning winds. In the south the"'; 
heat is sometimes specially trying near the sandstone clifEs of '■ 
Bddami which in the afternoon and evening radiate oppressively 
hot air. In May the intensity of the heat is slightly relieved by 
occasional thunderstorms and days of cloudy weather. In April 1820, 
at Bdgalkot and Badami, Mr. MarshaU found that in the afternoon 
the thermometer occasionally rose to 110° or 112°. At that time 
after the rains the tract of land close to the foot of the hills was so 
unhealthy that there wore scarcely any villages. The few inhabitants 
were afflicted with intermittent fever during more than half of their 
lives. Near the Baddmi lakfes the air was always damp and vapour- 
laden. And as during the whole year the people had to work 
knee -deep in mud a yearly epidemic of quartan fever was the result. 
The fever lasted three to six months and so broke their constitutions 
that men looked old at forty and few lived to be sixty. Except in 
the south-east where quartan fever prevailed, Hungund was healthy 
and halo men of sixty-five were common.' The thermometer readings 
in the shade recorded at Kalddgi civil hospital during the six years 
ending 1882 give a maximum temperature of 106° in April and a 
minimum temperature of 48° in January. During the four months 

1 The followiDg is Dr. Lyon's^analysis of the water of a well at Junrnal in the Don 

Well Water Jrom the Don Valley. 


(Chloride of Sodium 

Combined Sulphuric Acid 




Total dissolved SoUds by 
Evaporation ... 

Grains per 



* Sugarcane is irrigated, but the nature of the water preventa its juice from 
cryBtallizinir on boiling ; it is used only for eating raw and as fodder. 
'UarshaU'sBelgauiD, 112, 168. 




from Febraary to May the maximam temperature has varied from 
7f to 106°, tne minimum temperature from 57° to 85°, the mean 
jBftximum from 74° to 102°, the mean minimum from 63° to 87°, and 
tiie mean range from 7° to 41° ; from June to October the maximum ' 
ku varied from 82° to 100° and the minimum from 65° to 90°, ttie 
mean maximum from 77° to 96°, and the mean minimum from 65° to 
Wf, and the mean range from 3° to 25° ; and from November to 
January the maximum has varied from 80° to 91,° and the minimum 
from 48° to 75°, the mean maximum from 74° to 84°, the mean 
mimmum from 58° to 75°, and the mean range from 8° to 40°. The 
details are : 

KalAdqi Toww TnxRMOMXTBR RsADorea 

, 1877-1882} 







J una. 































Hon MjuitmBiii 













1 1 Mno KnliDUiiD. 













t Umit Ranee — 

























J Uliiliiiiim 













. g MsD Ktudnnun 













" lf«tn Winlwain. 













M«ui BuigQ .„ 












Maxima m 













^ ICluitnum 













£ Hckn Ma^cnum 













" U^Kn Uirilmuui. 













Unmt KaO|pe ... 









































McAD MtixIniDm. 













Mesa Uinitntiin. 













HtftD Bauge ... 













1 jiaximuni 













^ UltiLmuDi 













2 HtlUi Mitxiuiuiu 

























. iittw Uanise ... 





















































UoAh Ulnlmtuu 













Mt«D Bajige ... 

















' Tliermometer readings recorded at Kalidgi from the Ist of January 1855 to the 
Slat of Dccemlxtr 1859 snow the following results : 

Kahidgi Town Thennamttrr Rradingg, Ut January 1855 to SUt Deermber 1850. 

























Ha,n-h ... 
















M.y ... ., 
















Whole Yaar... 




[Bombay Qazettder, 



ipter I. 

The rainfall is extremely irregular varying greatly both in araoar 
and in distnbution. In the tliree northern sub-divisions of Int" 
Sindgi, and Bijapur, the average rainfall is about the sjame as 

• Sh<.>lapur (nineteen to twenty-six inches). The only exception is 
tract near Almel about twenty miles east of Indi, where rain fall 
greater quantity and more seasonably. In the Kd,uarese dist 
as in the Deccan the comparatively rainy belt whicli atrotclies 
or sixty miles east of the 8ahyadris is succeeded by a ti 
uncertain rainfall, and this again in the extreme east of the Boinf 
Presidency t^-adually passes into a country where the rain, tho< 
not ranch heavier, is more soasooable and more certain. The dc 
rich plains on the banks of the Krishna suffer from want of raiii?j 
South of the Krishna and beyond the low sandstone ridp^es whic 
form the eastern end of the north Gbatprabha range tl 
the Ghatprabha enjoys a better rainfall than the tract i rH 

of the Bilgi hills. In Hungund the rainfall is even and certain aaj 
a failure of crops from want of moisture is rare.^ 

The year's supply uf water is drawn partly from the south-wesi 
and partly from the north-east monsoon. The south-west rs* 
generally begins during the first half of June, but occasionallj 
showers fall in IMarch April and May precodeil by dust-storms 
accompsinied with thunder. In July the rainfall Ls uncertain. Ii 
some years it is almost as heavy as in June, in other years there U 
barely an inch. In August the fall is heavier and there is afurtl 
increase in September and October when the Madras or north-ec 
monsoon sets in. The rains are not generally over till about tha] 
middle of November. Th^upply from the north-oast monsoon 
variable. In some years it fails; in other years it furnishes oal 
important addition to tlio sonth-west rainfall. In exceptionalj 
seasons, as in 1874, the north-east rains extend as far west as 
Sahyddrisand the Krishna and the Tungbhadracorae down in hea\ 
floods. Passing showers and sometimes heavy falls of rain occb 
in December January and February. Rain returns* recorded 
Kalddgi during the eighteen years ending 1882 show October to 
the wettest month with a fall varying from 975 inches in 1880 
1*7 inches in 187G and averaging 4*74 inches ; September comos ues 

, with a fall varying from 12-3 inches in 1877 to forty-two cents ii 
1879 and averaging 4't»8 inches ; August comes third with, a fa 
varying from 9"11 inches in 1878 to ten cents in lS7fi and averagii 
3"93 inches ; June comes fourth with a fall varying from 683 inchc 
in 1876 to eight cents in 1873 and averaging 3"33 inches; July fiftl 
with a fall varying from 6*81 inches in 1879 to fifty -three cents in J 
1867 and averaging 1*97 inches ; and May sixth with a fall vaiyinf^ 
from 3"94 inches in 1880 to two cents in 1866 and averaging 1*6] 
inches. Of the six months from November to April, March is thi 

' Bombay Oovenmjent Selectiona, V. 29. 

* Acconlinc to Marshall (Bfilgaum, 1(38) the rains of the aouth-wcBt nvf?"'^"" -— '^ 
onateady in tlie periods as well as the quantity of their fall. This ie nc! 
Hiinj^und ia beyond the unucrtaiu licit of rainfall though exixtaed to cx' ^ • > i. 
faminoa such as that of 1877. Mr. T. H. Stewart, C.S. 

* The rain tigures must be recoivod with caution. In several cftses tho totolfi i 
the monthly and the yearly rutnrns do not agree, 




dri(^ with an average fall of thirty-tlireo conts; Janoary comes second 
pt? ■' of forty-four ceuts; April third with an average of 

ts; November fourth with an average of 116 inohes ; 
il'tU with an average of I'lO inches ; and February sixth- 
111 rage of 1*35 inches. The following table gives thy details ; 

KalAUOI Tows JiATlfFALt, 1SG5-1S82. 













IM. C. 

IB. C. 

In. C. 

la. C. 

In. C. 




Id tC 

In. a 

Cbct "- 


1 6 


BibiMnr ... 







^^■B^ ^- 


















ft X 


1 !i 

2 117 

1 6S 

I 04 

I 61 

1 07 

2 44 


4 53 

3 90 

4 M 

2 70 

a 67 

2 70 


S 9$ 


1 18 

s n 


1 «t 


2 ).'< 


a IH 


2 64 


6 80 


1 M 

2 3r. 

8 6S 

« 17 

3 »8 

« 17 

1 96 



e W 

8 «C 

<t 00 

A 01 

S 57 

6 61 

3 S3 



S 06 


a 78 

8 85 


2 13 


7 19 

a 98 


a us 







• >• 

^TbUl ... 










IS 6 

11 ai 

T M 

Ifi D» 

27 87 

SB 92 

13 02 

28 44 

16 0» 

14 so 












In. C. 

In. C. 

In. C. 

In. C. 

In. C. 

In. 0. 

In. C, 

In. 0. 

In. 0. 

1 3*an»rf 




• •* 





44^rj ... 


• •• 


8 40 




1 85 




• *• 


I 82 




' T'! 



1 as 

1 7 







I 10 

1 10 

1 7rt 


1 42 

1 »4 

S 1 

I 3 

X 61 

B 4lt 

fl 88 

6 31 

1 86 

3 63 

8 16 


2 6 

3 83 


S 7« 



3 m 

6 »1 

1 «t7 

1 24 

3 64 

1 VI 


2 10 

U 10 

1 83 

» 11 

9 SI 

4 17 

3 38 

2 00 

8 08 

t*1Jl«nl«t ... 

B flO 

a 6» 

11 8 

4 4ii 


4 87 

8 78 

8 8 

4 08 

1 nri.-l»r 

« vs 

1 7 

S 48 


9 76 

2 13 

2 U 

4 74 

.V...-„,>. r 



I 88 



6 8 

I «3 

1 10 

ToUl ... 

1) :-..- 

1 88 


1 10 

22 76 

m ^0 

31 13 

32 54 

S3 IS 

2b iit 


20 80 

20 ao 

Daring the same eighteen years (1865-1882) the average yearly 
ninfall at Kahidgi was twenty inches. The highest fall was 32*54 
inches in 1878 and the 7"54 inches in 1867. It is difficult 
U> ' ' - within which the rainfall may vary without doing serious 

in]—., lie crops. Tlje amount gauged is not of itself a suificienfe 

last. A heavy fall of a few hours may swell the return but be of little 
g«K)i] compared with a gentle continuous fall of smaller (juantity. In 
187<j, thuugh the rainfall in June (6'83 inches) was higher than any 
n* " 1 the ten previous years, the want of rain in August 

8«- an<l October caused an completo failure of crops. 

In l."^*! the rainfall, though small (13'92), was well timed ; and 
ihongh there were threateninga there waa no complete failure of 
crop«. The local opinion is that rain may almost entirely fail in 
Juuo and on to the middle of July without causing serious injury 
pnivided it falls seasonably in August and Septeinbor. The rainfall 
n; niddlo of August affects the sowing of the early or kharif 

CT' ; ir the middle of August it is the late crops which are 

mffected. If the later rain fails the crops either cannot be sown, or 
if fiown they are burnt. During 1876 the falls of rain were so 
ttntiniely that thoy were of no benefit either to tho early or to tho 
Uitt} crop* and the rosnlt was famine. 









At almost all times of the year moat parts of the district 
exposed to strong blighting winds. In the Don val ley there is s.h 
always a high •wind. From November to February it is from] 
east very dry^ and often blighting. In March and April the' 
wind is generally from the north-east and in May from the 
In the evening there is often a lull and about nine a strong br 
seta in from the west. This, which especially east of Bij:ipur 
first hot, soon cools and lasts till morning. In the north-east of \ 
district the wind keeps hot till eleven or twelve at night. SometiniB 
there is a lull of one or two hours and then a rash of wind * 
the west and south-west, cooler but still somewliat warm till 
sunrise. All night except during the lull the wind in the blacl 
parts is exceptionally strong and continuous and to a great el 
prevents sleep. Constant dust and thunderstorms with heavy 
and strong wind prevail in April ani May damaging the cotton < 
They aomotimea, perhaps generally cool the air and relieve the ' 
but occasionally a storm is followed by dull cloudy and pecul 
oppressive days. In BAgalkot and Badami early in October ;■ ■ 
south-west monsoon is over, for two or three weeks, the w i 
variable and the heat most oppressive. Before the beginning ot 
November an almost constant breeze sets in from the north-east aat 
daily becomes colder, especially when it is most from the east. 
December and January this east wind is bleak, dry, and disagi 
injurious to vegetation, and deadly to crops if, as sometimes li 
it liwts till February. In February there is a sudden changu 
cold to intense heat. The heat increases during Fobrnnry M« 
and the beginning of April. During this season casual squalls of 
in the form of whirlwinds ^d to the discomfort of the climate. 
at any time a steadier wind sets in, it brings heat rather than cooll 
and leaves the skin dry and rigid. About the middle of May 
south-west wind sets in "v\'ith a strong breeze, almost a gale. Ti 
frequently blows a full month before it brings rain. But evt 
without rain it is always cool and refreshing, and this is perhaps th^ 
most agreeable month of the year. In Hunguud from Noveml 
to January the blast of the east wind is often keen.^ 

The geology of Bijapur south of the Krishna has been ful 
described by Mr. Foote of the Geological Survey.' Besides sont 
Bijapur Mr. Foote's survey included north .Bijapur as far 
Bijapur. Of the country north of Bijapur few details are availabk 
All of it belongs to the great Doccan trap area and differs litt" 
from the country between I3ijapur and the Krishna. An outcrop 
sandstone was formerly supposed to occur in some hills north-n 
of Bijapur, but Mr. Foote has found that this is a mistake.^ 

The geology of the south of the district closely resembles 
geology of Belgaum. There is the same belt of gneissio rock 
the south, tho same quartzites and limestones of the Kaladgi serit 

« MarshaH's Belgamn, 168. 

* The gcolfjtrical sketch of the district haa been compiled from Mr. R. 1J. Foot 

Memoir on"' ■ ' ■ ;• ■ , f the HoutLeni MariVtha Conntrj' and Adja 
Uistricts. 1, XII. Port I. of 1877. 

*M(jiaoii.; -—i-'o — --J 'jt -'li. 2C 

itro, and tho sarao stretches of Deccan trap in the north, 
tat the land passes much further north tho chief points of 
jrence between the geology of Bijujjiir and of Belgaum are that 
""ipor the gneifisic rocks stretch further north than inBelganm 
to the uorth of Maddebihdl there are limestone, quartzit^*, 
tbeds and iuliers younger than the Kalddgi rocks and known 
Kam^ or Bhima series. Bijapur may be roughly brought 
|cr four geological divisions, tho gneissi^ in tho sotfth-east, tho 
iffy sand stone in the south-west, tho Bhima or Karnal sandstones 
ettst, and the trap region including the wLole northern half 

;;- , .,ii*r of these and uther subordinate formations from the 
dowTiwards is : 

Poflt Tertiary or Recent : 

8. SuWeriftl. 

7. Alluvia. 
Later Tertiary : 

6. Lake and River Deposits. 
Upper Socondnnr : 

5. Deccan Tnip ; (h) fron-cluy ; (a) luter-trappean Beds. 

4 Infra-trappeaa Fortuatiuii B«d& 


3. Bhima Seriea, 

2. Kaludiji Suries, 

L Qntiiaqo Series. 

Chapter ] 

i.imul: these formations in the ascending or geological order, Gn^ssiol 

fnioissic or metamorphic rocks occupy tli^ south of the district oast 

" ■ from near Muddebihdl to Aiholi. A narrow irregolar 

^ west along tho course of the Krishna to Jainapur, 

abuat eight miles north-west of Bilgi. Beyond the main beds three 

wta of gneiss inliers are exposed by the wearing of younger 

fcirtnations. One set of these gneiss inliera is to tho west of the main 

' ' '^or Amiugad about six miles and Kamatgi on the Malprabha 

Twelve miles west of Hungnnd ; the second group is in the 

■rth-west at Bisnal on tho south bank of the Krishna 

Ht miles west of Bilgi, and at Mamdjlpur to the north 

of the Krishna abont eight miles north-weat of Kolhar; the third 

groap is in the east in the Bhima series of limestones about tea 

miles north-oast of Muddebihal and about ten miles east of Talikoti. 

In the main area of gneissic rocks in tbe south-east of the district 

tbo two chief divisions of gneiss, the schistose and the granitoid, 

pass in great parallel bands with a north-west and south-east 

ttiikc. East of the Bijapur border, in the Niziim's country, from OroHitoid 

\Mndg»l fort about twenty-five miles east of Hungund, to the 

^H—-' -irgo on tho Krishna about twenty miles south-east of 

I !, stretches a line of granitoid rocks. West of this a 

tWL !i< broad belt of schist known as the Hungund band 

po.1- . itb-wcst till it is covered by the sandstones of the Kaladgi 

•eric", Hud west of this is another parallel belt of granitoid rock. 

Tho best example of the weathering of the granite into rugged 

bonldcK) aad elitia is at Jaldrug, wherc^ near tho Krishna, is much 

m 877-3 

[Bombay Gazetteer, 



ipter I. 


no Hocka. 
ioid Atea». 


beantiful rock scenery, the green of brnsliwood and great thomr 
croopers setting off the rich red or pink of the castle-liko m;: 
rock. The commonest type of grajiitoid gneiss is a por] 
•rock of quartz, felspar, and hornhlemle. Micaceous gjanite-Kneii 
alao occasionally occurs. Except at Mudgal, where the true dip 
strike of the rock ran be niea-sured, the granitoid varieties are ni 
clearly bedded. At the point of transition from the massive c 
tallino form to bedded and schistose rocks the granitoid gne; 
shows a broadly banded structure, the bands being parallel to 
true foliation of the less altered rocks and being in fact the 
layers of original deposition. 

The schistose areas of the gnoissic series are of a much srnoo 
surface than the granitoid areas. Even tbe hiila are rounded an< 
rarely rocky. The cr^untry is genei^ally bare and the scenery commoi 
place and monotonous. Within the district, the chief varieties O! 
schist are hornblende, chlorite, and hasniatite. The largest show 
hornblende-srhist rocks is the Maski band about twenty miles south' 
east of the Bijapur border. Ilornblendo also occurs in the sonth-easi 
of the Hungund schists. Two beautiful varieties of sjenite gnei 
occur within the Nizam's territory at no great distance from t 
district border. One of these, on the south bank of the Krish 
opposite Jaldmg, is very porphyritic, of a bright red, and bigbl 
polished. The other at Gajendragad, about twenty-five miles south- 
west of Huiigundj, h a very rich Btoue, a mixture of dark-g; 
hornblende and ilark salmon-coloured or brownish-pink felspar, 
tho Uungund band at Timapur, three miles north-west of Hungnnd 
nud at various other places aiking its north-west extension, are man; 
chlorite schists genfmUy of a very delicate pale sea-green. The; 
occur intcrbedded with and passing into a similar pale g^ri 
massive chlorite rock of semi-crystalline texture which in manj^ 
places takes a singularly trappoid appearance.^ A hill two milea) 
west of Amingad in Hungnnd has a fine show of rich iron 
bearing deposits. The rocks are generally full of hiematite and 
the beds stand out in curves and Vandykes of rich red. Owing 
the great spread of cotton soil between them the relations of 
Amingad and Hungund haematite beds are hard to determine. The 
beds differ somewhat in chanict<?r, the Hungund beds except at tho 
Yerkal cliffs being more schistose, less jaspideons, and much lesa 
stained with i-ed. Two inliers of the Hungund beds rise within the 
limits of the Kalddgi basin, one a few hundred jards from the 
Amingad hill, tho other .several miles to the west near Kamatgi oa 
the left bank of the Malprabha, At Todihal on the south bank of 
the Krishna, fifteen miles north-oast of Kaliidgi, several .small beds 
of pale pinkish white talc rocks are inlaid between horublendioi 

Granite and syenite veins and intrusions are most numerous in 
the valley of the Krishna at and around Nalatvfid and westward 


' Early obsun-ers took this rock for a true trap. Its position and anociation with | 
BchistOBe l>(;d8 convinced Mr. Foote tiiat ita traplike appearance vrtun the result of m | 
locally otore inteuM mctamorphic action. Geological Survey, XII. 49. 

Tm^ jn^bA] 



■Mrlr to tie Tangadpi ford over that river. None are large, 

are ill-mftrkyj, of variablo width, and irrognlar course, 

appear to graduate into the suiTounding granite gneiss, 

gmnite iieems to be a compound of quart/, and pink or red* 

•and is very coarsely crystalline. Some of the veins have tsvo 

is of felspar, apparently orthoclase, one peach-blossom coloured 

j^QcIosed crystals or cryst^illine aggregations of a dark salmon 

. The veins seem not to differ in mineral character. 

the slope of the plain which rises gradually to the north 

Kri&hna lie some scattered blocks of a fine-grained granite 

od of crystals of reddish felspar, quartz, and a black 

.--■.lag mica in minute plates. The overlayer of sod beyond 

allnriam of the river is red and quartzose. In the lower or 

southerly part of the valley of the Hiri river, which rises near 

fev^li and runs into the Krishna, a felspathic belt several miles 

east. This rock varies in lithological character, in 

|i . - liming the form of a pegmatite, at others that of a 

le, being combined with quartz and chlorite. A few loose 

imbedded blocks of a granite similar to that found on the 

[ pu ftb bank of the Krishna occur, rarely without rising to 

considerable height above the surface. The felspathic rock 

»n*''d in sections presented by deep streams running down the 

• plain has a pseu dost rati form ajipearanco arising from 

_- _ ./outal joints. It continues aa the surface rock as far as the 

of (jurclini about ten miles south of B^evadi, near which 

-'-:id by bods of a friable trap, approaching wacke, with an 

jhistose structure and ponuti^ted by veins of an earthy 

of lime, calcspar, and quartz in crystals. It rises near 

»ge into a small knoll, down whose slope runs a rivulet 

jc bed of which the first section of the great overlying Deccan 

ia found. Depositions of limc-knubs or hinkar both in bods 

»e .Murface and veins penetrating the fissure in both rocks occur 

iL-e; it is found in a pulverulent and conci-ete slate, and 

-> are not so crystalline as those that are seen in the 

iglibourhood of the older trap dykes.' 

Of granite veins the most curious occurs at Madinhal, about four 
[miles north-west of Muddebihdl. With a close affinity to many 
; metal-bfuriug veins or lixles, it shows nine or ten separate white 
rfd Jruuls, the white bands being mainly of quartz and the red 
irk-red felsjiar with many quartz crystals. A few small 
,.^ ...,_ crystals of hornblende or tourmaline occur in the mas3, 
ti are too mach weathered to be identified. The vein oroeses a 
k of gray hornbleudic granite-gneiss on which stand parts of tho 
[villiif^ wall. Two and a half miles south-east of tho vein occurs a 
[tmall intnisivo mass of syenite of coarse texture and dirty green 



GutfiBsic ] 

jf a second rank and resting directly and nnconformably 
-.s is a series of rocks in many respects closely resembling 
i scries. Though found underlying tho town of Kal4dgi 


[Bombay Oaxetteer, 



tpter I. 

Hdgi Series. 


td Stction. 

' Stclion, 


and most largely developed immediately round it, the series for 
a well-marked basin lying mainly between tbe Kriabna and 
M alp rabha. Beyond the proper ImltU aTC BHHfiWOB dTitliera restioj 
oil 'tlie~(jTder rocks and inliers espoaed by weathering within ti 
area of younger rock series. On the north of the basin is 
Galgali inlier, about twelve miles north-west of Bilgi, and at 
near MamBiipur in Bijjipur are two small exposures of the Kal^f 
rocks whicL are partly inliers portly outliers, as they both overi 
small jmtehes of gneisR and are themselves on three sides o^ 
by the Deccan trap. To the south-east of the basin are the_ 
and Hanamsagar outliers and a group of outliers b etween 
about eight miles soath-east of BddAmi and Gajendragad. Bl 
the most important sections are found within the boundaries of 
basin itself. 

The Kalddgi series may be subdivided as follows in descoodiaf 

B. — Upper Kaladffi Scriee. 

6. Shales, Limefltonc?, nml Hsoruftiito Schist*. 

5. VB with lucal Conglomerates and Breccias. 

A. — Lower Sc-riee. 

4. Limestones, Clay, and Shales. 

3. Snndst<meH an<l Sbales. 

2. Silicious Liiiiestouea, Hornstone, or Cherty Breccias. 

1. QuarUitcs, Conglomerates, and Sandstones. 

Tlie greater part of the Kalddgi basin is occupied by tho loi 
Kaladgi series. Of the area they occupy by far the larger part 
in its turn occupied by th«^lower subdivisions, which for practic 
purposefi may be treated as one. They form the whole western sai 
Bouthem part of the basin, the upper subdivision of limestone 
shale being restricted to the north-east. 

The following sections show the character of tho diffei 
members of the Lower Kaladgi series beginning on the east 
following the boundary of the basin first north and then west. 

The narrow spur of KaMdgi rocks which crossiJs the Malprabhf 
at Kamatgi forms a dip-meeting or synclinal valley which ends in an 
elliptical curve to the west of the ruins of the old Amingad fort 
about thirty miles east of Kaladgi. The succession of beds in 
descending order is: {d) upper or chocolate breccia; (r) quartzi' 
brown and red-brown, gritty; {h) chocolate or dirty breccia, 
setting or matrix locally very rich in haematite ; (ix) cjuartzites, brown 
gneiss, drab and salmon-coloured, gritty. Tho base rests partly on 
schistose hajmatito and talcose gneiss, partly on haematite aclusta. 
The surface of the brown gritty quartzite bed (c) has weathered in 
parts into great pinnacles unlike anything found elsewhere among 
the Kalddgi rocks. 

The section in the Khirsur hill three miles east of Bitgalkot shows 
tho following bods : (c) breccia bed of dirty breccia ; (6) quartxites, 
a thick series, gray, pink, and drab ; (a) congloraeratee, forming 
tho north scarp of the hill ; gneiss. 

In the Adumuranhdl section, in tho gorge of tho Ghatprabhs 
river, north of Bdgalko t the beds exposed arc: (c) breccia, witl 



•chalk cement ; (6) quarizitos, whitish pale-red and bi^Dwn ; 

'/ ' rates, coarse and fine, with some boda of quartzite ; gneiss, 

-ts. The couglomcrates in this section arc remiu-kablo 

it be^aiity of colour. The setting or matrix is generally * 

purplish gray gritty qaartzit« of great density, including 

erooa pebbles of jasper and haematite schist, derived from the 

of thoee rocks in the gnessic scries. The pebbles ore all rounded 

ao firmly bedded that where the rock has been fissured tho 

have genemlly spUt. Along the crest of the ridge, a little 

of Adamuruiihal, the show of red jasper pebbles is like a bed 

red tulips. In many parts where the rock has been freshly 

kcu by weathering and keeps its half-glassy lustre tho effect is 

ing, especially under the midday sun. 

At the apex of the sharp horse-shoe curve which the basement 

makes between the t wo gorges o f the Ghatj»rabha at 

lanmhAlandT crkal, another capital section shows the succession 

Is as in the foregoing, namely: {c) breccia, greatly broken and 

lered; (6) quartzites, drab, buff, and reddish ; (a) conglomerates, 

with jaspery hoematite schist pebbles ; gneissic series, of 

ito schist and chlorite schists. In this case some of the 

iomerates approach to breccias from the imperfect roundness of 

jments of the older rocks. The setting of tho conglomerate, 

is richly iron-bearing, consist largely of broken heematite 

by an iron cement. The pebbles are generally smaller than 

on tho Adurmuranhal ridge. 

T' [ uabha river Hrpulfw y|^f^gj| *'^" bntmrlnrv ridge for a 

— c and re-euters the KalSdgiTbasin at Yorkal or Herkul, 

lies north-west otliho first or Adurmuranhdl gorge, and 

iiirins a ^rge of much picturesque beauty. The section of tho 

lent series is one of the clearest and most instructive in this 

ion. Little ruin of other rocks hides tho several rock-beds which 

>r in the following order : (c) breccia, chalky-iron or dirty 

Uroccia ; (h) quartzites, buff, pink, and brown, with inlaid shaley 

«nes ; {a) conglomerates and quartettes, tho conglomerates 

^le, thu quartzites purple and gray; gneiss series, highly 

>rted beds of jaspery haematite schists. Some of the beds of 

cite include thin layers of pebbles. Many of the pebbles and 

~ its in tb© conglomerates consist of jasper and jaspery 

which in places form very fine cliffs. The conglomerate 

lie against the north wall of the htematite cliff. Tho rooks 

the middle of tho river are part of the lowest conglomerate bed 

id dip ntirth or away from the spectator. The low and rather 

ring cliff on the right and east bank of the river is part of 

lur Laimatito schist-bed that runs parnllel to the north of tho 

lin beda. Tho low rising ground behind the great grove consists 

it limestones and shales and tho breccia bed (c) which underlies 

)ro ; all are faulted against the gneiss along the northern 

jo'^ ' — f this part of the basin immediately behind the rise. 

T lani section, like the Yerkal section, is clear and instruc- 

various rocks of tho basement series being well exposed on 

.umni hill on tho south side of the gorge through vehicia tt\o 




Lower Ks 



8Mnvuu Stxti 


[Bombay Gazett 



ipter I. 


rer KaLldgi 

mi Saiion. 

U Sfction. 

noI Sedion, 

KrisIiQa forces its way across the north-east extension of 
Kaladgi basin. The boundary ridgo of the baain has b€ 
imperfectly broken through, and forms a great barrier reef 
• the river bed. The succession of beds is : {<■) breccia, a ji 
variety of the dirty breccia ; (b) quartzites, gray and salmon- 
(a) conglomerates and grits ; granitoid gneiss. Tho grit beds i 
generally coarse. Like the conglomerates they consist of 
and grayish-white quartz pebbles and the ruins of red h 
The setting in both is purplish or gray. At RamApnr, a mill 
a half south of the Sit^mani gorge, the section ditlers conaid< 
from the Sitdmani section, the conglomerates being absent, 
basement beds are grits of no great thickness overlaid by 
red and purple-brown quartzites which are greatly rippled in ^ 
Tho gritty beds rest on gi-anitoid gneiss crossed by nam^ 
dykes of dioritic trap, both large and small, but all older tha 
Kalddgi rocks. 

For seventeen or eighteen miles west of Nidgundi, the ext 
north-east of the Kaltidgi basin, tho northern boundary of 
basin is formed by a fault by which tho rocks of the basei 
series are thrown down and abut against the gneiss. 
Kaladgi rocks which ouce lay upon tho gneiss northward of th« 
of fault have been worn away. Though it is nowhere visible 
is little doubt that the amount of dislocation is considerable, 
succession of rocks in the comer of the basin north of the Krisl: 
differs somewhat from the succession in the sections already given, h^ 
the appearance of a thick bed of limestone between the (| 
and the breccia beds. Thft succession is : (c) breccia of 
hornstone, brown, red, and bluish gray ; (i) limestone with cher 
bands, gray and reddish gray ; (h) quartzite sandstones, ahades 
brown ; (a) conglomerates and j>ebble beds, pink, brown, and gmj 
gneiss. Small patches of dark ii'ou-clay, probably of open-air or 
are dotted over all tho different formations. The limestone I 
hidden by ruins along the line of section, but shows at some 
on either side. Hero, as at Sitdmaui and Rilmdpur, tho i..-. 
pebbles are mainly quartz and felspar in a sandstune setting. 

Tho nest section worthy of separate notice occurs a little son ii- 
west o£ Bilgi, twenty miles further west. The succession of r^ 
ia normal and the beds seen are: (c) breccia bed, jaspery; ' 
quartzites, drab and red, blue and gray, drab and pinkish ; (rt) gru; 
and conglomerates; gi'anito gneiss. The conglomerates are unuso-i 
ally thin, and the quartzites proportionately thick. The qnartait 
are quarried, and a remarkable one-stone lamp-pillar on tho top 
Bilgi hill is said to have been quarried here. 

The village of Bisnal lies eight miles north-west of Bilgi. 
section which was taken about half a mile south of the village in 
south-east to north-west direction, shows the following successioj 
of beds : (c) breccia, bands of earthy impure limestone at base ; (&| 
quartzites and shaley quartzites of whitish colour; quartzites, 
and gritty j (a) grits and conglomerates, gray or reddish, of qtiart 
and felspar ruins ; granitoid gneiss, red. In the corner made by tl 
bend of the hills about a mile and a half south-east of tho viUagc 

.. _ II 



beds of richly htematite schist among the quartzites about the 

on occupied by the upjx^r part (b) in the Bisnal section. 

give rise to four distinct scarps, due to their greater power 

y ' ?her.^ A line of fault, accompanied by a con- 

iiow on the north side, occurs at tho villago df 

iw duty breccia being faulted against undedyiugconglome- 

:-'. This fault and dowuthrow may be traced several 

ilea to the north-east crossing the Krishna to Jainjlpur and 6naUy 

*^^' '""'Hng under tho Deccan trap about two miles north-east o£ 


Lower KkL 

r the qiiartzites are faulted against tho gneiss, but tho 

-uiden partly by an overlap of tho Deccan trap, partly 

thick cotton soil. There is a good show of red quartiitea and 

breoeia in the bank and bed of the river. The breccia 

ia very jaspideous forms a small island and several reefs iu 

^ river. The quartzites have a westerly dip of 45°. 

AK-.nt four miles to tho north of the Jaintlpur ridge at Mamdapur 

r, aro several exposures of Kaladgi rocks which are partly 

1 the Deccan trap are-a, partly outliers resting on the 

series. Seven of these exposures form a row of low 

Ld iJiut run for six miles east and west with only ono considerable 

raV:. Six miles south-west of Mamdapur is another small exposure 

r cliaracter at Kangalgntti ; all these consist of purplish 

Ml.- 1 reddish quartzites, with piuk, chocolate^ and drab- white 

iceotts ehales belonging to the basement beds. The usual 

lomerate beds are absent. 

Aaothcr interesting inlier of tho lower beds, one of a group of 

occurring at Galgali, is seen in the bed of the Krishna when the 

1 iw. These beds of quartzite form a low, flat, dip-parting or 

ellipse with dips varying from 3° to 7", by which the river 

•d back and a rapid formed near the northern bank. Tho 

I'rnv quartzites and shaley beds overlaid by light-red 

S much cut by a most complex system of jointing. 

.... o. . ....J in the right bank by impure gray limestone with 

ida of chert and of impure red, yellow, or drab ochrey quartz, 
'.■omo white chalk-Uke scales or laminiw. The whole is capped by 
•gray quartzite, on which the Deccan trap forms low clills on 
aide of tho river. I'he beds shown in this section are of very 
aggregate thickness. 
, Tlie base of the long quartzite ridge that stretches from Biddugal, 
It twenty miles west of Bddami, where the Malprabha leaves 
KaUdgi basin, to Telachkod, where it again enters the basin, 
nowb^ro shown. Tho thick cotton soil dejwsit of the black plaiu 
i<1n^ close to the hills and is itself covered by the sandy slope 
> the decomposition of the quartzites. The central part 
H liiin ridge near KlianJipnr about ten miles and Banknari 
)ut eight miles west of BiidAmi, is much more uptilted than 




Qahjali Inlin 


Ua I S7U » ■moll quantity of iron oro ww being collected to be smelted at tbe 
"~~ aring Tillage* of Sid<Upur and Jainmatti. Memoirs GoologicaJ Sarroy of India, 

«»^ J— 


I Bombay 


Chapter I. 

• KAlddgi 


either end. At Biddugal the bods dip 35° north-west, at 
50^ to 60° north-east, and at Banknauri 60° to 75*. Th* 
falls to 35*^ at Lakmdpur, and to 30^' at Chiumsnri, 
tho quartzit^ beds cross the ilalprabha. Further tawt ihif 
falls rapidly to 8^ north on tho plateau abovo Belur, jmkI 
the strata become horizontal, or roll very slightly, ^v 
form the plateau which caps tho line of hills that RirL-Ltuf-i 
Gajendrsbgad. The bods are generally grits or very com 
Bandstone which assume the character of quartzitos where thdy 
even slightly upturned. Conglomerates, though not alttjgvi 
absent, are not common in this quarter. Tho same characters 
good in the outliers north of Gajendragad around Gudur. 
ruling colours are pale, drab, gray, purpliiih, reddish, pink, and broi 
Here and there, as at Vakand, about six miles west of Gndnr, 
exceptionally dark beds of sandstone. One of the l>est Six^tiow 
the Gudur hills is immediately east of tho village on tho jialh' 
up to the old fort which is perched on tho north-east angle of 
chief plateau. The beds exposed in a very steep scarp are 
drab, brown, and reddish-brown, thickbedded sandstones 
occasional layers of pebbles, and pebbles are scattered spart 
throughout tho mass of the rock. Some of the more gritty * 
show much false bedding. Tho sandstones occasionally have 
scarps, which, like the qaartzite scarps in other quarters, show I 
bright-red iron staining. Such scarps are seen at Parsipor 
Hanams^gar east of Gudur, at Gajendragad to the south, am 
the valley to the north-west of Gudur. Where the sandstoaes 
horizontal or nearly hori^ntal they are little changed. A 
marked example of their changing to quartzit«s, where uptafl 
to a considerable degree, occurs a few miles west from Gndar 
Rangasamudra, a village at the north end of the gorge by 
the Nilarvagal river flows across the eastern end of the qostft 
sandstone area that stretches from Bddami across the MfJprttli 
and may conveniently be called the Vakand plateau. 

Tho eastern edge of tho Vakand plateau is formed of sandsli 
beds, slightly inclined to the south-west. Very soon the bods 
west some 20° to 25° towards a dip-meeting synclinal axis, while it 
north of the gorge they dip south-west 65°, and in both cases i 
the character of typical quartzites. At the north end of the 
the change may be traced with perfect ease as the beds form • \ 
scarp running south-east. The eastward continuation of the. 
beds forms a horizontal capping to the rather high plateau 
Gudur. The gorge of tho Nilarvagal coincides with the axis 
abovenamed dip-meeting curve. The central part is very picti 
from a great mass of chooolate-coloured breccia, which has 
worn into high and rugged rocks rising mainly on the left bai 
the stream. West of this stream the beds again become hi 
or roll at low angles, and again present the character of 
hard sandstone. 

North of the Gudur stream is another large plateau of sane 
partly horizontal partly rolling at low angles. This ' ' 
mineral character is much the samo as that of the oui 

adar and Ilanams/igar, is united with the Kaliidgi basin by a 
' it l)ranche8 from its north-west ond, and crosses the 
pi-abha close to the village of Aiholi yr Aivab', The 
1^ ot tlie granitoid gneiss on which tho beds foruiitig these 
HBt plateaus are deposited is highly iri-egular. This is weH 
n m the picturesque valley that runs from (Judur south-east to 
adi. Here the sandstone plateau, while nmiutaiuing a very 
opjKT lovol, shows in the scarped edges very variablu thicknoss, 
raaoy of the upper beds arc seea to overlap the lower Vteds and 
J9t iu part directly on the gueiss. Thus thu basement beds at 
udi and Ganuduhal form the middle of the series that is exposed 
le north side of the plateau. 

inuo;^ west and recrossing tho Malprabha a remarkable 

•a of quart.zite sandstones and gritty bods is reached to the 

of Bidaoii. ITieso beds may be best studied at Biidarai itself. 

bo iwo fortified hills to the north and south of the town, is one 

e few beautiful spots in the eastern Bombay Karndtak plain. It 

pies the mouth of a horse*shoe bay in the hills^ the space behind 

own and the surrounding cliffs being taken up by a deep lake 

a nut very wide bank sloping to tho water's edge. Tht^ chtfs 

biofly formed of palo buffy thick-bedded (piartzite saiidstono 

m many places purple scales outwardly stiiined red. The 

dip west at a low angle, and parts vi them seem to have slid 

a few feet towards the plain, being separated from the main 

hy great joints which now form deep chasms that sever parts 

M tho rest. If these chasms were formed by tho 

i-nt of the clifTs, the slip*was probably due to tho 

mce of some softer thin shaley bed which was acted on by 

ig«, and the overlying masses moved down tho elope forced on 

their ovm weight. Those gi-eat chasms serve as the inner 

to the upper p.-irts of both forts. The gritty beds which 

p of tho plateau are admirably shown along the path 

rom B/idanii to Nandikeshvar in the Malprabha valley, 

picturus(pie old Jain temple of Magandi, within the 

ot which is a very fine spring. Tho gritty beds show 

jusive false bedding that the actual lie of the beds is very 

inlt to make oat. Beds of similar character, the unquestionable 

Vfion of tho B(i<himi set, occur to the north-west and north, at 

^katti, Kai-adigudda, Belgiri, Hudgal, Kutenikeri, and Rugkapur. 

^fr wuBt the charactt'f of tho beds becomes more sandy or 

P»loy. North-oast of the Badami plateau, the beds being more 

i disturbed and upturned, quartzites are common. About a 

- •• ' F the great reservoir at Kendar, the boundary between 

lea and gtjeisa is formed by a line of fault which runs 

tiiiles. Some fine cliflE scenery in which the quartzites 

well shown occurs near tho oast end of the fault. 

10 boandury of tho Kaladgi basin in this quarter is extremely 

ling, tho wearing of tho basement beds showing tho gneissie 

M in vHrioBs deeply cut valleys which form bays running far 

f the basin. Tho lie of the basement beds along this 

I udui-y is geuorally waving, but cousidorablo areiia ol 


Chapter I. 





iBombmj • 



Dhapter I. 




rather distarbed strata altornato with equal andisturbod 
which the stnvta are horizontal or very slightly inclined. 

North of the town of Guledgudd the variation of positiooj 
the strata ia well marked. The very waving surface of the 
ptatean between Sirnr and Guledgudd agrees over a lar 
wirh the true surface of the exposed beds. Within a mile 
the beds suddenly roll north and dip under the liinostone and 
which here come near to the edge of the Kalitdgi basin. Th© 
west of the plateau form a low dip- parting arch which strotcbea 
miles went and dies away under the limestone and shale at Kat 
East of Sirur the basement series form* a ridge of coti»id8C 
height with a dip of 30*^ to 35^* north which stretches to and ci 
the Malprabha at the village of Kamdhal. Here beautiful rij 
reddish quartzites rest on beds of very handsome purple br 
This breccia in tnm rests with marked unconformity on tmf»t 
rocks of gray and reddish-brown schists aud jaspery bsemat 
which doubtless are the source of the materials seen in thv 
A remarkable set of breccia beds forms the very base of 
Kaladgi basin where the new high road between Sirur 
Guledgudd passes on to the gneiss area. The Ramdhal bl 
beds join those which lap round the great lia;matite hill on 
south boundary of the basin about half-way between liamdlutl 
Amingad. A great number of bright red or banded 
of jasper niake the beds equal in beauty of colour to the bf 
Adumuruuhjil section. This section concludes the series in r 
round the boundary of the bahin. Several sections are to i 
lying within the area of /he basin. In sopae of these th 
relative to the series as a whole is very doubtful, partly from 
imperfection of the section, partly because the space between ' 
and other sections is hid by overlying formations. Tho we? 
extension of the B^dAmi quartzite sandstone beds has already 
mentioned. By their weathering they give rise to a vast at 
of extremely sandy soil forming a considerable slope at the 
the different groups of cliffs and isolated rocks. The qi 
sandstone beds lying in the triangle between the villages of Ni« 
Bilgiri, and Kerur form a rolling plateau so deeply cut by 
as to make the country very rugged. As they stretch 
beds become more sandy, often indeed passing into friable 
sandstones, which in some places are overlaid by a thin 
reddish quartzite. This arrangement is well shown in a flat-tf 
hill crowned by a little hauilet called Yenklapur, two or three 
south-east of Kerur, and again in a low hill north-east of 
In the Malgi hill the upper quartzite is capped by gray lii 
and this again by an outlier of Deccan trap. The limj 
unquestionably an outlier of the great limestone scries, 
largely developed a few miles to the north. Both at Yenkldpu 
to tho north of Malgi the shaley sandstones are mostly 
drab, or pale-gray. They are well seen further north-wesf 
Kallubenkehri stream and to the west at Fakir Bii<; 
Hoskatti. They also cover a large area to the south of cj 
and irregular dip-parting or anticlinal Avhich forms the wal 
between the valley of the Malprabha on tho soutli and that 
Ghatprabha and of tho Kerur-Guledgudd stream on the north. 

Shaley beds form numerous low hills and rolling stretches in the 
triangle between tbe villages of Reddi-Timjipar, Halgiri, and 
Soraaakop. Their rapid weathering near Roddi-Timapur and in 
the sides of the Hehvalkode valley to tbe uorih, has given rise to 
much falling in of the overlying quartzitos. The B^me has been the 
B«we with the drab shaley beds and overlying quartzite sandstones 
h and north-west of Voglapur. The drab shaley beds are seen 
erlying the local upper qaartzite at Mudiinur south-east of 
ogUipar, and at Khdnapur in the Torgal stiito. 

ho reddish quartzite sandstones that form the Naganur hill, 

nt twelve miles south-west of Kal^dgi, are fully 100 feet thick, 

and but slightly disturbed, the noi'thern dip being only lb""' and the 

outhern dip 5° to 10". North of the hill ii an apparently overlying 

drab and purple quartzite, some beds of which are strongly rippl©- 

uiarkod. Their high dip of 55'^ north seems connected with some 

noteworthy features in the overlying limestones. Prom Nagauur 

' ' d, about seventeen miles to Jalgiri, the boundary is much 

d, the Kaladgi limestones presenting every appearance of 

dipping under sandstones and qaartzites, which, from their position 

and rock character, belong to the lower or basement scries. Actual 

contact of the two sots of rocks could nowhere be tound, even with 

very laborious search, owing to the thick covering of cotton soil or 

Bandy slope. The relative positions of the rocks show a series of 

complicated faults. The quartzites and sandstone beds seen along 

the obscure boundary are almost entirely conglomeratic and have a 

more or less southerly dip at low angles. The most marked signs 

of disturbance are at Anival. From Jal^ri eastward the boundary 

JR normal, the quartzites and conglomerates dipping north under the 

■fie series. West of Kattigiri, about eight miles south of 

)t, the quartzites form a dip-parting ellipse, corresponding to 

hat on which tho village itself stands, while southward from the 

illipse the boundary trends south-west to the Kerur stream, and 

.kefl a wide sweep to the south and east, eventually returning north- 

, and enclosing a large shallow bay occupied by limestones and 

■3 belonging to the third section of the lower Kaladgi series. 

« only case of a fault-rock noticed within the Kuldlgi basin was 

iarge vein or reef of distinctly brecciated quartz running along the 

of tbe dislocation caused by tho fault north of Bisnal, eight miles 

•west of Bilgi. It can be traced for about a couple of miles. 

im no point can the limestones bo better studied than from the 
of KaMdgi, which stands upon limestones, nearly in the centre 
f tho basin. The limestone beds are much twisted, and the dips 
d strikes are very variable. The average dip is about north-east 
35" to 4'0''. The commonest colour is gray of various shades, 
ed with very wavy belts of gray chert which generally weather 
or yellow. A very handsome variety occurring north of the 
nment is grayish-black banded with green. It is a very 
'mpuro, highly clayey variety, overiiiid by gray and underlaid by 
"irty pink, and this by banded gray limestone. A very beautiful 
ink and pale-green banded or clouded variety was found by 
r. 1*horp, the civil sargieon, at the north end of the market-place. 



Lower K&1 




[Bombay Qt 


and Boveml largo masses were raiseil. Tho greatest exposures 
the rock are to the east, south-eaat, south, and nortn-weat , 
Kaljldgi. The streamlets in tho neigh boui-hood afford good sect 
of limestone and its associated shales which are beautifully inat 
bjr white, blue, greeu, yellow, and red bands, and seaoicd with 
layers. Tho open seams of tho rock are often encrusted wit 
limestone soaking. 

Capital limestone exposures occur about two miles south-east 
liiugi in the Sillikeri stream, where purple, pink, and wl 
inded, dark, gray, and almost black beds crop out with a di] 

to 40^ north-east by east, the dark upper beds beiug the 
ayey. Another exposure, one of the largest in the basin, oc 
jtween the tAvo villages of Sillikeri. Here the gray chert-bat 
irioty I if limestone is very largely exposed on either side ofj 
iportant dip-partiug, which stretches for some distance, east 
ast, crossing the Khaloskop stream to the west, where it 
leablo some hundred yards tUl hidden by cotton sc 
lilarly, the eivstward extension of the dip-parting is lost about 
liles south-east of Hire-vSillikeri. South of the village of CI 
llikeri, and on tho southern side of the dip-parting axis, some 
ayey beds appear among tlie limestones. Two of these are specij 
3toworthy, because highlj' prized for economic purprises. The 
labed of coarse black rock of rather gritty texture and exoeodi 
)ugh, quarried for flags, which are formed by rude, impel 
leavage-joiuts running nearly at right angles to the bedding, 
jcond is a bed of very tough and strong gray slatey shale, fm-mer^ 
fcrgely quarried for roofing slates Tor public buildings at BeliTHum. 
le rock shows no signs of true cleavage, but, iu a similar bed, 
)t the extension of the same bed, which shows about a 
>uth-ea8t of Hirc-Sillikeri, the true cleavage, as contmsted 
jddiug, may be well studied. The cleavage is strong and dips 
_ 70'^ eivst, while the bedding forms a low flat dip-parting w] 
axis lies south-east and north-west. 

To the south of Sillikeri near Yendikeri, the gray beds a1)OV 
sscribed reappear fi-om under the Khaleskop quartzito hill 
' northerly dip of 45° to 65*'. A mile south of Yendikeri the 
jain roll south, and the lower beds are well repeated. They 
lark and extremely silicious besides being full of cherty be 
^ome of these cherty bands have an oolitic structure, which in 
ises shows distinctly on weathered surfaces. Some others ekc 
?xt»re indi-sitinguishable from a true quartzite. The southern 
of the section is obscure, but the limestones and overlying cl 
mle dip south against the faulted bouudary of the limestone 

the west cf Anival. It has already been pointed out that the 
)lour among the limestones is gray tif various shades. Even wl 
Iher colours occur they are much less developed than the 
ipecially the paler shades of gray. The other colours are 
ilo-green, purple, whitish pale, drab, cream, and blue. Besides 
lows of limestone round and to the south of KalAdgi, in sei 
liher places large surfaces of tho rock are exposed uuder cii 

inces favourable for study. The following are the most inipoi 




f these exposures to the cost of Kalddgi and to the south of tho 
Ixatprabha river : 

At Bagfilkot to the sonth-west of the town is a great exposare of 
ie<lR dipping' southward 35° to 40°, among which are gray, brownish- 
p i-ciiish-g^rayi pale-gray, green, brownish-piok, pinkish, whk-o 

^1 t with shaley bands iu part, also one bed shnmnga markedly 

>recciated structure. Some of tho beds show considerable 
loncrotionary masses and veina of calcspar of white or grayish- 
ihite.' In some cases, particularly iu the beds close to Gaddankeri 
Ive miles west of Bdgalkot, these are quarried for the sake of tho 
par, which ia U8e<l for various ornamental purposes. 

At Nirligi, five miles south of Bagalkot, a groat show of gray beds 
'orm« a low ftuticlinal with east-west axis to the south of the village. 
South of Kattigiri tho limestone basin forms a deep bay that crosses 
rl' " y of the Kerar-Guledgudd stream. The greater part of 
1 1 i^ occupied by chalky or clayey purple or chocolate shales 

iuierietived with pale-blue or greenish white bands of limestone 
torn a quarter to one inch thick. These are largely shown in the two 
Itroams tluit drain the slope oast of Mannagad. In the lowest part 
>f the bay near the banks of tho big stream at Hungurgi these 
ihaley beds are overlaid by much crumpled gray and drab 

At Kakkalgaon, throe miles north-west of Kattigiri, arc banded 
tmy, gTByish-whito, and whitish limestones, tho latter associated 
clay rock. At ITulgiri, twelve miles south-east of 
number of beds crop up north-east of tho village, 
hovviug nt'arly as great a variety of colours as tho Bilgalkot beds. 

To the north of tho Arrakeri or dip-meeting synclinal valley east 

r Kabidgi and north of the Ghatprabha is a great show of highly 

-one full of cherty bands which often completely bido 

jiarts of the bods. Much of the chalky matter has been 

moved by weather and the surface of the country is greatly 


Lower Kc 

: the naat :-'■- -^ *'^: fort of BAgalkot an imptire limestone is seen inn ■"- -- ' t 
• •r^utb : ■( about 15' or 20*. To the south of thi« liinuitt' 

uccessioQ of the strata is nut ulear owing to th.> l . : .„^ if 

k 8<iiL The limestones near the parallel of Bagalkot are either 
<'^tOD« or a fllatey marble of a compact texture with thin platea 
rc<i vkuniog of chlorite and occasionally talc. In a streamlet south of the 
iraUme lioa a gnarled and twiated appearance and has no trace of bedding, 
^dfkikot and vSirur, a pink or sahnou-eolMitred limestone occurs. The 
«f limestone rarely appe.irs on tho same line of stnke, owing to the many 
^> the beds hare undergone, the metamorphising agent acting trans- 
Htriko. AV'out seven miles west of HigaJkot at the viiUgd of 
' a CAlcspar breccia, composed of schists and limestones. The limestone 
aide of tile town ia tissurcd north-eaat by north, and the fissures, which 
\ a quai'ter of au inch in breatlth, are tilled with strings of calcspar. 
: these strings of calcap&r increase in size and become thick vems, 
tone ro<.'k still predominating, These veins send branches in all 
1 (jieces of limestone are isokted aa it were in calcspar. More to the 
ents of limestone and schist are confusedly tiirown aboat in a setting 
calcspar, and these fragments decrease in number until the rook 
Tmrc caloiipiir. Tho calcspar rock is covered with several feet of fine aUu%nal 
icl aotm not appear on the surface. Lieutenant Aytoiiu in Bombay Gcogia- 
Soekity's Tnuiaactions, XI. (1S52), 44, 45. 

fBombay Qa 




Br Kalddgi 


masked by chert rains. The more chalky beds are best sees 
the Sboldpur road near the Sanagi lake. 

Many of the cherty scalea show delicate concentrically 
* dark lines, which give the chert the appearance of contaima| 
ojiganic structure. The same kind of structure was obserre 
chert occupying a relatively identical position on the south sic 
the KaUdgi basin^ a little north-west of the Tolachkod ford 
the Malprabha and in several other places. 

Three or four miles east of Sanagi lake is another rather impurtaat] 
show of limestones chiefly in the bed and on the banks of ike I 
Tolanmatti. These rocks are gray, green, and pinkish-white, baaded'l 
and purple in colour, the latter earthy in texture. Six mi' 
of Tolanuiatti, at Tuglihal on the right bank of the Ghatprai 
purplish-gray beds together with some purple beds bandeci ■»rrti*| 
bluish-white. At Hudolur, three miles north-east of Tuglihal, is ll 
widespread show of gray cherty limestone. Immediately noftM 
west of the village a large sheet of rock presents a somewhat sti 
appearance as weathering has formed a band of chert an inch 
inch and a half thick, which passes as a capping beyond the unbr 
sheet to various detached patches of the underlying chalky band, 
the bend of the Ghatprabha, a little south-west of tho village, anj 
crop of massive, gray, chertless limestone with concretional struc 
has given rise to a very singular appearance in the weatherii: 
the rock. The whole surface is thickly studded with low oc 
bosses that rise out of small hollows and are much like large rofl 
shelled limpets or the top valves of Hippurites. Each boas 
concretional cone, one and^half to two or more inches in dial 
and about one inch high. They look like weathered cones 
percussion, but it is hard to see what could have caused percussioal 
in such a position at tho end of a very long still reach of the riv 
where, even in the highest floods, no large shingle would be bor 
with force enough, and such cones of percussion are not seen whe 
other limestones are exposed to very strong currents. 

The two outlying patches of limestone north of the Krishna M 
Chimalgi and Devldpur consist mainly of the gray cherty variety, 
but their stratigraphical relation to the beds in tho limestone basil 
proper is very obscure owing to the immense masses of rtiineij 
matter and surface soil which mask the face of the interveuind 
country. What evidence there is points to their not belonging 
the limestone basin, but to their being a set of beds that occupy 
similar position to those occurring in the valley of the M;il ' ■ ^"i 
north of Manoli, which Ho between the upper and lower suIj 
of tho basement quartzite series. 

North of the Ghatprabha and west of Kaladgi, on the bank of thl 
Klrishna, a little east of Galgali, and in the river north of Yedhall 
are two beds of limestone, the upper dark-gray the lower light^ 
gray. The upper is very flinty with tho cherty concretions arrange 
vertically like so many rude organ pipes. A great show of very chct 
dark-gray limestone is seen in the bank of the Krishna south of thil 
village and stretching across tho river to BudihaL At Gulabal, 
mile to tho south-weat, the chert limestone has lost nearly all it 



matter, which has apparently been replaced by a pale-yellow 
ay minoralj and the bed assumes in parts the appearance of a 
•looking semi-cherty quartzito. North of Galgali in the river, 
l^reBting on the quart:jite which forms the great barrier atToss the 
iQB, are some thin beds of impure limestone with thin bands 
'chert quartzite and the ochrey mineral above mentioned. Some 
of white Ratin spar with very bnlliant fracture also occur. 
' ochrey banda, which are dirty red, yellow, and drab, and certain 
chalky scales which accompany them are most likely merely 
ipoeed ehalo beds. A layer of gray quartzite caps this 
liar snccession of beds. 

retarning within the limits of tJie limestone basin, little or 

ig is seen of the limestones north of the Arrakeri synclinal 

-meeting valleys ; the country is masked by cherty ruins and 

soiL South of the valley and north of Khd.tarki gray lime- 

occur with a northern dip. Close to the village there is a 

parting or anticlinal axis, on the south side of which the beds 

ly, gray and white, and white with pale green and pinkish 

ig. These beds stretch to the east and west. To the east they 

he Ghatprabha south of Sirugurapi ; to the west they show 

idely between Kop and Chik and Hire-Algundi. The variety 

its is even greater than at Khatarki and Lingdpur, with bands 

pair-green, pink, white, and bluish-gray. The rocks are well 

rer large bare areas, and offer sections of crumpled bedding 

great beauty and interest. 

irre can be little doubt that the great show of beds at Antd.pur 

tho eAst of the Vajarraatti d«uble curve of the upper 

ite series is tho continuation westward of tho beds described 

idikop and Khatarki. Besides the other shades a purplish- 

' occurs at Antapur. 

>nth of tho Ghatprabha river and west of Kal^dgi is the greatest 

i.,'Ki~ .l-.-.n area occupied by the limestone series. Great stretches 

I ly hidden by thick beds of cotton soil. Along the south 

oi the river, the first beds of limestone occur west of Shedudhal 

idl a half miles nurth-west of Kaladgi, They are pale pink 

■ ith whitish bands, very like many beds at Kop and 

li to which set they probably belong. At Chottarband 

liiniy beds occur very largely, and form the western end of 

ting or anticlinal axis or stretches south-east nearly to the 

'of Kajidoni.and is very likely continuous with the Khaleskop 

ing mentioned before. Some of the flinty bands are cherty, 

cannot bo distinguished from thin bedded quartzites. North- 

t>f Nagannr, twelve miles south-west of Kiiladgi, are some 

wime, purplish, dove-coloured, and greenish banded beds. Some 

rinploil surfaces, the crests of the ripples showing a flinty frame- 

nrk witcj fish-scaleliko markings. To the north of the dip-meeting, 

gray and bluish banded limestones aro largely exposed both 

■ ' ' ipur, where they make the largest show in the 

I. These two sots of beds aro unquestionably tho 

itora extensions of those seen at Yendikeri and Khaleskop and 

likcri, M>'' "f which a large display occurs intermediately in tho 




Lower KalicJ 










valley of the Kaj'idoni to the south of tho village of that nama 
this village ou the top of rising ground limestone is exposed 
about a hundred yards on one sido of the road. The limestone 
a strike nearly east and west and dips south at an angle of 'lb" 
is^ranalar in texture and datey in colour, and overlies a broli 
schist The planes are covered with talo and are often gr 
with copper.^ Faint traces of copper in the shape of thin film&_ 
malachite occur in aomo gray limestone quarried in the bed of 
stream about three miles south of Kaj^doni. Groat qiiantitieti 
limestone, much of it highly chcrty, occur in the valleys of the dif 
ent streams which unite to form the Kajadoni, especially to the 
and north of Chipurmatti. About a mile to the north-west of CI 
matti are signs of brecciated limestone, pale red or pink fragi 
included in a dull red setting, also of a variety with a put 
brown setting, including fragments of gray slate and limes 
Neither variety was seen in place, but numerous blacks had 
used as fencing- walls on both sides of the path leading north 
Kal/idgi. Along the west side of the Yendikeri stream are n ; 
beds of limestone which dip south at high angles. Among 1 1 
Bomegraybeds with occasional thin veins of bright cherry-red calc 
In the bed of the stream is a layer of pinkish limestoue with del 
green stripes, which have been twisted into most elaborat-e vane" 
and give the stoue a very handsome pattern. These beds join' 
in the Yendikeri valley. 

The shales which accompany tho limestone series are mach' 
exposed and apparently much less developed than the litn ' 
They are most largely deveiiiped above the limestoues, aud 
approaching return to littoral couditions in the sea or lake 
which they wore formed. The littoral conditions, when fairlv 
work, have given rise to the overlying conglomerates and qu 
whose ruins in most places hide the shales. The most strikiuL 
of the commonest forms of shale is a soft earthy, chalky variety,' 

purple, violet, chocolate, or lavender iu colour, which is gotierally 

between the upper beds of the limestones aud the overlying quartzites 
These occur in numerous sections, as ou tho west face of the Cromlet 
hill close to Kalddgi, at Govindkop south-east of the same place, i 
Truchigeri east of Kaladgi, aud at Anathilli five miles north-west i 
Bagalkot. At Arrakeri, underlying the northern quartzite wall of tl 
dip-meetingor sjTiclinal valley, violet and chocolate shales are also seei 
Suuth-oast of Kaladgi the purple shales ai-o seen north of Kerkah 
where they are richly charged with red hretnatite. At Kakkals 
half-way between Keralmatti and Kattigiri, they are again of 
ordinary pale purple and form two small outliers capped by tht 
plateaus of the upper quartzites. They occur largely to the norb| 
and north-west of Kattigiri and also show at Auival and Batkurl 
abutting against the faulted boundary of the lower quartzites. 

Purple chalky shales occur in two or three places at the base 
the hmestooes as at BAgalkot and in the north-east corner of the ba 
between Jeriumkuuta and a little to the north of Anagvadi, The 

^ Lieut. Aftooa iuBombAy Geograpluoal Society '« TransactuHiB,AI, (1852), 55, 



\y very largely developedin theeastsrn cornerof tbeKaUdgi 
t-eastof JSirar, for they are rich in iTon, and in weathering 
a quasi-laterite, which, both gravolly aad conglomeratic, 
irnenso abundance near Sirur, and completely masks the 

>etweeu the limestones and the underlying quartJtites. 

)£k1s of nucertain position occur in the Kalildgi stream, 
yellow, and orange and roll at low angles. It is 
Hether thig shale underlies the whole limestone scries, or 
holds some position intermediate between the different 
lestone. Other shaley beds of uncertain position occur 
)etwpen Unlgiri and Kerkalmatti. They are in colour 
red, reddish, purple, chocolate, gray or ochroy yellow, and are 
halky and partly sandy. They roll greatly within a small 
iping from 1 5" to 60°. 

reefs or veins large enough to demand notice occur in the 
lestoue basin ; even small reefs are by no means common, 
>fFer any points of special interest. The largest reef occurs 
ju, ten miles south-east of Kaladgi, and farms two low 
divided by a break, run east-by-south in the axis of an 
)U in tbe limestone. A considerable number of small 
occur clope together in a patch of doubtful schistose 
stands among the limestones a little north-east of 
ilL The schists which have a strongly gneissic aspect 
50 argillo-talcose, and are full of small rhombohedral 
limonite, pseudomorphons doubtless of some other 
jrhaps calcite. The quartz vein* also enclose some of the 
question. No section could be found showing the relation 
its to the surrounding limestones, as thick cotton soil 
the margin of the schist area. It is therefore doubtful 
to assign them. It is not impossible that the schists 
trading mass of gneiss surrounded by tbe overlying 
It may also be that the schists are merely highly 
lies belonging t^ th© Lower Kaladgi series. The quarts 
jh offer no peculiarities worthy of note stretch a little 
>rth-vvest among the limestones south-east of Hoskatti, 
illy lost under the gi'eat covering of cotton soil. Another 
3r irregular veins with a north-east, and south-west course 
)tjg the limestone spreads in the Lokapur dip-meeting 
-west of Hoskatti. 

conformably ou the lower series come the quartzites and 

imest^inos, clay rocks, and shaley beds which belong to 

' Kul/idgi series, and, as at ShimAkeri and Anathili, occupy a 

mmnll dip-meeting valleys. The most important of these 

leri valley north of Kaladgi. Nearly all the outliers of 

litea are the remains of former dip-meeting foldings. The 

extension of the south side of the ArAkeri dip-meeting 

for its many sharp curves. The upper series containn 

shales limestones and haematite schists above and 

with local conglomerates and breccias below. The 

low^e-jit uniformity. As a rule they are pale-colottTod 

)nglonicratic A strong decree of paralklism \>et>^'eetl 

Chapter I. 

^ Descriptioiu, 


Lower KalJ 
HJiuky Be 

Quartz Seef/i. 

Upper K&lidgi 




[Bombay Of 



iapter I. 



the axes of the several dip-meeting basins shows that they owe 
origiu to a set of great foldings formed by forces acting ma 
north-east to south-west. All the basins and ridges formed hi 
upper series of limestone are broken by small streams that' 
north into the Ghatprabha. The height of the upper qiis 
ridges shows that the valleys must have been formed when 
wearing forces had not cat so deeply into the lower limestones 
formed the longitudliDal valleys that now run parallel with 
quartzite ridges. So hard is the quartzite that the drainage 
not have passed across them unless through hues of weakness i 
by excessive jointing. 

In the stream that drains the Anathilli basin, this weakness 
the sonthem wall of the cjuartzites is clearly shown. A close exa 
tion of the lines of jointing discloses the following systems, 
are either wanting on the ridges east and west of the hollow tt 
which the stream flows or are much less developed than in 
valley between. Throe systems of jointing are especially mi 
first a joint running north 5° east to south 5° west, with an avCT 
dip of 45° west by north ; second a joint striking north 15° to 
east to south lo' to 17° west and dipping 55° east by south; 
third a joint striking Borth-north-west to south-south-east, 
dip of 30° west-south-west. The joint fissures are mostly' 
together, so that the rock is cut into fragments too small to 
any great resistance to a rush of water. The brecciation of 
quartzites at the points of sharp bends is in part due to ordii 
jointing and in part to 8)ietems of cleavage planes. Irregular > 
choidal fracture may also be seen iu numerous fragments. ThelaT 
of the dip-meeting basins may be called the Shimdkeri basin 
the village of that name, about five miles west of Biigalkot. 
basin measures sixteen miles by twu and a half, and except at its ac 
western end is a simple dip-meeting ellipse. At that corner the ( 
zites, instead of formiug a simple ridge as they do almost every wh< 
else, roUoverand form a small elli|jtioal basin of no great depth, all 
dimple, as it were, on the edge of the larger basin. The other bJ 
where the qunrtzites do not form a simple ridge is a yet smt. 
dip-meeting diinjile, formed as it were by the curling of the edges i 
small lappet-likt' e.xteusion of the quartzites on the south aide of 
basin immediately east of the new S hoi apur road. Iu both enseal 
rolling of the strata gives rise to a small knot of hills. In this bt 
the best sections of the upper qunrtzites are those of Muebkandi 
the south and of Shiageri and Tnicbigeri on the north side of 
basin iu the gorges cut by diflen-ut streams that drain the basin i 
the country to the south of it. They offer no points of special int 

The south side of the Arjikeri dip-meetitjg valley shows a 
and well-marked case of inversion of the beds. The beds she 
at the Baluti cui-ve have a dip of only 25" to ^Q°, but as soon 
they trend west they become vertical, and at little more than a 
from the curve they lean forward to the north, so much a«| 
present the appearance of baviog a true dip of 85° south, 
continues west for some distiitice past Kuudurgi when tlie bodi] 
agmu become vertical and gradually return to a normal nortl 




t very high angles, which they maintain for sovoral miles. 
hlj raised and inverted beds show a great deal of breccia- 

bn. I hey are also in many parts conglomeratic containing ])ebb]e8 
P qnnrtz, jasper, and occasionally of older qaartzite. In oi^e 
r lite bed east of the Sholupur-Kaladgi road on tho north 

dip-meeting, small subangular fragments of transparent 
)u quartz, lika pale bottle-glass, occur pretty numerously, but 
|ly over a small area. No such quartss was noticed in any of tho 
jic rocks of that region. The setting or matrix is a brownish- 
gritty congloracrato overlying the bed which locally forma 
it of the ridge. 

\Ai most of the curves of tho several synclinals or dip-meetings the 
greatly broken by jointing. This is tho case at Govind/i- 
north-west end of the Shimageri basin, at the west end 
i ba.«in, at the Bnluti curve, and at the east end of tho 
}. This great breaking of tho bed surfaces is mainly 
to the presence of rude cleavage joints caused by great pressure. 

chalky series that rests on the iipper quartzitea consists 


t entirely of purplish or gray chalky shales overlaid 
Jish and gray clayey sliides. Limestones show only 
[y and generally in their bands. In some parts the purple 

are richly charged with earthy red haematite. As a nile, the 

e of this serio-s is thickly covered with cotton soil or with thick, 

iron-bearing gravelly soil formed by the decay of the hffiraatitio 

Largo patches of this red soil occupy various parts of the 

ri basin. In the Arakeri valley <io distinct limestone beds 

en, but there is a great thickness of purple or gray chalky 

with occasional thin plates of limestone. On these rest shaley 

8 of tho same colours, which show very imperfect slatey cleavage 

lei to the line of dip-meeting. In tho Anathilli basin chalky 

on'y were noted. Among them various very thin beds of 

pli ■ qnartzite hold the centre of the basin. Tho beds that 

it - iU'lyon tho upper qaartzitos are hid by superficial 

||x>sils or cotton soil. No limestones were seen in the Shimd- 

iri basin, probably because they were masked by great spreads 

cotton and rod soil. In tho Gaddankeri stream to the sontji of 

limAgori, gniy and drab chalky shales stretch south to the qoart- 

<»n which thoy rest. These shales are much but very irreg^- 

Ij [larallel to the strike of the line of dip-raeeting, Tho 

.age nre nearly vertical, but the dip is invariably north 

•onch. In a rock section at Shimageri a gray clay rock with silvery 

surface occurs and probably overlies the chalky shales. 

t of Shimngori a large area is covered by purple iron-bearing 

"•liich occurs a bed of very rich hasmatito sandstone 

irk pnrplo colour. Tho section is obscure, but this 

lug ln.»d likely belongs to the upper quartzites which 

Li- u bruught tu the surface by a small local dip-parting or 

jiticUnal curve. Similar beds, but much poorer in iron, occur in two 
f tbrM! phioea in tho small dip-meeting valley at tho south-west 
^mor of the basin. Haomatite occurs also in tho shales in the 
roturn cuiiicr of the basin, and has beeu smcllcQ to a> ftiuaXV 


Upper KaliS 


atul Sk 

IBombay Gazettec 



ipter L 


ive Kooka. 



extont. Traces of rich hsDmatite beds were also noticed on the sout 
side of the Arilkeri dip-meeting east of the higli road to SholApor.. 

The only intrusive rocks which occur within the Kahidgi basin 
trap dykes. Though sparingly distributed and occurring only in tl 
upper part of the series there is one in the Ar/lkeri dip-meeting valleyl 
These trap dykes consist of compact green diorito weathering it 
concentric ellipsoidal masses unlike any of the older diorites seen iij 
the gneiss area. Tlieir course is north-west by west to south-easlj 
by east, and they show ouly in the centre of the valleys among 

In the extreme east between the gneiss and the trap, strotchii 
from Muddebihal across the eastern border of the district an^ 
appearing in two small outliers a few miles to the north-west, U 
a syjall area of azoic rocks whi ch dif fer in character from tbi 
Kaladgi series. TEese rocks, which have been correlated with th*' 
Kernal series, and named the Ijhima series, have two di\nsions, an 
upper and a lower. The rocks that form tlie upper division are, 
in descending order, red shales, flaggy limestones, buff shales, 
quartzites, and limestones, the last locally known as the Talikotj 
beds. The rocks forming the lower divisions are red, purple, ai ~ 
green shales and shaley sandstones, and quartzites, grits, au^ 

Beginning with the lowest beds, in the west the sandstones aaf 
shaley sandstones of the lower series show endless shades of colour. 
As a rule i-eddish brown and pur[>le prevail near the u]>per part of tho 
formation, followed by drab and greenish beds, while near the baae 
yellowish green or brown and dirty-gray predominate. One bed of 
a purple gritty sandstone at Jambaldini, seven miles north-east of 
Muddebihal, is very unusually ina-ssive, the partings of the saudsti .nt* 
being two to three feet apart.' Besides a deciiled purple raattiT 
tho sandstone contains a number of small bright green graius. 
Occnpying the same horizon in tho Karnal series as the Jambakbni 
bed is a similar purple gritty bed at Bulehvar, five miles north-wt 
of Jambaldini, and another that forms the base of the Karnal serifi 
at Kavrimatti, five miles south-west of Jambaldini, About t\ 
and a half miles south-east of Havrimatti a sandstone bed of 
same variety, though almost quartzitein texture, caps a table-toppe 
hill. The south side of this tableland is well scarped and shows 
total thickness of about 100 feet of lower Bhima rocks ia th« 
following order: Purple gritty sandstone, drab, olive and puT 
&nd dark-green shaley sandstones, white or drab pebbly grit, 
below this gneiss. The shaley sandstones form more than luil 1 
thickness of the whole section. Much pisolitic laterite gi-avel oi ' 
Btrewn over the sm'face of the purple sandstone. 

The basement beds of the Bhima series consist of pebbly or grit.( 
sandstones, thirty to fifty foot thick, resting directly on the higl 
uneven surface of tho gneiss, groat hunimocky masses of which as 
Salvargi about eight miles east of Tdlikoti may be seen surrounded I 

i The bed la largely (luarried by Vaddaxa for high-dass band-mill stoue*. 




younger rocks. The material of which the conglomorates are 
posod was evidently taken from the neighbonring granite-gneiss 
3. The ruling colours of the conglomerate beds are pale brown, 
inkish, or red<]ish broNvn, white, and purple. About a mile south- 
it of the Nagarbetta hill the sandstones in a white bed resting on 
thin whito pebbly conglomerate, are rippled and occasionally 
ippn^ximat-e in closeness of texture to true quartzites. West of the 
on, along the south side of the long spit of sandstones which 
tretches east of the road from Nillatvad to TAlikoti, the pebbly base- 
ont Is overlaid by beds of gritty and fine sandstones of a brown or 
ish colour. Near tho village of Kavrikunahal, eight miles east 
'Alikoti, the conglomerate is purple in colour with very numerous 
rokun crystals of red felspar. At Hokarani two miles south of 
Jambaldiui a similar purple pudding stone occurs. Gritty sandstones 
with fiue sandAtones resting on them are seen at and north-west of 
Mnddebihfil, the pebbly conglomerates being seen almost every- 
where in the several pitches of the Bhima rocks. In the Balvantar- 
katti valley north of Mud<lebihnl the be<l8, which are frequently a 
ittle broken and upturned, roll in all directions generally at low 
angles. The sandstones between Karvimatti and Muddebihdl are of 
drab and pale brown. The sandstones that form the outlier which 
caps the Sirur hill are white, drab, and ptu'pliah, the white beds being 
rather unusually massive and compact, butshowingmanysraallshallow 
onchoidal cavitiea The beds are horizontal. To the north-west of 
Muddebihiil the prevalent colour of the sandstone is a pale reddish 
rown weathering into a cinnamon bro^. At tho extreme south- 
west corner of the plateau a white very saccharoid sandstone occurs. 
Between Aluddebihul and Bilibh4vi south-east of Tdlikoti shales and 
ehaley sandstones are in places well displayed. 

The only representative of the Upper Bhima Beries is the Talikoti 
limestone, named aft-er the small town of Talikoti which stands upon 
and 18 entirely built of this beautifnl rock. The hmestones, for 
they are divisible into several beds of varying colour and texture, 
are mostly very fine-grained, dense, and waxy-lastred, and often 
pproach to true lithographic limostono.^ ITie prevalent colours 
are blue-gray, gray, dral» or cream, pinkish, and purple. They 

fenerally occur in this order in downward succession : the purple 
eds re-stiug on the purple shales or sandstones of the Lower Bhima 
aeries. The beds are generally undisturbed from their original 
position of formation. Like the Kaladgi series, the Bhima series 
had undergone much wearing befure the beginning of the great 
l")eocan trap period. In a deep well at Munjgiii, two miles west of 
TAlikoti, limestone occurs in stratified masses, with a very slight dip 
Tarying according to the of the plain. In the well the dip is only 
2\° oast 5'^ south. Dividing the limestone from the surface to the 
bottom of tho well is a fissure, afoot wide, the direction south S'^west 

Chapter T. 


Bbima .Scrie« 


i They occur in ilAggy beds, the individual flags having ft thickneiiB of three to 
*iirht UK'heii, In & lew pLvoes the l>e<li) are two to three ffiet thick and do not 
i t1a^. The total thickncoa of tho limestone near Tdlikoti, oa 
ulv&rgi where the aluiuBt auiversal corering of cotton soil is &ba<^TiV, 

[Bombay Ga 



Lpter L 



IS Series. 



filled with bufF-coloured earthy lime-knobs and angular fragmeot 
limestone rock. The limestone in miueral character resembles 
I limestone of the Kadapa serios, but is generally lighter in a 
varying from dark-blue to palo-buff or cream, aud has few traces! 
pyrites. The minerals associated with it are haamatite in snw 
nodules, often occurring scattered like strings of beads through it»| 
structure which, falling out, leave regular lines of small holes tbafcl 
resemble the perforations of boring insects and the tubular sinuoait 
iu the laterite. Angular fragments of a buff-coloured jasper nprl 
strewed among those of the limestone and from their variolatedT 
that is spotted exterior appear to have been in contact with }>as4lt, ' 
possibly Umestone, passing into jasper.^ 

Underlying the trap and resting sometimes oo gneiss and ^.n.,..- 
times on the Kaladgi or Bhima limestones and quartzite are ceriailll 
sedimentary deposits of small thickness and extent. These o 
are usually of soft marly or clayey grits with or without i: 
pebbles of the older rocks, especially of quartzite. tSoft sandstoueii 
in thin beds and pure clays are much seldomer seen. Iu many 
places weather has worn away the setting which enclosed the hard 
quartzite pebbles, and the pebbles remain as beds of loose shit 
on the surface of the older rocks, their presence still showing 
former existence of the pre-trappean deposits. 

The most easterly occurrence of these deposits is at the village' 
of Ndgarbetta to the south of the hill of the same name which stand* 
at the meeting of the lowest trap-flow with the gneissic beds. Here 
the hollows in the surface of "the gneissic beds are filled with red aud 
white unconsolidated grit. Higher up the sloping ground, south of 
the village, where an outlier of the Bliiraa beds appears, this moLiled^ 
and sometimes clayey grit was not seen. These Bhima beds haii 
doubtless yielded the few quartzite and hard grit pebbles that 
enclosed in the washed-up beds. The beds are rarely more than 
couple of feet thick, and rest on decomposing piuk granitoid gneis^ 
with many veins of coarse salmon-coloured granite, whose broken 
pink felsj>ar crystals form the greater mass of the washed-np beds. 
The pebbly unconsolidated grit that occurs below the trap on the 
south .side of this Nagarbetta outlier, and is seen in the rain gully 
sections immediately south of the village of Murala, occupies the 
same position. At MurAla the grit has a thickness of over seven 
feet and rolls at low angles, as do the overlying trap-flows. No 
sign of organic remains was found in those beds. 

Di-ab-coloured chalky tufa, with one or two thin beds of drab 
friable sandstone, are exposed in a small network of rain gullies on 
the west side of the little outlier of trap that lies t^vu aud a half miles 
south-east of Muddebihal. Those beds are totally different 
appearance from any noticed in describing the rocks of uuoqnivc 
Bhima age. They occupy only a few score square yards, 
apparently fill a small hollow in the gneiss. 

Holding a similar position with reference to the trap-flows is a 
of gritty marly clay that is exposed to the depth of five to six feel 

i CflJ>tain Newbold in Geological Papers of VVeeterti India, 323. 




ill.- liATiVs of tho stream that runs east from Deb var-Hnlngbil, a 
Doiit half-way botwoen xMnddel)i]idl and Talikoti. In its red 
■ui<i ^\Jllre mottled colour this ^itty marly clay greatly resembles < 
Uu* li«>!.e washed-up grit seen at Najrurbetta, 

of Irgi, about nine miles north-west of Muddebihdl, at the 

• of the trap and gneiss, the surface of the slope ia largely 

^vith patches of massive wlutiah limestone broceias. The 

nrs are many small broken crystal** of pink felspar, 

ind a few qnartzito and banded jasper pebbles. 

|Am trap wiis found among the included fragments, which could 

dlv bo the case were the lime breccia younger than the trap. 

is breccia seems to pass under the trap. The tufa is remarkably 

ire and very close-grained. Its thickness, as it lies exposed 

the rising slope, may be estimated at four or five feet. This 

'ble deposit had no trace of orgsmic matter. Other sections 

'jritty marly clays or clayey grits were noted at Galgali 

t. li«.nk of the Krislma to the north of Kaladgi. At 

— _, . tiial, Rokatkatti, Rajuuhal, and Jangvari, lying on the 

ig east and west spur of trap which stretches south ot Kalddgi 

d to the south-east of Aksurkop, red-mottled gritty or clayey beds 

locur associated with coarse quartzite shingle. 

Orer about two-thirds of the district the surface rock ia trap. 
forth of the Krishna a strip of cmeissic rock runs along the bank 

forth of the Krishna a strip of gneissic 
f the river varyinjr in breadth from twi 

varying m breaatu trom two miles in the west to about 

in the east. And, north of the gneiss, for about ten miles north- 

t of Muddebihsil are the sandstones erf tho tipper and lower Bhima 

Vorica With these exceptions t he whole of Bij apur north of tho 

ri-.lir];i is trap. There is also a small trap outlier among the gneiss 

'a, about five miles south-east of Muddobihil. South of 

trap appears in tyojlaces. There is a small patch in 

•at between Jaimlpur and Bilgi. And in tho south-west, 

rom the west border to near Kerur, is the eastern. end 

«'. belt of trap that forma tho watei--shed between the 

liba and the Malprabha. The general characteristics of 

itnii- tr;iTi rinaaro vcry mopotonou a and uninter es ting low 

I i;dlow valleys. This sameness of scene is greatly 

I \>y t fi.i i:u-^'0 Hovelopment of black soil and the almost 

.!it of trees in the high grounds. 

A Utile to the north-west of Sindgi, twenty-five miles east of 

ijdpur, the summit of a ridge is covered with globular masses of 

compact basaltic trap nnderlaid by a bed of fine red clay 

;i profusion of zeolites, also heliotrope, plasma, goodea 

;iy lined with quartz, crystals, semi-opal cacholong, 

ite ami cnlcspar, resting on a greenish-grfty wacke. Both 

rks are veined and interstratifiod with lirae-nodules. The 

rixontnl layers of limo-nodules ftre often ten to twelve inches 

hick. The softer wacko nnd amygdaloid in weathering often 

,To tho harder layers of limo-uudules standing out from the 

At Hippargi, about fifteen miles to the south-west, the 

I iiimea thi« rich brownish-purple or chocolate hue of the trao 

Bijupur and ia aoou in the bou. of the rivulub resting ou Q> toa 





Deccan ' 

LBombay Qatttte 



ipter I. 


zeolitic amygdaloid. The line of contact in marked and distinc 
Heliotrope and plasma are leas common. From Ingleshvar to about 
, eleven miles Bouth-west of BflgovJldi trap wacke and amygdaloid 
form the basis of the plain where its southern limit is again cross 
hf the hypogene area. From Bagevadi to Mangoli the root 
Bijnpui" lies over plains tho lowest stratum of which as soen in 
to tho depth of twonty to fifty feet and in the beds of ati 
the overlying trap.^ About two miles north-west of Bage\ 
trap is overlaid by a sheet of a conglomerate composed of a nodnjar 
and pea-like iron ore and fragments of iron-bearing clay imbeddtni 
in a paste of carbonate of lime coloured a light ochre-brown by 
oxide of iron. The bed of the stream presents the only section of 
this stratum. It is here four feet thick covered by a layer of black 
cotton soil and resting immediately on the concentric exfoliating 
trap which is penetrated by seams of a whiter and more earthy 
carbonate of lime. Large masses of a laterite rock cemented by 
chalky and iron-laden matter and having a glaaed surface occur 
the chalky conglomerate. This conglomerate occurs at vnrit 
places between B&gev^Ldi and Mangoli, and it continues almc 
uninterruptedly overlying the tnip, for about twelve miles. N« 
Mangoli the trap again appears as the .surface rock, seamed aot 
almost broken by the immense quantity of chalky matter whicl 
passes between the layers. The lime is seen to take up some of t\ 
colouriug matter of the angite or hornblende of the trap and 
stained a mottled green and brown. Tho trap shows surface brancl 
marking generally dark-brown with a yellow or brownish ground on 
the smooth surfucc into whidh it readily divides on being struck witl 
tho hammer. This facility of division arises from natural microscopic 
fissures existing in the substance of the rock, sometimes visible 
the naked eye. The fi*agmouts are of different shapes, but almost 
invariably angular and frequently prismatic. The ti-ap varies from 
compact black and phouotitic basalt to a loose light gray wacki 
specked with miinite iron-caused spot.s, and is formed both in layer 
and in bulls. Reddish veins cross it without any detinite directic 
Except in holding more iron their composition does not seem to 
much from the dull brown gniy rock that forms the prevailing 
colour of tho trap in the neighbourhood. Deep and ne8U*ly vertic 
fissures dipping generally to tho west 70*' south cleave its tables in ; 
direction north 25° west. A number of small bag-like hollowa 
pervade its structure, the line of whose longest diameter ia generally 
north and south. This may be accepted as a sign of the course herOj 
taken by this great flow of trap. 

The city of Bijapur stands on a large sheet of overlying traj 
with a wavy surface, though here and there may be seen sma 
step-like descents characteristic of trap formations, but none 
high enough to disturb tho general leveL Tho surface of tht 
plain ia strewed with fragments of trap, amygdaloid, quartz, 
chalcedony, opal, cacholong, oalcspar, and zeolites, lime-knobs, nodular 
iron ore and a conglomerate iron clay and iron ore imbedded in 



:i lime-knobs. Theae weathering in nneqaal proportions form 
>rorI»yer of li>rht brown soil, in which smiill crystals of a pearly 
»par and zeolict^ flitter like particles of silvery mica or talc, in 
Is formed by the decomposition of gneiss and granite. Beneath " 
the trap iu public roads and other places liable to nbraaion 
ften seen in a state of concentric decomposition. In deep 
Kuch an wells and qnarries the rock assumes a tabular 
ICO splitting ahriost horizontally into thick stratiform masses, 
share again intersected at right angles by almost vertical fissures, 
iH tTi-'^ :i columnar structure. The fissures though nearly vertical 
riy and do not seem to show any line of disturbance. At 
luur dssures have a direction north 20** east the joints dipping 
9t to 20'' south. Calcspar occurs in thin discoloured seams 
'" •^. A number of empty bag-shaped hollows porvado 
led probably by gas when the rock was liquid. Their 
Lhoagh not uniform, is generally south-west agreeing with 
f the trap's direction. At Torve, about four miles west of 
^iMsalt rests conformably upon a bed of amygdaloid into which 
Large beds of amygdaloid occur in the trap, rising above 
OS seen near the AlhApur gate of Bijdpur. Volcanic ash 
iSeen here, which seem at first sight to be amygdaloid flows, 
rniBde of fragments volcanic ashes and dusty particles of bag- 
trap cemented by the deposition of calcite and zeolitic matter 
igs and films between the fragments as well as in the shoe- 
hollows. The volcanic ashes are mostly reddish or purple and 
bole is diffused through the mass. The rock at Bijapur 
'Ofton in the space of a few fe^t from a compact grayish 
basalt having a granular structure and conchoidal fracture 
streaks of ash gray, to a soft wacke speckled with brownish 
ring crystals of augito and amphibole. The trap in this 
ibourhooil has a blush of red traceable in the darker portions 
bco>ming stronger in the wacko and amygdaloid, the latter 
^ftring for \tn basis a fine red clay. The dark compact variety 
lis into a black glass and is faintly trausluceut at its edges, 
ig a dnll moL-u ; tbo rest are opaque and melt with difficulty 
yrrvnish hlack glass. Some varieties which seem to contain 
attor are iofasibla The less compact trap has an 

Cliapter ] 

Dcicoiui Tra 


Tn»p, generally covered by a bed of reddish lime-nodules on which 
(on soil, passing into a reddish amygdaloid, reticular 
ttic, cuntaining calcspar and zeolites, continues to Ukli, 
)ire miles south-east of Bijapur. About two and a half 
of Bdgovitdi a large amount of basalt, partly on and partly 
in the soil, covers a long swell, probably a basaltic dyko 
I ling trap. The basalt is amygdaloidal and bag- 
^ small globules of calcarooas spar, zeolites, and 

• When rNlnoocI to a coaMe powfler « few of the fragmenta are taken up by tho 
ftgnitt I 11m l"f •< <v>.i. r tK mI a dali grovuiBb gray. It does nut selatiimn when 
ilwl with iic gruvity i< 3 35. Captain Newbold iu Ocologiwi 

ol Weet 


[Bombay Oazottii^ 



chalcedony. The bapfs or vesicles are usually empty ; Bomo of tl 
coutaio a brownish-yellow earth into which zeolite and culcareo k 

are found to decay. The fracture is conchoidal, the fragnif. 
iFaintly translucent at the edges, and the streaks arc grayish wl 
tnoJtH before the blow-pipo into an intense green gia-ns. It c 
little amphibole and seems to be composed almost entirely of augita 
and felspar. Passing Bouth-eaat from B^geviwii by Javaneglii and I 
Narsinghi to Alkopa, a village ten miles south-oast of Bdgevadi, the{ 
road lies diagonally across the low trap swells which have g. 
a south-westerly direction, though their lines sometimes crv 
other at obtuse and acute angles. The tops of the swells .ire motstlji 
slightly convex, though often terrace-like, and are composed of thoj 
more compact and globular trap. In the banks of rivers the trBpl 
and amygdaloid may be seen alternating and passing into each other;! 
when they occur horizontally the trap is generally the surface rock.! 
The amygdaloid contains irregular bits of decaying felspar and' 
numberless hollows often filled with green earth and crystals of, 
carbonate of lime.* 

The village of Alkopa is near the south-eastern foot of a| 
slope on the top of which the trap has the usual compact and glohuli 
form, while at the base it is tabular, schistose, and am ' Id 
A few hundred yards to the south of the village the tni| i, 

ceases at the foot of a low range of flat-topped sandstone hills. In 
the bed of a stream about 300 yards from the village the trap is, 
found overlying the sandstone and penetrating some of the nuiucroui 
fissures by which the sandstone is cleft. The existence of trap i( 
the bed of the river can bo inferred from a little disturbance in the 
sandstone rock which occurs in tabular horizontal masses having n\ 
rhomboidal shape by being crossed by fissures with a varied direction J 
but generally north 65" west crossed by others trending8outh20°weat 
Where the trap penetrates the fissures the two rocks sre not fount 
adherent or jmssiug into each other. They are perfectly distinct 
and separate, a thin onlcureous seam occasionally intervening. BotI 
the trapund sandstone si^em to bo slightly altered by the contact, tl 
trap beconung less crystalline and more earthy, but often ex^ 
tough and splitting into small fragments, with numerous mici 
fissures seanung its structure. The colour of the sandstone 
a few lines to several inches distant from the contact is genorallj 
reddish, passing int<^ a deep i-ed<lish-brown. There is no appearand 
of somi-fusiou or intermixturts nor are any masses of sandfit 
ontftuglud in the trap. In structure from a loose and vari« 
grit it appr«>ftchoi« a comjiact quartz rock containing digsemini 
portionH of deconipowed fi'UjMir, which fiilling out leave a number of. 
minute ovnl cavities.* No veiii.s jK-uctnite the sandstone. Pegmatite 
0CCur.s in the »ciitter««d Itlnck*, and judging from the sharpness of 
the angles of these fragmeuta, the rook cannot be far distant. In 

< Tit 


(1»rk »j"'i' mm 1" "H' »■ ' ■ 

* For buU(llit|| vilU||\>i* ul'«•■lll,^ I 

or d<<ep hrowji ctilour in d« 

Uiia»r Uie hJow-pipe the 
^I'lu IndiA, 822. 




streAtn a few hundred yards north-west of Rnnkal, a mile 
i-east of Alkupa, are slender prismatic crystals of carbonate of 
in aheaf-liko bunches, with diirk pieces of chert in a friable mass 
amygdaloid, the radii of the calcareous crystals being^ three* 
long' aud of a faint amethystine hue. East from Alkopa Jho 
»p stretches to the village of Mudkeysur nine miles from Alkopa, 
rhen it is succeeded by the Talikoti limestone beds. 

lu the bed of theHiri stream near TJmbldnur, about two miles north- 
Bst of Alkopa,trap is fonnd undergoing many changes in texture and 
Ir, even in the space uf a few yards from a compact heavy basalt to 
")Je wacke,from globular to schistose, from black to redandalight 
»ish-6peckled gray. The layers of the schistose variety are often 
;d by cross fissures which divide the rock into rectangular and 
j^dal prisms similar to thostf observed in clay slate near the 
)ntact with a basaltic dyke. These again splitting into scales 
become five or six-comerod and by further scaling become 
»nd. The road from Umblanur to Beylhal, three miles to the south, 
literally paved with the boulea of trap, which pealing off in 
antric layers, leave circular and oval centres. Even the centres, 
jver hard and compact, show signs of pealing. Where the rock 
jvered by dust the road looks as if it were paved with pebbles 
ipact basalt set in concentric rings of wacke. The centres 
prominent from their superior hardness. Calcspar of various 
of white, green, and pink, chalcedony in pierced and hollow 
lale« showing concentric ring markings and lined with minate 
la of quartz, semi-opal, and jasper, occur in veins imbedded 
jke. At UmblAnur the centres copsist of hypersthenic felspar, 
rystals of augitej the fracture is small-grained and uneven 
■ ak is of grayish -white. A trap dyke running to 
st is crossed a little beyond Muddur on the loft bank of 
[rishna. On the ascent of a low hill a little beyond the small 
)rtof Haverighi,five miles east of Dhanur ford,a dyke of basaltic 
itono cuts the gneiss running nearly due east and west and 
ly distorting the layers of the latter rock. Several branches 
»rown off, one of which has a south-westerly direction. The 
lliere splits into prismatic fragments with smooth planes. 

At Ndgarbetta, about four miles north-west of Ndlatvad, the trap 

be made of several flows, the two uppermost of which form 

jands or narrow traces round the hill which is capped with a 

rciiiauoid iron-clay. The whole vertical thickness of these flows 

probably between 300 and 400 feet. The basement beds consist 

an earthy dirty pale-green mass of nodular trap broken by 

}herical weathering. The concentric layers are very friable, bub 

10 contrea which are generally small consist of hard and tough 

or greenish basalt enclosing a few grains of a bluish white 

i-like mineral. This flow forms a plateau resting partly on 

gnoiiis jnu-tly on the basement beds of the Bhima series 

^bich here consist of grits and conglomerate sandstones, The two 

])|H)r flows are of hard baaaltic trap, the division between them 

formed by a band of extra hard and compact basalt. Small 

lony or quartz amygdaloids ore rather common in these hard 


rBombay Guet 



Ipter I. 


'Vqp FUne*. 


beds and leave many small pittingg on the surfaces of 
weathered blocks. This NAgarbetta is the highest large oi 
of trap. Another section occurs on the north aide of this on 
imioediately south of Hiremuritl about three miles west !■ 
o£ Nftgarbetta, The succession of lieda in the sides of a dee| 
are earthy trap much weathered into spheroids, green-gray 
yellow-brown in colour; bluish gray clayey trap ten inches 
foot thick ; and clayey trap with waxy lustre apple-green and bi 
mottled one and one-third feet thick. The last bed rests 
unconsolidated pebbly grit whicb is in parts marly. Seven] 
of this pebbly grit are here shown, whose surface had 
irregularly worn before the deposition of the trnp-flows which 
filled the in'egularities of the surface. All the bods expoe 
this section roll at low angles. The general surfoc^a over wnic 
trap was poured was highly irregular. The Bhima rocks 
much worn away at an early period and were themselves dopoa 
over a large sea bottom of gneissic rock. In the east of the : 
on the border between Bijapur and the Nizam's domioioi 
Lukundi, Shellugi, PirApur^ and Talihalli to the nortb-eas 
T^likoti the prismatic tendency is seen only where the trap 1 
etripjied to an approximately flat surface when it resemt - , 
extremely rude tesselatod pavement, the tessera) forming rat 
irregular polygonal figures. When broken from the mass 
prisma are found not to bo longer than their average diameteiJ 
The trap is black with many rusty spots and of gritty texture wit 
a fairly metallic ring when struck. To the east of Pirapur ti 
flows of hard black basmlt seem recognizable on the sides of the 
scarp in which the trap plafean ends. One of these forms the base- 
ment bed and none of the earthy pale-green weathered trap is seen 
along the sc&rp. 

Agates are found in large numbers on the weathered surface >»*■ 
Hanmapur five miles south-west of Batkurki ; red bole at Torve ir 
Bijapur; and largo crystals of green glassy-looking olivine united vm i i 
the porphyritic variety of the Deccan trap. Between Dadiheri ani 
Batkurki miuute vesicles or hollows give a few amygtialoid l)eds thfl 
appearance of speckled grit. In the trap area to the north of ihi 
Krishna, augite is not much seen in the red amygdaloid rock. Pita 
or vesicles are seen in all varieties both empty and containing 
green earth which becomes brown or black on long exposure, 
chalcedony, cacholong, calcspar, quartz, zeolites chiefly radiate ' 
Btilbite, heulandite, and mesotype when it assumes an amygdaloit" 
stamp. These minerals also occur in veins and are most abundanl 
in the red amygdaloid to which they give a reticulated or porphyritic 
appearance as they chance to occur in veins or crystals. Geodos 
hollow nodules of chalcedony are seen containing crystals of qnar 
and of zeolite enclosing crystals of carbonate of lime. Veins 
crystallinequartzarefoundsplittinginthe centre, in a direction paralle 
to the sides, containing all these minerals on their inner surfaces. 
Grayish crystals of glassy felspar occur in the serai-' 
varieties; also small nodules of a compact cream-. j 

opaque zeolite with a faint tinge of buflF, and marked with conceutrio 




innlar deliaeations resembling in shape those in orbicular granita^ 

'■n some of the lava flows of the Deccan trap are 

-tHltinentAry beds whose fossil contents in various cases show 

they gathered in fresh-water lakes or awamps. The organisms 

»C9e beds are Pbysa prinsepii, a small Lymncea, and Unio 

:anen8ts. They are the same as those in corresponding forma- 

in Central India and olHewhcre. Unlike the Central Indian 

iter-trnppeans, which are chalky and cherty, the southern beds are 

" ietly sandstones, conglDmerates, grits, clays, and occasionally sandy 

trl. The three typical fossils named above were found in sandy 

at Todihal, on the right bank of the Krishna fifteen miles 

-liost of Kalddgi. The bed of marl varying in thickness from six 

rht feet underlies a flow of ordinary trap, but rests upon gneiss. 

Frirm of the ground seems to show that the overlying trap is 

the lowest of the series, but has overlapped an older flow, 

that the inlaid lake bed is truly inter-trappean. A large 

ratiige of the shells are much twisted from the hoary 

lurtj of the overlying rocks. In the west of the district at 

" six and a half miles north of Ra,radurg are a well-exposed 

inter-trappean beds without any fossil remains. The beds 

horiyAitntally and are about twenty feet thick. The succession 

in descending order, trap, red bole, red sandy marl, sandstone, 

f, and aguin trap. Cherty deposits belong to the 

r-trappean beds. One bed of this kind occurs about 

njilea north-east of Tdlikoti and one mile west of the village 

JcUngi and occupies the highest ground in the neighbour- 

8tret<'hing about three miles north ^nd south with a maximum 

idlh of about a mile. The bod forms a small irregular plateau, 

great part thickly covered with cotton soil. The chert is of 

' -ur from mottled whitish gray to yellowish brown. 

show a more chalccdonic character with patches of 

iv whitish blue or peach. 

On the road from Hipargi, about twenty-five miles east of Bijdpur, 
1 Ingleslinu* in the south, indications of laterite or iron-clay are seen 
- wearinga cemented by a brown ivory and chalky paste. 
:' chert and a variety of limestone porphyry also occur. 
ite is found capping a ridge of trap and wacke a little to the 
I of Inglpshvar. This hill is chiefly composed of wacke 
ited by flattish apparently compressed veins of fibrous 
}nitc. On the top of the hill are scattered globular and 
lar fragments of basaltic trap, while partially imbedded in the 
- are rough blocks of a Light-coloured rock, 
iiestone passing into chert. These blocks are 
?T .ir, generally six inches to two feet thick, and have a 

Ifhit.^ rior so rough as to resemble trachyte. When fractured 

Chapter I. 

ft EOtOO^P 

Deccan Trap, 


1 1 Anm« of t1i**n nMtile* »to earthy »nH h«ve a powerfnl clayey wlonr. Under the 
(1 ■ " ■ ■ ■ "lybUy. They gelatinize w I . " I witl. 

conbvin ocicular, mirroB' < i ■.> 

,,.^.-, .., .«. .^.......-....f, ^..-..-..u. Captain New bold ia (ic... .5,;^.. i-pcfa 

\Ve»tcn> ladu, 3l». 

[Bombay Qi 



liapter I. 


ccaa Trap. 

the small glistening red and white chalky crystals they inabed m\ 
at first sight be taken for those of glassy felspar. The softer 
more crystalline portions of this rock effervesce with acids. It 
occurs in detached blocks on the wacke at the base of the latet 
cliffs south-west of Ingleahvar. The rock here is more comj 
homogeneous, less crystalline in structure, and shows dark dentnjj 
delineations. Some fragments are partly c<mted with a thin 
white enamel, which is apt to assume a grape-cluster form ; 
surface are numerous small white globules of white enaf 
Among the decayed laterite which is mixed with tliese blc 
are strewn numerous nodules of a black ashy-looking mineil 
containing cavities. About seven miles from Ukli bet 
Musibinahal and Bagevddi, a flat-topped hill about a 
the left of the road, is composed from base to summit 
tabular lateritio rock. Further east, about a mile, runs a low ri^ 
of laterite hills with a north-easi and south-west direction and 
contour. About twelve miles to the south of these rise two oil 
flat-topped hills at Nagarvdr, which, along with the small hilli 
Hori Math near Ingleshvar, are entirely composed of laterilj 
rock. The lateritic rock near Hori Math appears gouoi 
to contain more iron than the Malabdr and Kanara later 
and is consequently of greater specific gravity. The speoimf! 
found do not contain lithomargic earth, nor so much quartz 
Malabdr rock ; the tubular sinuosities like those of the Mi 
variety, are frequently lined with an ochroous earth arising frc^rn^ 
decomposition of quartz and felspar and tinged of varioas shades 
brown and yellow by the oxide of iron ; tbio earth forms a comi 
paste cementing the component parts of the rock and ii 
respect exactly resembles portions of the Malabdr It 
It is not so soft interiorly. The more compact parts of the 
forming the coating of the tabular cavities become naaj 
under the blow-pipe and turn to a dark-gray slag. All 
lateritic hills rise above the low trap elevations amid which tb< 
sitnated, and are the only hills of any height for miles az 
This is the result of the wearing of the subjacent trap, the b< 
laterite being once probably continuous over its surface, 
trap is seen in the valleys and streams at their base on which 
lateritic rock rests in tabular horizontal masses. A ailit 
porphyritic rock, having cavities lined with minute brown crj 
IS associated with this rock and is found in loose blocks offl 
surface. The imbedding paste is a light coloured liighly induiui 
jaspideous clay. Under the blow-pipe the crystals lose 
colouring matter, and fuse with carbonate of soda into a 

There is an outlier of the Deccan iron -clay in the shape of] 
small capping to the trap on the top of the Nilgarbetta hi] 
The iron-clay rests conformably on the horizontal flows of the Decc 
trap. This capping of iron- clay is about 200 yards long and; 
mdely elliptical in plane. It is of deep yellowish brown and : 
more compact than the ordinary Sahyadri iron clay. The textc 
also is more porcelain-like ; in some parts it is almost jaspery, 
others earthy and dull. There is no trace of any organism 



r, bnt in several places it shows polished parallel markings on 
srent exposed surfaces. Another patch of compact iron-clay lies 
it a mile south of Biintdnar, seren miles north-east of Talikoti. 
jkumerous blockii of a more typical iron-clay conglomerate of the 
leep brownish red occur on the same level as and mixed with 
>U3 blocks of whitish chert. The iron-clay blocks of from two 
tons weight are of worm-like structure. The knoll occupied 
tliia mixture of blocks is of small size, hardly more than an aero 
Beyond the limits of the trap area are two outliers of iron-clay 
}ll were probably at one time connected with the trap series. 
thest.- outliers one is near Bellegunti, three miles south-west of 
in Ulid^mi, and the other forms a very marked truncated cono 
caps a quartzite plateau five miles south-east of Kerur. Two 
liers resting on trap occur a milo south-east of Batkurki. In 
oaita of Hnlikeri hill, south-east of Kerur, the iron-clay is a very 
stiy vertically tubulated variety, bat both the Bellengunti 
itkarki patches consist ,of vesical and vermicularly tubulated 

>ug the Inter tertiary and recentalluvial depositsare sedimentary 

I whose constitution and position seem to show that they are 

" IB of ancient fresh-water lakes. Few observers cross the 

kUey from Amingad past B^galkot to Kalddgi without being 

by the idea that it mast have been a lake before the rivers 

It their beds t(» their present depth. An examination of the 

the aediraentary iron-clay which occupies a great part 

florfaoe of this old valley supports this lake theory, and 

theory also accounts for the peculiar; position of the old iron- 

" ' ig mnd banks at which the iron-clay was deposited. The 

whi'nce the whole or most of the iron-bearing mud waa 

)od lie close at hand in the vast beds of haematite and 

»atiti'* cilirixns schist of the gneiss area. A minor supply would 

pT' _(i from some of the conglomerate beds of the 

la ;_ i<--h are mainly composed of the remains of the great 

fmatite bods. Yet another source of iron Hot much inferior in 

'■-■■■ to those in the gneiss is found in the hsematitic jaspery 

it belong to the Kaladgi series, and occur in the hill ridgo 

ci iiilgi- Another source of the iron in the laterite is in the 

trikp, which in many parts contains numerous grains of 

Btite. The greatest development of the laterite occurs at the 

^of the valley, where the iron beds of the gneiss overhung 

of the supposed lake, or rose as islands from its surface. 

Iterito shows also in the central part, on both sides 

tbv riror^ near the Anagvddi ford over the Ghatprabha. This 

' ' ' ' serves to explain the rounded water- worn fringe 

i-'PtH along the southern base of the Lower Kaladgi 

' ilkot and a similar fragment of fringe noticed 

111 ' . to the south-east, on the south" side of the 

led lake basin. ITio banks of iron-bearing mud which afterwards 

jfd the laterite character wore deposited upon this marginal 

logo of coarse quart/.ite shingle. The extent of the old lake 

irs to have been cousidenible, but its limits cannot bo precisely 

owing to the presence of open>air latehtio rocksj as well as ol 

Chapter I. 

CIeolooy. I 
Deccan Tt 

Later Tortia 


Lake FormatioM 




kapter I. 

ar Tertiary 

1 FormaUont. 

immcnso spreads of cotton soil over great part of the "KmM 
limeBtono biisin. Its eastern shore was probably the odgfe of { 
basin formed by the apraiaed lower quartzites of the dip-movtin^lj 
synclinal valley east of the Malprabha. The continuat.ioo yfl" 
■orthera side of that dip-meetiug line formed the uorthoro boonij 
of the central part as far as Anagvadi, where the quartzites trend] 
the east, and here the lake probably had a great arm stretcl ' 
far as the eastern base of the Sita Dongar hills. For five miU 
of Sirnr itself the southern boundary was formed by the Sii 
and then trended north along the line of the hills that for 
north side of the Shimag'eri dip-meeting valley. It is d< 
whether the lake spread within the area of the dip-meeting 
probably it did not. West of KaMdgi the limit of the 
basin is very doubtful, though it most likely included the later 
knolls for a couple of miles south of the cantonment. Still furtt 
west the lake may have reached as far as Ohattarbnnd Knto, i 
miles west of Kaladgi. At Baduur and Bantur a thick 
laterite gravel with numerous fragments and chips of qui 
covers a wide area at a level much above the Ghatprabha 
This bed is also in part conglomeratic. 

The Kalddg^ laterite or sedimentary iron-clay rests on a r« 
uneven limestone surface and is of various thickuosa. South of. 
cantonment near the cemetery it is a very compact rock, encl 
considerable fragmouts of quartz. In the section shown in 
well, thirty to forty feet or impure earthy laterite or gravel 
exposed. Hut it is doubtful whether this is not of much 
origin than the conglomcjute to the south and east of the town. 
few miles cast of Kaladgi a laterite conglomerate f - 
distinct terrace which abuts against the upper quartzite i i 
of Truchigeri. A similar conglomerate at about the suiuo 1 
forms an outlier on a shai-p-cut little hill north of the village, 
here rests on violet shales. Another patch of conglomerate of tl 
same character and in a similar position caps a small hill about o^ 
and a quarter miles north-west of AnagvAdi, on the north bankj 
the Ghatprabha. Here the laterite cannot bo less than si] 
eighty feet thick, and is exceedingly compact in texture, 8h< 
a very few worm or stick-like hollows. Fragments of quartzite" 
have apparently been weathered out of it lie on the surface, 
conglomeriite rests against the apex of the anticlinal or dip-parUd 
ellipse to the north of Anagvadi and stretches to Tumurmatti a(| 
corresponding level. It seems to have once been continuons 
the outliers that cap the Anagvddi and Truchigeri hills and 
with the Trnchigori terrace before mentioncJ. Where the later 
lies upon shelly beds, the latter have been affected to a couBiderat 
depth by the soaking of iron-laden water. 

In many parts of the valley tho surface is generully of a rich dec 
purple-brown, tho rock where bruken and crushed, as in the wbl 
tracks of aorao cross country roads, showing tho deep red streak I 
the nearly pure htcmatite. The massive laterite is often of extt ; when broken it shows a hsBmatitic sotting with mai 
angular grains of quartz enclosed, and presents an appearance as 
the old heematite of gneiss had been ground by surf to a perfe 



U. on drying, gathered round tbe grains of sand and 

— its present consistency. The surface of the laterite 

lo ehovrs worm-like hollows, btjfc to a leas extent than the 

flomeratio coast laterite. Much of the laterite occurs as gravel • 

^various degrees of coarseness. This is sometimes pure, but 

contains rolled frag-ments of quartzite. In some cases t!\ie 

ion of qiiartzito pebbles become.s so large as nearly to hide 

Interito. In the centre ami west of the old lake valley either 

ir»)u mud was formed or it has since been more thoroughly 

away. Still well-marked patches of laterite remain in these 

of the valley. The outljnng laterite patches to the north-east 

Tarkal in the corner enclosed between the Ghatprabha, the 

and the 8ita Don gar hills seems also to have been formed 

jw water, probably in an arm of the largo lake. One section 

corner at Jeranknnli shows twenty to thirty foot of worm- 

floraeratic laterite exposed iu the village well. The rather 

lateritic conglomerate that occurs to the south-west of 

seems to mark the site of another shallow lake. This lako 

i«^r of similar character occupied the valley of the Banknari 

V to the wo.'?t. No organic remains have been found in any 

jppo.sed lake beds. But in spite of this strong objection 

shape of the country and the position of tho shingle and iron 

deposits favour the hypothesis, as they explain the presence 

lese deposits iu many places where they could not be referred 

p»'n-air rhauges of iron-bearing rocks, a.s, for example, where tho 

jrite rests directly on unaltered quartzite. 

A dark reddish-brown clay occurs frequently in the banks of tho 
ITiis red clay passes upward into the black regur-like 
triam. High lying gravels are often found along the banks of the 
slktia. A largo gravel and shingle bod consisting almost entirely 
luartzite occurs at (Jirgaon, sixteen miles north-east of Kaladgi. 
imiiar coaree qnartzite shingle bed shows a little to the east of 
inn. A doposit of quartzite shingle resting partly on the trap, 

Lly on tho gneissic rocks, occurs a little to the north-east of Baloti 

leiry on tho KalAdgi-Sholdpur road. A very largo quantity of 
irtzito and quart/ shingle covers tho slope of tho high ground 
n little ejvst of the Tangadgi ford at intervals as far oast as 
ipur. Cementation of the pravels into true conglomerates by 
nato of lime takes placo on n large scale in tho 
he I at Bnllur, six miles north-west of Bilgi. This 

\octA alluvial conglomerate is overlaid by a thirty feet thick clayey 
aw chietly voosisting of re-deposited black soil. A similar 
rlomerate in the Don riv^er below Talikoti and still lower down 
' 'irs pebbles of tho Ttllikoti limestone. Another 
iierate formed in a river-bod by cementation of 
with iron-clay is seen a littlo below the ford over 
• Anagvildi. Great beds of gravelly limestone 
111 ML''' and a few well -shaped clipped and large-sized 
oLciii at Knira on tho left bank of the Malprabha 
K-eaflt of Baddmi, at the place three miles south of the 
'i.iUa and tho Malphrabha and between II ira 
ut twenty miles above Kaira. 
• 4*77 7 


lAter Terti 
'.li*- Fori 


[BomlHiy I 



Ipter I. 



North of the basement quartzite ridge noTth-weet of Kaira 
between Somankop and Cbamankatti red lateritic subsoil, mt 
likely in part of open-air and in part of lake origin, is fxpostdj 
Gravel beds of lake or river origin occur at Tolanmatti, ' 
mjles north-east of Kaltldgi. These gravel beds consist of <| 
pebbles and yield clipped stone tools occurring in place and iml 
about three feet below the surface. 

Of the Bub-aerial formations due to the reproductive act 
atmospheric agencies there are deposits cemented together by 
chemical precipitation of calcareous matters and tufas. Of cnlcAreoc 
tufa formations two classes occur, the first in which the tufa fonn«| 
soli d mas ses 6F" rock, and the second in which the calcareons 
matter occurs in detached gravol -liko njodules. An example 
the first class occurs a little soiilh of Bifnshankari two and a bklf 
miles Bonth-east of Baddmi. An area of several acres is here cr>vo 
with large irregular masses of a perfectly concretionary t' 
limestone unlike anything belonging to tbe older limcsi 
the district. No section is seen showing the relation of this 
the underlying rock, but it very likely covers a thin bed of '•''»■ 
shale snch as occurs further west or from which the cu 
matter was brought down by the streams. Of the second < : 
tufaceous deposits an accumulation of limestone gravel lyiru 
the Deccan trap occurs on the high ground six miles north-ea 
Muddebihal and covoi-s a large stretch of ground. The limc-n( 
are pale red and form banks of unconsolidated gravel. 

There are very few of the rain aggregations which . 
uncommon in the hill country to the wests In some places, c ■^ 
to the north and west of Baddmi, large tracts are covere*! wil 
almost pure sand. _ _ 

As in Belgaum the two leading varieties of soil are tbo rod, 
directly decomposed trap, and the black, decomposed trap sandstor 
and gneiss mixed with organic matter. There are also the pane 
mentioned above and a half sandy soil pale di*ab or oli\ 
formed of decomposed basalt. This form of weatheriiiL: 
almost as characteristic of basaltic rocks in the eastern plains 
iron-clay weathering in the western hills. Of exceptional soils, soc 
and potash soils arc rare. Jjarge quantities of alkaline salts occur 
in other soils, es}x>cially in black soil. The most marked instn!j(<! 
of these s alt soils i-s the valley of the Don whose water is so .-al? 
as to be almost undrinkablo during the hot weather. The la;-:e 
stream which Hows into the Don from the north-east at Tjilikon is 
even more brackish and parts of its bed when dry are crn-sied 
with a thick layer of impure salt. The source of the salt must h^^ 
deep-seated for the soil which fills the main part of the valley ii 
famous for it-s richness. 



JThe variety of its strata, which gives so much interest to the 
of Bij^pur, makes the district rank high in mineral wealth. 

. Jd is said to have been formerly found in the Malpraliha, but 
sand of the river-bed is now nowhere washed. 

Umx Kajfl<loni, four miles south-west of Kalildgi, are traces of 
It is not known whether the ore is plentiful enough to 

ore is found in various parts of the district south of tlie 
kna. Sixty years ago (1820) there was a small manufacture 
>n at the village of AMgal, about four miles north of Bjlddmi. 
I or© WAS found about four miles from the furnace at the base of a 
>f sandstone hills. It was a greasy hasmatite, somewhat the 
*of iron rust, with a pui'plish tinge, soiling the fingers, and 
10 a red chalk-like mark on paper. • In a little hut close to the 
, in the fonn of Shiv's bull, was a rude stone image of Basav, 
founder of the Lingjlyat religion and the guardian of iron- 
Iters. Before each melting the image was worshipped by the 
Wiiclcsiuith. The furnace consisted of a clay cliimney with a 
;)od mouth, the height being about four feet and the 
lameter about eighteen inches. The lower part of the 
•a the Imse to the bottom of the chixnney was the place 
.• I IP- burning went on. the solid part at the back, which looked 
like* a flat oven, being nothing more than a buttress or at times a 
III.' ftirles of the chimney to have been three inches 
of the furnace must have been about one foot, 
[ti lew mcbes al>ove the base, was an opening for a bed of 

no. . charcoal, kneaded with a little clay, which was put on the 

floor to receive the melted metal, and a small portion of lighted fuel 
«rai« placed at the opening.- Just above the oponing was Uie nozzle 



' The ninenU ■eotion >■ contribnted by Mr. R. B. Joyner, Exeoatire Kngineer for 
Icrintioii, itelgfttun ond Dhdrwdr. 

*The proccaa of Biftinfi; tbe cbarcoal wu cariou*Iy primitive. la tlic middle of m 
[Miow, are nr - ' ' ' ' -. was placed n cylindrical atuno about a foot high 

[Midaawlyai inled top. Tilt! cbaroaal was beatun in the outer 

koltii»"iil ^ w»« taken mi in duublo hjuidfuh and allowed t<i 

I no ■ .uo. The finer mrts either rcniaiui?d on the stone, or fell 

I,, . Lho coaner rolled to a greater distance and were taken up 

[r^waicu. TliLi was ooAtiuucd until there was u muob powder as wm wauted. 
r« Bdgaam, 148. 

tBoiubay Qazeiteeu 



of the bellows.^ This was a clay cone into which entered two U 
pipes each leading from an air-bag or bellows formed of a %ui 
hide and lying on a platform about the saine height as the oj 
When the aperture was properly fixed the opening was cai 
aiid rather neatly closed by clay tempered with powdered chi 
A little above the base of the fnrnace, also closed by clay 
charcoal, was a Bmall side opening for the escape of ashes, bnt 
the metal fell to tlie lottom, From the top of the chimney thj 
whole cavity was filled to the brim with charcoal, the belloi 
at the same time beginning to blow. Powdered ore was throi 
small shovelfuls on the top of the charcoal, and sank throuj 
seams. Twelve shovelfuls weighing ncai'ly ten pounds form< 
first load. Over the ore charcoal was again heaped, and in a 
time, as the heat increased, a smoke, apparently inflammable 
expelled from the ore, appeared at the top of the pile. Tlie smc 
was lighted and remained burning during the whole of tli© _ 
A>s the charcoal sank in the chimney more charcoal was throi 
and more ore was sprinkled on it. The whole load of the f umacel 
one working, which lasted from eight in the morning until 
thi-ee[in the afternoon, was alxiut fifty or sixty shovels wei 
forty-two to fifty pounds. The charcoal was about twenty 
baskets, each basket containing about one-third of a bushel, 
the process was about one-thii'd over, the hole for the melted 
was opened and a few pounds flowed out. It was again closeC 
this was repeated three times in the course of the working, 
front of the fiie was also frequently stirred by thrusting a 
poker through the clay immediately al>ove the nozzle of the bt 
and, towards the end of the melting, this poker was used to tesl 
state of the metal. When the blacksmith thought it .sufficientlj 
reduced, the front of the furnace was opened, and the of 
wjis drawn out by an immense pair of iron ton^s, in which it 
dragged into the air and for some time beaten hai'd with two dul 
to free it from cinder. Before cooling it was cut into two pic 
with axes as it was more easily forged in half than whole, 
were two snieltings in the twenty-four hours, one in the day 
the other at night. The workmen who were not immediately eng 
slept near the furnace. All the workmen were husl>andmen 
made iron during only four mouths of the year. Fifteen pout 
(A man) of iron worth al>out 48. (Rs. 2) was reckoned a 
outturn for one smelting. The furnace-clcainng was taken in 
by each of twenty partners, the blacksmith having a double sUj 

' The bellows were by far the best part of the apparatus. Each bag was a bafiald 
hi<le, whole, ami very well preparea ; the four leg holca were closed and into 
neck hole wna thrust from the inside a conical iron pipe, the broader part of wl 
eutiri'Iy filled the hole. The hinder part of the mc was open and its ed^^ 
straight, one of them overlnpping the other two or three inches. A leather 
fastened to the up[>cr part of the b&a was tied round the blower's rijjht arm, wt 
ho altcniately raieed and dcprcSBcd to admit the nir by the opeciiif;, or expel 
through the tube, while with the left ho kept tlio baa steady. As one of the blowi 
raised his arm when tlie other lowered hia, a tolerably constant stream of air 
blown into the furnace. The two pipes were kept ia their proper place by -J 
6ttod tightly into two iron rings at the opposite ends of a short iron bar. 
fiel^uin, 148. 

urector of the work and owner of the tools. Eight men wei-e 
loyed in the woods making charcoal, four were stationed at the 
r^ where they relieved each other by pairs, others made rea<]y 
"" for stopping the holes, others pounded and sifted the 
or fed the furnace with charcoal and ore. The ore wiis 
lisl by the man whose turn it was to have the profits of the 
fi|tt. The only labourer who was paid in cash waa a woman 
^Bonded the ore on a flat stone with an iron pestle. The 
^^Mprged on the spot into common field tools, chiefly hoea, 
^^^m^d small ploughshares.^ 

rSTJIrim ore was, and to a limited extent ia still (1883)smelted at 

r, twelve inllea. and at Jainmatti, six miles north of Kalddgi, 

occurs as silicious red haematite schist ; at Sidanhal, about 

liles south-west of Hungund, on the right bank of the 

la. the ore being brought from the great hjematite beds west 

Igad ; at Haligcri and Righdpur in Bilddmi, the ore lieing 

" from red and brown hematite beds ; and at Benkanvddi 

the Malprabha about thirteen miles south-west of Hungund, 

If 1 king chosen by a blacksmith at the mine and brought about 

t lora a hematite bed on the top of a hill between Amin- 

u'i utimthal. The ore smelted at Siddtlpur, Jainmatti, and 

la] is dusty, flakey, coarse in gi'ain, and ot poor fjuality. The 

furnace is made of red clay ; and at Sidanhal, where the 

A, the chimney is in several places hooped with iron. The 

18 worked with a double skin-bellows with yoked iron 

les passing into a clay nozzle or tuyere which enters a trituigular 

in one of the sides. The daily outtujn of two furnace clearings 

turty-six pounds (12 vtW) which is reduced to thirty after 

cinaer is hammered out. At Haligeri and Rdghdpur the 

ting process is different. The raw ore is broken into small 

ia and put into an eartheii crucible with charcoal, limestone. 

fuel l'ir«3 is applied, and, when the mass has l>een well heated, 

t^a arc worked to help to separate the metal from the alloy. 

he end of the process the iron is found in a lump at the bottom 

icible. Iron made in this way Ls very malleable and can 

into sliape even when cold. If a husbandman wants a 

)1 he employs the blacksmith, pajnng him in grain and 

Jhim ]>y gathering fuel and ore. The cost of making thirty 

fof iron is alx)ut IS*. 3d. (Rs. C4)? It is softer and tougher 

jign iron, lasts longer, and is better suited for field tools. 

ime time as it is aViont 2d. the pound dearer than foreign 

is never able to command much sale. Since the 1877 

So the smelting industry has almost ceased. With cheap fuel 

' ' ar Benkanvadi are rich enough to pay, but since 1870 dtity has raised the price of fuel and all but put a 

^^tbe smelting. In spite of their high price some "' *^'" 





of the 

anhiOl'a B«lg»uin, 147- U9. 

I* lUUila lire : Two bellowsmeD. M. (6 (M.) ; one fireman, 44rf. (3 eu.) ; one man 
LViiacn hreakingore, lOJrf- (7 <«,) : bl*ck*mith, 2«. (Re. I) ; 3210 cubic foot 
*, t*. {^t. 3J : 1-68 cubic foot of iron ore, U. (8 at.) ; and aix men for hammer 
(R«. 1) ; toUl 13j. M. (R8.6|). Mi. H. F. Silcock, OS. 

fBombay 6azl 




Benkanvi/li tools are still in demand at the yearly B&ns 
fair. Iron ore is also found in the hills near SLnir. 

There are some laterite or ii-on-clay hills at Ingleshviw, Mu 
and Masvinhal in Bdgcvddi, and at Belkandi and Batkurki 
Bdddmi ; but these are not worked at present. The same fo 
is found to a SDmll extent at NAgarlwtta. Bantdnur, and Nacail 
in Muddebihdl, while near Bijdpur heavy iron-stone gravek 
conglomerates occur. 

The various granitoid rocks in the south-east of the di.striciy 
locally known as chinchkal, on account of the cost of working 
are little used except for lintels and slabs. At Bilgi, twelve 
north of Bdgalkot, a beautiful granite is qn 
equal in appearance to the best Aljerdeen or Mount Sorrel _ 
Tlie rough slal>s are quarried by Vadars who crack the bl ' 
burning fuel over them or by chiselling a line of holes and dn 
wedges. They then separate the blocks with the help of levers, 
rough .slabs are dressed by a class of men called Sangtards. R" 
squared slabs about eight feet long and two feet \vide can 
on the spot at 4*. to 6«. (Rs. 2-3). Near NiUatvild in Mud 
and elsewhere a syenite is found, from which .slabs twelve f i ■ 
and two and lialf feet wide can be cut. These fetch alx>ut U#. 
(Rs. 3), but, though of good quality, they are not much used as a 
softer stone is found in the neighbourhood. The softer gncissic rocks 
are often used by villagers in their rough stone and mud walling. 
Heeraatite schist, though the best stone for roads, is a bad building 
stone as it does not take mortar well and cannot be given mucl V 
Still it is very durable anAis the only building stone at Hi. 
The price of fair-sized rubble is 7s. to 8». (Rs. 3^-4) the hmidreJ 
cubic feet. Dark green chlorite scbist has been used in a new 
school -house at Njllatvild in Muddcbibdl and makes a good workable 
stone. The extremely beautiful granites and kindred rocks of greAt 
variety of colour and capable of taking a high polish will find a 
market when the district is opened by roads and railways. 

In old times these granitoid rocks were much used for forta onJ^ 
temples. Many Jain temples, where the stone must have heett 
carried for miles, have single stone coliunns,often beautifully cut,«nd 
large lintels and slabs of gray and rose granite. These old granite 

{)illars are often seen built into modem fort- walls and u.sed as gat^ 
intels. A notalile instance occurs in Bij^pur, thirty miles front ^^ 
ncai-cst part of the granite region, where there are hundreds o^ 
ornamental granite pillars either in old Hindu temples or worked into 
mosques or Musalman mansions. One more or leas dull gray guei 
does not stand transverse strains on exposure; and the surface 
of some micaceous schistose stones rapidly peals. With these 
exceptions the granites in the old buildings are as sharp-edged 
wlien they were tooled 800 to COO years ago. 

Tlie dioritic greenstone, hasarka kallu, apparently cut from th6i 
dykes which occur in the granite, has been made into lings whoso 
high polish has for centuries remained undimmed. In Bij^pnr 
the same stone has been used for grave stones, and, though exposed 
to the weather for the last 200 years, is often as sharp-edged and, 



>us as if it had just left the stonemaaon's yard. In the ruins 
lij^pur are many large cubical blocks of almost pure quartz 
two or three highly polished faces. 

rocks occur in Bdgalkot where they soem to be chiefly 

^... , ...acioua limestone ; a Bmall patch crosses the Krislinanortji 

tijtipur , in Badduii they hold a largo area aud stretch into 

Eh-weHt Hungund ; and in Muddebihal they form an irregular 

li parsing through the towus of Muddebihiil and Talikoti. In 

uni. Hungund, and Muddebihal they are crystalline sandstone 

A»r than limestone. The nuartzites are generally pinkyor salmon- 

litbured, though often gray, whitish, white and green, butt" pearly, 

v^axy. They are very beautiful, but excessively hard and tough. 

[hey are diftictilt to quarry and tool, and are used generally in the 

I, cbiody in the fnnn of slabs whicli are taken out by wedges 

'levers. One of the 1x!st (juarries, near Bilgi in Bdgalkot, yields 

up to ten feet long. The following is the table of prices : 

BjLaiQvj.RTy.iTE, 1SS.1, 






Breotlth I>eptb, 









































8la1>s are used for lintels, drains, temples, and wells, and 

able in bear a great tran.sverse strain. At Bilgi is an ancient<iue pillar or darnhha of a beautiful pinkish qnartzite which 

irefully tooled throughout. It is thirty-five feet high 

. eighteen inches square at the Some temples in 

i« neighixiurhood of Bilgi are also made of i|uartzite bi^autifuUy 

ilctl. A fuw specimens of the stone may be found in the Bijapur 

\\a» probably taken from old temples. 

' " Istones of a quartzite nature, which may 

)iie grits and conglomerates, arc often not 
I I'rum the rest of the .sandstone series which are 
... : . .3 crj'stalline and which they underlie. They varj' 
lin colour from white and yellowish white to red, i-eddish brown, 
- ^ T Trplish black, drab, an«l dark gray. In Muddebihal they 
d at Basarkhod, Belanturkanti, GudiAl, Jakerjil, Jam- 
il, tvavditn.-itti, Mtichgill, Muddebihal, MurAl, Shirulgud<l, and 
lit ht BAditmi. at Badsimi, Guledgud<l, JflliluU, and Korur ; 
t. at Sinir and Vanhnli ; and in Hungund at Aiholi. 
J ...led by a class of Vat lais culled Bhan<li Vadars, and by 
lAnothcr clas.s of Vadars called Kalkatakarus, and by ordinary masons 

Tor T' " ritH is dressed into qucnis or ehikiti, rollers, and trough* 

[G' can without much difficulty t>e cut from wx to eight 

fc. ' f ^vo f.M-t broad. fetch 1*. 4^d. to Gs. (Re.|^-3) 

J in iiibdl quarrie,s, aud rubble fetches 4r8. to 4«. Od, 

Nb». 2-2ii the hundred cubic feet. Guledgudd slabs, eighteen 
itfliM broad, hii\e a great local name and fetch the following 
||ionua] prices: 

It . 

Chapter II 






6FZjncc«a &AS»noMK. tiiS. 

U^ M>^ 


* l-«fc 




i-7 t-» 


9^ I l.*i^ 

f ?-u 1 « 
V5 :i 7j 

to fourteen f e«t long aod ten to f oartoen 
luid wide can Vje hail for 18^ to 2a«. (Rs. 9-1" 
for 5#. (Ra. 21) the hundred cubic fe^. Th" str.i 
lodem buildings as roogh rabble and slal- 
^•t Moddeblh^ and at a Tew other places & 
old time!) it was much used for fort^valls ^. 
of ^uiidebih&l, Basorkbotl.and Keror.and ... ■■ .. 

land PatAdkal it shVwis no sijnis of d«cay. It ha^ also 

')e large wfaeeh of the t ' li cars attached to ttie oi 

ltefnti'le& Many of tbcs*? ^ ndy dres«»d and five to sev( 

in aiameter, are each cut out of one neoos 

crystalline sandstone querns, troughs, and ■: nts httv&l 

itXMsn celebrated. Lately, especially in the quarries near Mitddi 
firtt-cloM road-rollers have l«een made, costing "^"^ *^^ 
(K«,15-30) according to size and finish. The Mn<l<l 
cost at the cmarry Is. to 6*. (Rs. ^-S) according to size 
8*. to £1 (Rs. 4-10). The Badanii ♦^u^'-rns ranjsfe 
following prices: 4J(i. (2| aa.) for a -' 
'!#. (8 ai.) for a stone twelve inches in 

»tont; eighteen inches in diameter, and 4*. ^lia. 2) for a stone twol 
in dittinet«.?r. In 1879 recfftnguJar troughs four feet long tw< 
broad and eighteen inches deep sold for 1 2*. (Ea. 6) , 
troughs ten feet long three feet bro«d and twelve inches 
£1 -im. (Rs. 12); circular troughs with a diaiueter of one ai, 
rfeet and one foot deep for 2.'(. (Re. 1), and circular troughs wiUi 
lianiet<.;r of three feet and two feet deep for 7«. (Rs. 3^). 

liany of these articles are also made of ordinary sandstone, 
lline sandstone is more often full of joints and b'"-'-' 
tiKHures, which make the quarrying of 'it comimratively ■ 
except large blocks, the sione-s can be separateA without iiusl 
For this reason the ordinary rubble made from it is cheap. 

The more onlinary saudstones are found chieHy in Badanti. 
nl.'«o cross the Malprabba in the east into Hungund at Aiholi, ai 
in parts of Bagalkot. form an isolated patch noi-tli of the Krisli 
Mamdapur in Bijdpur, and occur to a certain extent iu Mudde _ 
In BiuJdmi tliis sandstone forms large tabular hills, often l>ouuded 
perpendicular scarps 200 to 300 feet high. Tlie rocks vary iu tej 
iroiii fine-grained truly crj'stalline to shaley coarse and loose-gn 
or gritty. The colour is often a fine red, but ofteuer perlu 
whitish or yellowish red and butf chang^g to niid all 
purple, very often in bands of ditlerent colours, and occnsi< ; 
Ntripcs of purple and white like a zebra. Some of the v.i, .^ 
especially at Ciuledgutid in Ba<liimi and at Aiholi, Hanamsdgnril 
fluiidur in Hungund, arc most excellent building stone and 
been greatly used in old Jain temples. Especially at Sirur 



Ikot, at Bttddmi and Pita<1kal in B^<.1^mi, at Aiholi aud Hungund 
rutnl, attd in BijApur. the MiusaliuAns have used many well 
tuteU and janiljs. The temples at Ailioli and Piitadkal, in 
liar, arc very richly carved, some of the friezes, figures, and 
ings bein}:j most admirable specimens of work, and, thouglj 
of them arc over 1200 years old, often as clean cut as wh<Mi 

Chapter j 

»e curious old fort at Bdddmi and many other village fortifications 

built uf tills atone, and in the well-known Bnihnianic (a.d. 

and .Tiiin (a.d. <ai^t\)) caves at Bad^uii the canings are cleai' and 

. i^d, though more than 1200 years old. Samples at Gudur 

ii miles south-west of Hunguud, and at Parvati about 

i miles north of Bdddmi are considered byMr. Foote thorouglily 

for the large millstones used in first-class mills. This 

ne and the sandstone shales are also used for grind.stones. 

l-sharpening whittles, and for oil-mills and oil-niortars. 

le inibble is used by the natives for their onlinary buililings 

at Oule<igu<ld Viy the German Mission who have lately built a 

-'I and mission house. It can be supplied at 4*. to ()». 

le hmidred cubic feet. Near Muddebihal is a bed of 

bieh might be cut and sold for loaf-sugar without the 

: detected except by taste. 

Ai Bilkop, about six miles south-west of BAdami, a red clayey 
)iie, locally known as aahdn, is dug from caves of some depth 
sold in small nmml pieces varying in diameter from two inches 
foot or a foot an<l a half and selling at Sd. to 1<«. a piece (2-8 n».) 
Uii^'d for grinding sandal antl othei' sweet-scented woods into 

IS are very interentiug and, like the other rocks, 
id appurently confused in position. Roughly they form 
ban<l thiit runs north-east about sixty miles from KalAtlgi 
...lilt's frimtitratTdlikoti and Salvargi in Muddebihal with 
r. between Muddebihal and the Krishna river, this being 
iiivlHion bt'tweien tba limestones of what geologists call the 
series and tln' KalAdgi series. These rocks are somewhat 
to classify as they varj' from almost pure quartzites to 
iTir^ cnrbonates of lime, ami thence, through a somewhat 
. back to impure and clayey limestones. The greatest 
!oa is in Btigalkot. Limestones also occur in north and 
Biiddmi, and a small patch is seen in Bilgevjldi just 
r liie Krishna. In Muddebihal they again occur under the 
.me of Tiilikoti limestone, which is perhaps better known as 
id litni'stone. Furtlier north a small patch enters east 
frini the Ni/Am's dominions. They vary much in texture 
Near KalAdgi and Bdgalkot the rocks are massive 
..Uerent shades of gray deepening into l»lue and almost 
<iccaflionalIy with blacK and green or even pink and green 
UuuU, and again passing from white to greon and from pink to 



' ycrgiiiwoik'* lofliAn »nA KMt«ni Architecture, 218. 

{Bombay Oaietteer.] 



ipter II. 

brown. They take a high ix)lish and chemical analysis ho^ shof 
them to \>e true Jiiarbles.' Though tliey are useful for hui! 
would c»Ttainly rnnk high aw ilecorative stoneH, neither in 
nor in modern times have they been used either in plain 
©rnamentttl work. The Collector's office at KalAdgi is almc 
only building in which they have been ased. The price of rul 
from G». to 0*. (Rs. 3- 4 J) the hundred cubic feet. The stone is bl 
when a pure lime in wanted for whitewashing. 

The Tdlikoti limestones locally called shedikal are in finer laj 
from one to fourteen inches thick. They are verj- llakey near 
surface and vary in colour from <leep blue to jmle buff aiul ci 
creamy pink, or purple. They have been apoken of &s lithof^ 
limestones.^ But search has lately l.>eeu and is now being 
lioth at Talikoti and near Bigidkot without timling any «!> 
jsoft and bibulous enough for lithographing. Some specimens, k 
called kaUiavliihtUn or lichen stone, found in the bed of the 
on being split, show most beautiful black markings of sea- 
exactly like the so-called of agates.*'' Be.side.s at Tillil 
limestone is found chietiy at Tumbgi and Menujgi in Muddebihi 
at Kalkeri in Sindgi and other villages in the neighbourhoc 
is easily ijuarried and is often worked by ordinary labourers, a* 1 
only requii'es cutting out and breaking into size by heavy hammeii 
called aittlciJi. It is dressed with broad-headed chisels and liiibl 
hammers. It is brittle, breaking with a conchoidal fracture, ai ' 
ill-.suited to carry weight. The price of the stone on the spot i 
to <5*. (lis. 2- 3) the hundred cubic feet. It isnuich used for ' 
the cream-colimred varieties being most prized close to th*' ^ 
The whole town of Ttllikoti. with its and perfect \\ 
are of this stone. Slab after slab can be built into a wall with hru 
any mortar. Hoas4is of this .stone are very uniform, the ditiVi 
rows of stones being perfectl}' even. In some Talikoti buiMi . 
difTerent coloured stones liave lu'en used with a very pleasinLT 't • 
The thin slabs are used for rcK>tii(gshop verandas or as pavin 
They also nmke very good house cisterns l>y joining six > 
cutting a hole in the up])ermost The onlj'- modem pul»lic building 
in which the stone luis been used is the school-house at T^ikoti. 

At Honludli in Sindgi, on the borders of the Nizam's territoi 
a massive blue-black limestone is found approaching a ntarble 
nature and appearance. The gi'ay and purple stones of Talikoti 
brought fifty miles to Bijapur for decorative purposes, and tua 
found in different ruins either as praying stones in the mosque 
as ornamental panels as in tlie face of the Mehtri Palace. 
Mehtri Palace, for the sake of the tints, the most clayey and 

' The (Ictftils are : Silica 2*69, ferric oxide 0*45, alunucA 0-37, c«rbonftte 
BiBgneMa &'84, and carbonate of lime 90*65. 

• Some flpccimens of the Tdlikoti limestone sent by Capt&ia Newbold {1842-II 
to the litbograpkic oatablishineut at Si. ThooiaB' Mount in Madnts were foQod I 
answer. Geological Paper» of Western Imlia. 'A2',i-'i24. 

* This doe* not swm to Imve attracted the attention of any of the geol-" 
bare visited the place. Except in one doubtful case in the sandstunii cl^ 
Mr. Bruce Foote obtAined no organic reniaiuti or tracen in the fihii 

Mr. R B. Jvyoer. 




Wort} choseij and have not stood well. The same beds at 
il>ad have been used for railway stations and buildings and 
tl fur along the line for platform paving and tiooring. 

! Tli« most riucient use of theKaladgi <iuurtzites was the manufacture 
"•d tstone tools, many 8peciuieu.s of which were found hy 
• >' and have li«?L'n gathered V)y Mr. R. B. Joyner frou; all 
uf the Bombay Karnatak. 

Occasionally associated with the limesLuiu.' me uxcelleut beds of 
ti clay slatey rock which is prized as a building stone. It is found 
' ikot, at Selikeri four niile.s. south-east of Kaladgi. 
or four miles suutli of Bdgalkot, and at a few 
jcr places. It is very hard an<l tough of a deep indigo black. 
op layers, lighter coloured slatey or hard .slniles, are used for 
Ig and paving and for writing slatea and pencils. The jstones 
>t liv blasting by the village people, not by Vadars, and. if for 
slates, they are split by mining bars and wedges. The 
and slates have lieen taken lotig distances the stone for the 
ipnr palace and for some buildinj^s, it is believed, in Belgaum, 
>r corner-stones in the modern buildings at Kaladgi. The slates 
iformerh" taken in large quantities to Belgaum, (Jtoa, and otiier 
but of late the demand has almo^t ceased. They are small, 
more than six inches square, and in rooting are generally 

ider a. covering of tiles. Their nominal price at the (juany is 

(Re. 10) the thousand. They areal.<» used as paving Hags. The 
massive stone makes good slates and rollers and takes a tine 
Large blocks have Ijcen used for temple pillars, images, and 
ion sTaha. To the excellent qiiaMty of the slate Is. due the 
.'stion of some of tlie ancient inscriptions ho fre<|Uentl\' found 
nth Bijdpur. Inscriptions are also found on s*indstone. 

18f3 at the .Sclikeri quarry a slab three to tive feet long and 
lieeu inches liroarl sold for -is. to n«. (Rs. 2-24) if two inches deep, 
to iif, (Rs. 2i - y) if four inches deej>, and for 7x. to 10*. 
IJ-5) if six inche.s deep. A slab eight to twelve feet long, ton 
broad, and ten inches deep sohl fur lUs. to £1 Us. (Ra9-14). 

hble Htou&s coat Hn. to Gs. (R.s. 2 h -3) the hundred cubic feet. At 

rki, three miles north of Kalddgi, is found a dark-blue hard 

' -r argillite called *(r«»'-/.'jM, which makes excellent hones 

ig razors and knives. It is found about eight feet below 

.ee covered by about twu feet of liard sluiles. From its tine 

_ the pieces, t'hough not too .small for hones, are never large. 

By were formerly' widely known and greatly prized. Of late the 

Bmand has fallen, much of the quarry is tilled with black soil, and 

are kept for sale only at one house in Kald^lgi town. Their 

ice Vttrie-s from dd. to Is. (4-8 Uf.)} 

i« trap rocks which cover more than four-Hfths of the di-strict 
ii of tho Krishna, as a rule, are argillaceous near Bijdpur 
id amygilaloid further south. Towards the soutli and soutli-east 

Chapter ! 


Stvtu! TooU. 

i.'Uii/ iilat 


lu » black cUy slate with ileticMte green haniln oocurriii^ 
iiiiumU A8 a very btiaatUul atoiwi fur decomtive {lurposen. 
awirs ul GculvgjcJ Survey of India., XII, 263. 

IBombay Oi 









the trap is nodular with concentric larninse surrountliug son 
nuclei of hard basalt which have not weathered to the surface nettrly 
so generally as in the rest of the Deccan. As elsewhere the frai 
and less crystalline basalt are risky stones to build with and she 
\^ very carefully chosen after long experience. It is not enc 
even to choose a quany, as the quality of the stone varies mu 
the same beds. Bijapur is a good example of the uneven qt 
of trap. In some buildings earthy trap.s have decayed into 
ruin, while in othens the more crystalline basalts, as in the intrU 
carvings of the Ibrahim Roza, remain &» fresh, and in the city 
as strong a.s when they wore cut. The Mu.salman.s did niUt 
preserve their buildings by and phister, but now thati 
but a few are left unprotected weathering and decay go on ; 
The price of the rubble at the quarry varies from 10^.9. to 
(Rs. 5 J -5|) the hundred cubic feet. At Bijdpur, where it i8 
from the ruiii!*, it costs only 4«. to 6i«. (Rs, 2-3^). The Bl 
Vadars with their heavy hammers break the basalt into slabs i 
large rultble. »Slabs two to foiu' feet long, nine inches to one 
wide, and six to nine inche.s thick can bo had for about 8*Z. (5|J 
a foot. The best places for slabs and quariT-stouea are at NifiiT 
Bobleshvar, and Hangcrgi in Bijapur ; at Horti, Mainhali, Arja 
Golsar, and Shirshadh in Indi ; at Jlangoli, Masvinhal.Nidgundi. 
Mulvdd in BAgevadi ; at Kiintnji in Muddebiluil ; and at Pa. 
Bobleshvar, and Yergal in Sindgi. Blocks four feet long, t)i 
broad, and one foot thick, can be found at prices varjnng from 2«. 
4s. (Rs. 1-2). At Shirshddh dressed stone.s, two feet nine inches u 
diameter and five feet thr<^e inches high, prepared aa oil-mills, can 
bought for £2 (R.s. 20) at the cjuarry. At Bobleshvar and Yergal,* 
troughs made by the Bhandi and Kalgotki Vadars can be bought nt 
12«, to 30». (Rs. (j-1.5) aceorrlirit: to .size. The green.stone ai 
basalt, used in the Bijapur building.? for slab.s, pillars, and d<!. 
were chiefly brought from the Krishna river where it occurs* in hi:.: 
boulders. Laterite caps hills north and north-east of BagevaJi 
and near Mangoli ; it is not used as a building stone. 

The lime ehieflj- used for mortar and plaster is the sui 
nodular and tufaceous concretion, comnionly known as /w 
ftnd in Kdnarose called barlt kallu or sinna kallu. It is foi 
throughout the di.strict in all soils. It generally has some and 
some cases has marked hydraulic properties. The cost at the pr 
varies according to the tlifficulty of getting it from 3<. to 9J 
(Rs. IJ -4^) the hundred cubic feet. Near the Bdnshankari tempi 
in Bdddmi a large unused tufaceous deposit is now being workf 
Calcareous conglomerates are often seen in river and stream be< 
tod in parts of Muddebih41 there are small hills of tufaceoB 

Sand for building purposes can be had in many streams'?! 
river-beds. As a rule it is not of very good quahty. In the fc. 
districts it is generally mixed with grains of Ume and pieces of soi 
trap, and in the sandstone districts it is of too fine a grain. In th, 
lai'ger rivers it is full of silt and dust. The price varies from \i 
Sfi. to 6s. (Rs. i - 3) the hundred cubic feet Coloured sands f<: 




kent&l purpuses anti scouring sand are found in the sandstone 

^" nre no good clay deposit? in Bijdpur suitable for bricks, 
and pots. Tiles ana burnt bricks are hardly ever made. 
' eial occasions by imported labour, and then the silt oi 
• ids is u.stxl. The potters occasionally turn their hands 
le Work, half-round tiles costing 8s. to 12s.(Ks.4-6) the thousancL 
»t bricks cost 12s. to £1 8». (Rs.6-14) the thousand according to 
and quality. Water pots and jars, holding six to eight gallons 
taiie from silt at many places and cost al.ioutSt/. (2 a*,) apiece. 
kUy excellent clay is brought from a place called Mulhdlli in 
tiz&m's counti-y, 

of the most curious features of the district is the river Don 
some of its tributaries, chietty the Little Don near Ukli in 
ra«li, tlie waters of which are more or less saliiie according 
season. Tliose who live on its banks in some cases become 
l^to drinking the water. Salt and saltpetre used to he made by 
»ratiou frr»m the water of the Don tind its salt tributary the 
Don near Uk\i in Bdgevadi, and remains of ancient salt-pans 
seen on the dams of many of the old reservoirs in the south 
le district, where, according to the local story, salt was made by 
' the earth. This was probably sedtpetre which Ls still made 
final, Kannoli, Kantoji, and many other places by a class 
Uppnrs. Saltpetre is sold at four to five pounds and salt at 
rht bo ten pounds the shilling (Rs.24-3 the nian of 12 s/ier*). 

Wliite, common yellow, and purple earths and shales, and the 
sr red bole are used for colouring. 

Af rinddankeri aliout seven miles east of Bagalkot beautiful 
iH of calcspar or raugoli-kallu are found, which, when 
d, is used by Brdhmans for strewing in their temples and 

if ri'i I 

thresholds of their houses. 

Airatt's, but not of a brilliant colour, are found chiefly in the 
ishna bed and at Hanrndpur, eight miles north-east of Bdddmi. 
lulphnr of poor quality is found in quantities in the ruins of 
>ur cita<iel. This was probably procured from the iron pyrites 
in the limestone beds in the Nizdm's dominions. Iron pyrites 
found at Tillikoti. but is not nmch used. Gravel for road 
^as a rule is not sold ; a heap 200' x 200' x 1' would cost about 
"^ [10). At Degnal, ten miles south-west of Indi, glas,s bangles 
in small cjuantities from old and imported glass, and sold 
twnitj' for a penny. 

Of 5757 squai-e miles, the whole area of the district, 245 or 42 
Ciiul have been set apart as forest land. On the 31st of Mai-ch 
tof the total forestarea 155 square nulcs were roser\'ed and ninety 
were protected forests. Except small ai-eas of grass- 
IxihhiU a.nd jamJihul in the bed of or near the bank of the 
• ■ 'i I iha, and tho Malprabha, the forest lands of the 
>or ..n the hills to tho south of the Krishna and 

ruen tiie Kn.sliim and Dhiirwdi-. They stretch east to the NizAm's 
and west to the petty states of Mudhol, Rdmdurg, Mxd 

Chapter IL 



Salt and NUrt, 

Colouring Elarth 


[Bombay Qj 



lapter II. 


Torgal. Thai till recent times these hill-siiles had an abimc 
of UKxlevately sizetl trees aiid HrewocMl is shouTi by < 
and decayed roots. The present harreuneys i^s due to th' 
of the people in dealing with forestw, ami to the drain which 
oil] iron-smelting industry must have caused The hills aboB 
KalAdgi and Bagalkot arc bare. North towards Bilgi. south- 
about BfUlami aii'l Gudur, and south-we-st towards Hnmdui 
Torgal, there is a large stretch of rough country more or lessee 
with scnib an<i such small trees as tlie dhtivda (M.) dludul 
Anogeissus latifolia, hiihava (M.) hnfcka! (K.) Cassia iistula, nim (1 
bevina or hevu (K.) Melia azaf-lirachta, thnburni (M.) halai (J 
Diospyros melanoxylon, khirlr (M.)hhoirda (K.) Acacia catechu./ 
(M.) mashvdla (K.) Chloroxylon swietinia, some armed and 
acacia.s, and numerous varieties of thorn bushes. The hills 
clotheil with wood and scrub are those of Bddilnd and Himgi 
Here man}* parts have nuich improved sine*; 1874^ when conservJ 
was enforced, and the bamlxx), which in 1870 was all but C3 " 
now makes a fair show on some of the liiU -sides. The BiJ&{ 
forest maj- be divided into two sections, scrub forests ami bdbhi 
Idlli Acacia arabica reserves. The scrub forests, scattered ovcrSS 
square miles, are composed chiefly of stunted nuiAhvi'iit Chloroxyloif 
swietenia, kahkai Cassia tistula, nlm Melia azadirachta, <u;d 
Cassia auriculata, hxdgal Dalbergia arborea, khoir Acacia c.'itechu, 
ippi Bassia latifolia, and jaune Grewia rothii. These forests at 
present are valuable only as firewood reserves ; wood required for 
minor building pui^oses and for field tools can also Ije obtained fr m 
the forests of Bjuhinii a^d from part of Hungraid. The /»//-■ 
reserves include the lands which yield bdbhvl, tiim, Ijamhoo, ., 
and bor. These Ho in isolated patches and togetl»er do n«H 
over more than six square miles. Almost all are covered \ 
both old and young trees grown artificially. Among the Wu . 
in this district tlie nim and bdbhul, which do not suffer from the 
attack.s of white ants, are considered very strong and are used ' ^ 
all classes as house beams, posts, ploughs, plougli-staves, cart-wli - 
and cart-staves, ami other field purposes, llie wood of i ' 
imuhvitlit, kakkai, hulgiil, and khair is used for poles. Large beui 
logs, scantlings, and planks of teak and blackwood, for 
buildings, are yearly brought from the Kilnara forests. As 
district is remarkably treeless, and as much has to Ije done 
improve the bare tracts no revenue return can be expected 
some years. The average yearly revenue during the five 
ending 1882-83 amoimted to £1237 (Rs. 12,370) ; and the chi 
incluoing the forest statT, seeds, nurseries, and plantation 

£908 (Rs. 9080) . The permanent forest staff includes a sub-aaai. , 

conservator on a monthly .salary of £15(R8. 150), his office clerlj 
and messenger a monthly charge of £2 4#. (Rs. 22), two forester 
on monthly salaries of £1 4«. (Rs. 12), and ten forest guards 
monthly pay of I8if. (Rs. 9), and nine on monthly pay of 12.s. (Rs. 6) 
the whole representing a yearly cost of £330 (Rs. 3300). Tlie pel 
manent stalT is supplemented by seventeen temporary guards at 
yearly cost of X130 (Ks, 1300). 




tept a f«!W strips of land along river-banks and the heada of 

irs where tht-re ai-e hdbhnl, Acacia arabica. reseiTea, and on 

lea of the uplands) south of Indi, where there are remnants 

hu. khair. Acacia catechu, north Bijapur is bare of timber.' 

i«les a Kprinkling of cocoa palm, tcwju (K.) miriel (M.), Cocrft 

ra, and pabuyra, t<Ui (K.) mad (M.j, Borassus HaU'lliFormis, 

ed in gardens, the chief liquor-yielding tree is the wiJd date 

t (M.) irhiilu (K.), Pliu^nix sylvestrLs. Oeciisiunally a few 

are plante<l in prepared holes, but, as a rule, the date grows 

on tlie banks of small rivers and in moist hollows. The tree 

to yield juice, the staple intoxicating dinnk of the district 

' known an hnuia, when it is six yeai-8 oKl, and continues to 

tt Is sixteen. When the time for tapping comes, in the early 

ng, a triangular liole is cut well into the tree at the base of the 

and an earthen put i.s fastened below the cut to receive the 

In the evening the pot is taken away and the tree in allowed 

day. On the third day a fre.nh cut is made and the 

I drawn. Thi.s alternate tapping and resting is carried 

ifor three or four inonth.H till all the juice has been drawn. The 

tlicD given two years' rest, when the .same i."* 

An average well-gn^wu liealthy tree yields, in one season, 

to ft hundred pounds of juice, which, when sold at ^iJ. 

the pound, bring.s 4m. 4irf. to 6;*. M. (Rs. S^^-^^). A.s the 

nothing t*") grow the Hurplus of is. to Is. 6d, (8-12 an.) 

tiiic the cost of drawing the juice, is clear profit. The 

I to liquor, which is yearly farmed, pelded to Govern- 

t in i - 1- - a revenue of £^iO.S4 (Ma. 30,840). Besides juice the 

d date yields loaves which are plaited into mats and baskets. 

f s found in the district north of the Krishna .some are 

J , ■<, .some in gartlens, and some along rnads. Besides 

ted along roads, the umngo, dmbn{ M. ) tndvn ( K. ),Mangifera 

id the tamarind, chinch (M.) hiinchi{K.), Tamanndus indica, 

d in groups round villages. The mango is planted when 

in fiandy .soiLs where it flounshes best. The value of the 

r an hvtuage tree, yieldiug 500 to 1000 mangoes, is about 

i-T. (Rs. lo), t^liough the price varies much according to quality. 

I the old town of Shahapur, four miles north of Bijapur, is a 

Ijrove, prol»ably grafts from Goa mangoes, brought during 

B c.f the Adil Shilhi kings (1489-lCSG) as their fruit both 

and l<M*k closely re.sendjles the Goa mango. TIjc produce 

Lgrown liealthy tamarind tree, varying according to age, 

havera;.;e, 144 pounds ((J mans) of the value of 8n. (Rs. 4). 

the trees wliioh are fairlv plentiful or are planted in private 

and sites parti<"nlarly designed for groves, there are the 

jdmbe Kugenia jaml)olana, the jujube bogri Zizy]jhus 

tl ' ruin bale sapientum, the woud-apple biilva 

rontn 'Mil, the sour lime, hull nirnhe Citriis bergamia, 

um guava, the n^.lll or the myntbalan tree 

pnpfij jpaj/pdi Carica papaya, the sandal woofl 


Chapter IL 



iuo tjrc- puiiioii n contribnted by Mr. H. F. Silcock, CS, 

iBomlMj OMflttBii^ 

Chapter II. 







fhrlitaii'lh Santalum album, and the monkey-bread tree haoboh or 
tjoraklftdi A-lan-onia diiritata. Of thes*? the monkey-bread tree^ 
witli it- hu;_'r stviii an-i ~hort branch^*, is a relic of Musahn^ 
supr'rinacy.- It i» u native of Africa and was brought by l^dk 
•r ffab-liis in tli*: ^vrvic- of Bijapur kings. It yields laig» 
lian^nir fruit and liu'lit porous woo-J used as floats by fishermeiL 
H'.'-idf.-s tli<: tamarind an<l man^o th*' chief road.side trees are the 
h^rv or Villi M*,-lia a;!adirachta. the Kark and leaves of which ue 
u.s'.-d Tri«di«;iriall y : tin.- i/7»/("/ or ?.'*^// Acacia arabica, from which 
tli«; ordinary jruni sold at \'}il. (4 a*. ) the pound is extracted ; the In^an 
inuU^.rry inn. hi i Morinda tiiictoria. from which a red dye isextracted; 
th<: wal. dhWi'd. Huriculata, the 1>ark of which is used in taniiiiig 
and the twi;r^ a-* a t<^j<n}i -brush : the dindal Conocarpus latifolia, 
wliich yields ;runi ; the nnile {K.) Ficus religiosa, and the hatfari (K.) 
Ficas infect^nia. (>f these the j>im and the b'ibhul are the mort 
common. They occur either healthy or stunte<l almost everywh«t 
throu;(hout tlie district. The h\hhal likes black soil and the ntm 
red soil. Both j^row successfully and reach a considerable nze if 
they are planttrd on the soil they like, regularly watered diirinff the 
fir-,t two year.-, k«'pt clean from weeds an«l other growth-choking ■ 
creepf;rs, and watched against depredators ofallkinds. 

-Thon^rh th'-re is no want of fod<ler. and though the climate it 
favonrabi'? for rearing animals, foreiLTi cattle are generally preferred 
to t}i<' loeal bleeds. The finest district-bred cattle are found in 
villa'_».'s Ixjrih'rinir the riwr Krishna where there is always an 
abundant ^'ij^plv of ;:<iod fresh water and excellent grazing. The 
only jfood market for catt?l<- is held weekly at Amingud, about eight 
mil«:s w<rHt of Hun^und, where cattle are brought for sale from 
parts of tin; NizJtm's territory an<l Dharwdr. 

Of Oxf-n the 1 S-i>-8:; retm-ns .show a total of 201,752 head. They 
are of fuin- kind.-.: Mudalshimi or eastern, Surati or Gujar&t, 
.Mj'ilvi fir Mjtiwa-bnd, and Deshi or local. The finest of thea^ 
tlie Mmlalshinii, eom<: from Bangalor, Belliiri Chitaldrug, and 
otln-r places in Madras. They stand aV>out five feet high, are veir 
larj.«- and niu-ieular, ajid are useful l)Oth for draught and as plough 
cattle. An ordinary pair costs about £15 (Rs. 150) and a line pair 
as m neb as 140 (Rs. 400). Surat and Malwa oxen sell for about 
£10 (lis. J 00; a ]»air or ncarlj' double the price of an ordinary 
jmir of country-bred animals. 

Of (-'ows tin.- total is returned at 104,948. Except that there are 
no .Mu<lalsliimi cows and tliat Malwa cows are rare, the cows are of 
the .sam<: brei-ds as tin.' oxen. Both the Miilwa and Surat cows are 
considered superior to the cows ; they are much larger and 
stronj^t-r and {^i vt- <loubl«; the quantity of milk. A pair of Surat cow« 
eo.sts .£5 to 115 (Rs. 50-150), while the price of an ordinary pair (rf 
tins cf»mmon district bree<l is not more than £3 (Rs. 30) and a pair 
of Malwa cows can Iwi ha<l for l)etAveen £3 and £5 (Rs. 30-o0)i 

> One of thrao tri-CH in tho centre of the town of Bij.ipiir near tho tomb of KIwTto 
Khin a girth of nearly forty feet about four feet from the ground. 
* Contributed by Mr. H. Kennedy, formerly Superintendent of Police, Kalidgi. 




Baftklcms tlie returns show a total of 93,213 head, of which 

ijul 07 .423 females. They are of two kinds, a 

.or Uavli.s' luiHalot'S, and the ordinary inferior 

Jo kuovs'u simply ixn mhais. The Gavlflru buflalo cornea from 

j>ar. It has very lon^ horiw aiul is much stouter and gives Ixittar 

tthan the common district hnffalo. A pair of common hufl'aloes 

(£5 (R*. 50). while the GavlAm cost £7 10?, to £15 (Rs. 75-150) 

The well-to-do classes prefer buffalo milk to cow's milk as 

icher and more nourishing.' 

Sep and Goats are returned at 361,5 18 head. Of sheep there are 
varieties, Muralglni. Patalgini. and Batgirii. All parts of the 
afford excellent grazing ground for sheep, but perhaps the 
4!vp are found in Bijjtpur where they can be hail fur S^r. (Ra 4) 
Goats costing al»out £1 (Rs. 10) a pair, are of two kinds, 
Kengori which comes from Venkatgiri in Madras, and the 
'' or GujarAt gnat. Kengori goats stand al»out two ami a half 
ligh. The Kunyi are famous for the quantity and i]iuility of 
milk which is particularly good for children. 

tia A poor place for horse-breeding, but in man}' part.% 

II the Indi and Sindgi suV>-di visions, there ai-e excellent 

cheap ponies. The village of Sonkaahalli, about ten miles 

Indi, has a local name for its breed of horses. The best 

&re brought from the Jath state in S^tara and from Sangola 

)nr; very fair animals can also sometimes be found in 

the Nizam's territories. In Kalddgi itself and a few other 

horses and ponies are kept for sale and hire by 

.1(1, though as a rule they are poor, some good animala 

iionally bo picked up from these people. In 1882-83 the 

•r of horses was returned at 8505, 

(^mvla are not bred in the district, but are brought from the 
im iliatricts and from a place named Ganvad in Sholapur. 
_ by some Enrope^iti officers, they are kept by well-to-do 
f£r Vani merchants in such large towns as Bjlgalkot, and are 
to carry silk, grain, and other articles. They cost £12 to 
~ l20-20l>j a pair and the charges for their feed and keep 
£1 (Rs. 10) a month. Asses, returned at 4923, are kept 
ring packloads by Vadars, Gliisadis. Dombilris, and other 
tribes and are'lcft to pick up what grazing they can 

Pig arc very common. They are kept in great numbers by 

— ■ ^■- ' vfi :- uid Mdngs, who consider them good eating. 

and are ver^*^ useful as villa^ scaven^era 

Chapter IL 



SOuxp an 



h Tigers huli or hchbhuU Felis tigris, and 
...biatus, were found in the Baddini and 

Wtti> AiaiiJi* 

• In Ittttl At M(Lni{iiI;rii<l. a ▼ilUge ne«r Bilddini. Manliall noted » three-vearly fair 

■■■" ■ ' Tilocs ww! sc'voTil '' ' ' >i» were nacrificed. During 

mt«<l thi! l)h.»i Herft'ls. ami iMh&rs vatea 

At tlio end . ; iriicd off the rerananta of 

ll> III m their ticlitn. M:ii-»hall'a Iklgiiuni, 126. 

>i:otioui wu cautriUutcil by Mr. A. H. Spry, C.8. 

rBomliay Gaxett««r, 



ipter II. 

Hungtind hills. In 1847 three tigers were killed in Hiingund 
in 1856 one was killed in Bildanii. Between 1844 and ISGl tvreut] 

five bears were killed in Bagalkot, BMdnii, and Hiuij^und. N( 
AsiMALs. • (1883) there is not a vestige of either the tiger or the bear, Tlic on^ 
Ij^rge game are a few Panthe rs hera knlhi Felis pardus, and the 
are growing scarcer year by year. The panther is foimd ahno 
everywhere south of the Krishna, especially in the santf 
ranges of BAddnii, Guledgndd, and Hungand. At B^dmi pa 
are quite a pest. Scarcely a night pas-ses without soni ' 
killed and carried oft" to their dens. They retire to I \'\ 

and clefts in the rocks close to the town from which it Is 
impossible to dislodge them. Smoke or fireworks are usele-s.H. 
best way to get at them is either to take a position commaDdin 
the caves which the panthers arc known to frequent and to waU 
for them coming out, which they generally do about d», or I 
strew earth and sand over-night in places on the paths leading' 
the caves and find out next morning by the foot-marks into wtti« 
cave the panther has gone. Then towards evening by the pi 
of a reward, to get the shepherds to feed thfir flocks ne« 
mouth of the cave and taking a position commanding the mOtll 
wait for the chance of a shot as the panther dashes out to .seize 
of the goats. Eightj-^-three panthers were kille<l between 1844 
1877 and eleven between 1878 and 1S82. During the eight 
ending 1882, eleven men and forty animals were killed by pan^^ 
The Wolf iohi Cauis pallipes, and tlie Hyrena kattc gvmh Hy5 
striata, although not abundant, are pretty generally distril'Uf<'(1, 
Wolves great loss to shepherds and a year seldom ] 
in whicli children are nftt carried off by wolves. Since 
seventeen hyajnas have been killed. The reward varies froi 
to 10*. (Rs. 3-5). The Jackal kunni or kopyialinari CanLs an 
is common eveiywhere. Porcupines j/ciiH. Ilj'.strix leucuni ab 
among the ruins and near Bijapur and are caught by Ph^xuse Pa 
and despite the prejudice agaiiiBt them, are by no mean.s bad c 
The Fox chandike or sdnnitkompnuari V'ulpes bengal<tnsis is frtt 
in the open undulating plains of Bagevjidi and Muddcbi lal, CHpeciall 
nearMulv^d about fifteen miles wcstof Biigevildi where goo<l cour 
may be had. Among the Bailami and Hnngund hills, Wild Pig h^ 
handi or kol Sus indicus are pretty pli-ntiiul, but the country is, 
suited for hunting. Since 1874, when forests began to Vk' corn 
pig have greatly increa-sed. Of Monkeys two sorts are foi 
Bfldami and Hungund. the large Langur, Pre.sbytis johuii, and 
Small Brown Monkey, Innus rhesus ; a colony of small brown monkej 
infest the town of KalfUlgi and have become haK tamo being h( 
in great veneration by the Hindu.s. Of the Deer tril>e there 
only two, the Ajjtelope, Antelope bezoarticn. and the tJazcUe, but 
or vntdari, Oazella liennettii, commonly called the chiiikdi-a; ncit 
are plentiful. A few years ago the plains al>out Bijiipur were not 
for their immense herds of black Vmck, now .scarcely one is ae* 
These l>cautiful deer have almost disappeared from the di.strict ;ot 
a few small herds remain scattered over Indi, Simlgi, Muddeldhi 
and the black-soil plains of Hungund, A few gazelles inhabit tl 
ravines in the southern sub-divi.«<ions and the hills near Horti 



Ipur. Tlie Common Indian Hare vwl Lepus nigricoUia is fouml 
generally throughout the district. 

Fowl Pavo cristatus are found in large numbers in the scrub- 

rrrv'd i^lrts along the bank.H of the river Krislma and iu the 

«1f<l hills of B.'uMmi. .specially above Kendur. They are perfectly 

I anil are appaiontly held in no special veneration. The Painted 

' "ge Francolinus pictus is much commoner than the Gray 

»mi» ponticerianus. and fair hags may be made in the hilly 

Tlie Gray Quiiil Cotiimix communis, and the Rain Quail 

karaix coromandelica in ordinary years are exceeilingly plentiful, 

re numlxTs of rain uuail breeding in the district. The Bu^ 

il P^rdicula argoondah, the Bustard Quail Turnix taigoor, and 

Button Quail Turnix duasumierii. are found, but not abundantly. 

T' 1 Eupodotis edwardsii, thou";h not .so common as iu 

i.s met in the open parts of the district, particularly in 

and Muddebihfil, As many as thiiteen have l»een seen 

, but they are generally only iu threes and fours. No 

ice of their breeding is known, but as they arc seen at all 

IS of the year and are known to breed in SholApur, they 

y breed in Bijdpur. The Le.s.ser Florican Sypheotides aurita 

and is not known to breed. The Common Sandgrouse 

» t'xustus is fairly common to the north, and the Painted 

)u«e Pterocles fii.sciatus to the south of the Krishna. Tho 

Pigeon Crocopus clxlorigaster, though by no means common, 

round in Bdgalkot wherever the Indian fig tree grows. Both 

Common Crane Grus cinerea and the Demoiselle Crane Authro- 

IcH virgo are cold- weather vi.sitants. .Immense flocks of them 

1 -imong the wheat fields of the Don valley. The common 

i.igo ctX'lestis and the Jack Snipe Gallinago galliuula 

;M-svt-Hther visitants, and in some places large bag.s may bo 

A few possibly may remain and breed on the banks of the 

ipur reservoir. The Painted Snipe Rjmchcea bengalensia 

p at times and breed.s in the district. Tlie Ruddy Shieldrake 

imaui Duck Casarca rutila comes in the cold weather and may 

pairs on the banks of the Krishna and Bhima. Many 

nek visit the district and some may stay during the whole 

ie following arc among the commonest. The Common Gray 

Ga<lwall Chaulelasmus streperus, the Widgeon Mareca 

the Common and Bluewinged Teal Querquedula erecca 

"^" •-■" 'dala circia, and the Shoveller Spatula cl^'peata, the 

iiiula ferina, and tho Pintail Dafila acuta. Plovers. 

•ws, ]!• I i many other bin Is cither stay in or visit the 

Til 1 Botaurus stellaris, and Avoset Recurvirostra 

atia, though i-urc, have also been found. 

Thero aro no snakes peculiar to the district. Those found are the 
le OM thooQ ordinarily met iu the Deccan and are neither very 
>r particularly destructive of human or animal lifa The 

Chapter I] 



[^OeolrltnttMl fay Mr.H. F.Silcock, C.8., from 
at RAmchfttuln, MdmlatJAr of BijApnr. 

mAteriala tuppUed by fUo Sik^h 

[Bomtay Quet 



following are the chief kinds : the Cobra, ndgar hdvu, N^ja trij 
diaiis, is found everywhere and generally attains a length of tl 
to six feet with a girth of four or tive iiiche^^. The Dhanimi, ty<»* 
ht.ivu, Ptyas mucosas, acolubrine .snake wrongly said to be: poisonc 
but not deadly, is somewhat black in colour and has no hfXKl. '" 
country people consider it the male and the cobra the female.* 
generally grows to a larger size than the cobra and is very ei 
in it« movements, never moving in a straight line but mt 
frequent tracks. Tlie chingi hdvu, that is a jumping snake so 
because it jumps with wonflerful quickness fi'om branch to branf 
of trees, is a Tree snake probablj' Dipsas trigonata or 
gokool." It is not veiy common, Imt is occasionally met in 
ground. It is believed to be venomoas and is dreaded by the ni 
on account of its ferocious disposition. It is only a foot or aj 
and a half long and is of a light brown colotir. The 
Rock Snake, ojgar hdvu, Python molurua, is sometimes 
rarely met in the ncighWmrhood of old trees aud is of a harmle 
disposition. Its colour is said to be a dark brown, almost black. 
It is mistaken for the Deccan parad GougylophLs conicus wbidi i** 
superficially very like a young Python both in shape and < 
of markings. The Common Green-gross Snake, hiuarJulvu, 1 , 
notus pltnubicolor is occasionally found in houses. It is said i 
venomous, but in one specimen examined the fangs appeared Kx. 
When young it has a black and jellow colour and faint blacl 
rings. The Water Snake, nirafjin hdvu, Tropidonotus quincuuciatt 
is a harmless snake of the colubrine tribe found in ponds and wel 
where it feeils on frogs and other water animal.s. It is generallj 
three feet long and blrffck with a yellowish-white belly. 
Common Sand Snake, manna inukka hdvu, Eryx johnii, ia commc 
Its Kdnarese name manna viukka literally earth or dust-eating h< 
been given from its burrowing character. Its Mardthi name is (JoUmi 
because it has a thick tail which snake-charmers mutilate to makei 
look like a second liead.* In colour it is dark-brown, almost blacJ_ 
aud its length ia about three feet. Another snake, the Dalx^tia 
elogaus, has been found once or twice. A specimen obtaine<l i|^ 
Bijdpur in 1876 was between five and bLx feet long and eight 
ten inches in gii-th. Though extremely rare the natives dread 
even more than the cobra, as it is so powerful and vindictive aa ■* 
attack when disturlied and make no attempt to escape. The poir 
fangs of one vspecimen examined were about three-quarters of 
inch long, and the head had the flattened and truncated appea 
characteristic of the most venomous snakes. This is probably 
species which is called in Kanarese hdlivadak hdvu and in Mar&il 

' The same belief prevails in jiatU of the Madras Presidency. In the Bontiie 
Koiikan all cobras are oonveracly hckl to be maluH, while all iudlvidnals of a apeoitH 
haritilc*B colubrine (2^ftnienia fasciolatna) are called niigin or female cobrai. Mr. O."' 
Vidal, C.S. 

* Both Dipaofl trigonata and Dipsas gokool have rather \-iperine looking heads i 
are therefore mistaken for the veuomnus phuna. Mr. G. W. Vidal, C.S. 

• The common belief is that it has two heads, one at each end of the ItoAy, and 
trrtry aix months the tail takes the place of the head and the head of the tail. 




ttfn »ap or ghonas.^ During the eight years ending 1 882 rewards 
'"►T the destruction of thirty-two snakes. During the 
J sixty-fivi' men and four auinials were reported to have 

kiUed hy Miiake-bite. 

sre are no tame hees. Hone}^ is prmluced only in B^dami by 
^ kinds of bees locally called doda jenbida or the h>ig bee and 
jrnhula or the little bee. Neither of these bees is. like any 
Itl r»f Europtmn tame bee. The honey of both kinds in produced 
January till April. Both kinds are fond of the /lwrp^«^ Hower 
jlhc honey pro<luced from it is good. The combs of the larger 
found among rocks, and those of the smaller bee genermly 
»eii to bushes. Though smaller in quantity the honey of the 
bee ia more valued tlian that of the larger bee. The 
ield in the di.sti-ict from lx)th kinds of bees is estimated at 

ids of honey and 1 4-t poun<ls of wax. Honey sells for 3cZ. 

^nd (2 a«.) and wax for hd. (3^ a.*.) a pound. All the honey is 
ttscxJ; none is cither imported or exported. 

*pt the Don, the larger rivers of the district are faiily 
iWith fish. The chief varieties are, avnl, bdli, heUhi, gogrif 
tgif hasrii, hdvu, heral, jhingi, katrdni, kewp, kund, kurub, 
iJtig, $>irma, and urichi. Of these the kund is the largest, some- 
five or »ix feet long. It is of a blackish gray on the back and 
i^ white Iwlly, and it is furnished with a large ventral fin foui* or five 
jng. Tlie hadd ha.s its head fumi.shed with several tentacles 
, three to six inches long. Though of a rather dull muddy 
; rtcsh is fairly good and is often eaten by Europeans. The 
iich is the chief fish eaten by Europeans, is of a dark colour 
\iing eight or ten pounds in weight, and from two to three feet 
tb. Its chief characteristic is the care with which it guards 
mng, the male and female watching them by turns until the 
are able to care for them-selves. The bdli, weighing as much 
sen pounds, and the vidlag as much as eight, belong to the 
' Ik or eel family, the fonner representing the common Eng- 
»-water eel. The gogri, a small fish of a reddish golden 
llour and somewhat like a perch, rarely weighs more than a pound 
id ia so full of Iwnea that it is almost useless as an article of food. 

Bre<''ling fish and fry ai*o not destroyed to any great extent, 
the fish are trapped during the rains in irrigated fields, 
.>ver the district they are caught both by roti and line 
by net. With the ro<i and line the bait in general use is 
'flour made into paste, the rod being generally a piece of 
with a line tied to the end of it. Neither the frog bait nor 
ly iH ever used. With a minimum mesh of the size of a wheat 
the nets used ai*o of five sorts, sarkhya, bagar, sokarl, jhyar^ 


Bkim, > 


DIM htiRniilak Arfi'« moaning literally broken banglo »iuiWo would Mem to 

tbrod con«picuoiia wxi sotnctitne.s broken chftin roarkings, n-hich cover 

I of the chain vii>cr. Tbe name Cobm rannilla, a Portuguese comip- 

„ tn')nileg«r literally necklaoed snake, ia applied to the fsame species 

i« ■"rimikr icfe*. Mr. G. W. Vidal, C. 8. 

»to1/ut<d hy Mr. H. F. Silcock, C.S. 




lutpter n. 


and lava. Of these the sarhhya and bagar, fastened to 
driven into the river-bed and left stationary, are large nets 
meshes about two inches in size. The aokari and jhyar are " 
nets with very small meshes ; while the bdva, a long deep net witbl 
large meshes, is used chieflv for dragging river-bed pools. None of] 
tnese nets are dyed ; they last two to three years. They are madej 
during the rains by the fishermen themselves from hemp brouriitl 
from the Nizd,m's country. Besides a few Musalmdns who fish foi 
amusement, the fishermen belong to the Mhdr, Bhoi, and AmbieAr ; 
castes. Almost all are poor, and as there is veiy little trade in &I1, j 
they work as day labourers. Fish are eaten by uiose who catch them | 
and are sold both for money and grain. They are neither sold in | 
regular markets nor hawkea from place to place.- Their price varies ; 
according to their size ; 6i. (4 as.) is a fair price for a fish of fonr 
or five pounds. Mardth^, Dhangars, Chdmbh^s, Vadars, Kumbhte^ 1 
Musalmdns, and other low -caste Hindus, forming perhaps twenty-fivB 
per cent of the whole population, eat fish. The local supply of fiah , 
18 believed to have neither increased nor decreased for several jetniii 




^OCORDTKO to the 1S81 oenniis the populAtion of the district was 
1?J or IIO'OO to the square mile. Of these Hindns numbered 
76 or 89-a9 per cent, Musalmans 67,000 or lOoO per cent, 
itinns 025 or 009 per cent, and PiJrsis 20. The percentage of 
on the total popalation was 49-74 and of females 50 25. The 
ynditxg returns for 1872 were a total of 816,273 or 1 43-^0 
' ujile, of whom Hindus nuraborod 728,071 or 8926 
;salinitns 87,549 or 1072 per cent, Christiana 52, and 
1. Compared with the 1872 returns tho 1881 returns show a 
of 177,780 or 21*77 per cent which is due to the mortality 
id cmiE^tion during the famine of 1876-77. 

Of <>35,>i93 the whole pnpnlation, 573,102 or 89*75 per cent were 
in the district. Of tho 05,391, who were not bom in the 
It, 30,070 wore born ia the Nizam's country ; 14,074 in the 
icrn Marjitha States; 5260 in Sholapar ; 5016 in Dhdrwar ; 
in Boljj^aum ; 3012 in Sfitd,ra; 1204 in Madras ; 398 in Poena ; 
the Konkan districts ; 128 in Gujarat; 90 in Bombay ; 69 in 
i«lnngar ; 67 in Kiiuara. ; 43 in Goa, Din, and Daman ; 28 in 
ih ; 1 1 in Xitsik ; 587 in other parts of India ; and 29 outside 

'Of 638,493, the totil population, 527,332 (261,718 males, 
i'l foinnles) or 82*59 per cen ^ atiMlrn Kanarese. Of tho 
ling 111,111 persona, 63,74 1 or ceut spoke Hindu- 

, 24,509 or 3 '^' ' !:.• Xf.-u-.'n m, 1 4,02o or 2^^ per cent 

[glngg, 01 lit spolco Hindi, 1531 or 0*24 per 

Uj, 7t'9 or 12 per cent spoke Tamil, 137 or 0*02 
hirwari, 113 or 0"01 per cent spoke Tulu, 40 spoke 
th, 19 8|)oke Portuguese- Konkaui or Goanase, 14 spoko 
ko, 7 spoko German, one spoke Chinese, and one spoke 

follow i Inr statomont gives the number of each reli- 

i,cla«t{ bi lo Bcx at different ages, with at each stage the 

re on tho total population of the siAnio sex and religion. 

jn« referring to the total population omit religious distinc- 

>&», bat show tho ditiurenco of sex : 

Chapter IT 


CuNHca Detaii 





[BomlMj OiMttMl 


iter III. 




Auk m VuBS. 

Upto 1 


Ui-MUii-n. 1 

s Details. • 








JiWiJ . 








I Ut 4 









f. to 



W.JIW i 








1(1 to U 


4r>,N-.'b . 


40,41 a 





J 1-14 

IS to 10 


S4.30S 1 








•Bl to Si 



I-S.TIO 1 







tu to sS) 

a).3,<«T , 








SO to ai 

■ .. 


29,W0 1 

10 »£ , H),<'(i«) 






30 t« 30 










40 to 4IJ 










W to 64 


U,JS7 ! 








ATi to £6 

WW> 1 








AIhivc iW 




13, HOI 




1691 StJS 











II i 

11 1 
















£ ' 




£ = 


Upto 1 ... 
1 to 4 ,. 








Mis sn 









ft to 
10 to 14 ... 
IS to lU ... 
ao tu '.:* ... 
25 to ai ... 

3l» to A4 „. 

SB to m ., 

4n to 4U ... 
ffl to M ... 

M to :.» ... 

AbovD DO... 
Total .. 


12W' 38 





a 1-2.11 






anoiv gy 

!•> <n 










f>-itei iii 




id + 






10 ra i »4 








-■!■<> 1 a.1 

(I'TM 11 













»47, 2i 












41 n 
iSUi T 




















Varria'jf. Tho following table shows tho proportion of tho people of th. 

district who are unmarried, married, and widowed : 










Under Ten, 

67,4M 40,241 

Ten to FIftocn to Twenty to 

Fnurttuti NJiietouN. i Twen ty -It Itie 

^,2«l 1:1,14+ ij, 
7SSit :!4.-.'!i.-. 10,274 
ITSJ aJ77i 17yiJ 

*^!i„i^.i *t^«- y<^ 


IT, sail 


SK4i 23«T 

41*73 erer 

Thirty and 


SltHJ a07il lU.P.lii I flB,ll 

at^,sei\ «5,n4, iM.cs j 144,41 

17,4111 68,7B0| «,2a3| J*,* 


. flB»7 
.1 M 

4-J2 ] i-il 
13 I 44 j 71 

■J&47 [ IDfiM I 300 «0fl2 I •!? 

1741 I rtaa , iTthi :isai mis? 
170 107 mi m\ uur 

AOH : iH I ie,A3» 

!;>ait ,vio7 i4,9a« 

173G 6705 I 2aM 
















ing to Occupation the 1881 cenans returns divide the 
into six classes : 

-In Government Service, Learned Professions, Literature and Arts, 

I0,51&orl(;- lit of the population. 

-In Hoase S<- '■ or 0'42 per cent. 

Iti •' - > n?e i:{93 i,r 0'21 per cent. ♦ 

r.— Iji '* or 370-t per cent. 

-In I .,^. > i.....i-;-.e3 130,216 or 2039 percent. 

In Indefinite nnd Unproductive Oocupatiou, including Children, 
2&7,101 or -10 -26 per cent. 

ing to the 1881 census, of 154,619 houses, 114,533 were 
Sind 40,086 were empty. The total gave an average of 

^uses to the square mile, and the 1 1 4,533 occupied houses an 

|of 0"57 inmates to each house. 

ling to the 1881 census twelve towns had more than 5000 and 
tif the twelve more than 10,000 people. Excluding those twelve 
rhich together numbered 89,379 or 13'99 per cent of tho 
>n, the 549,114 inhabitants of BijApnr were distributed 
59 villages, giving an average of one village for 5*09 square 
id of 486'37 people to each village. Of the 1129 villages 
[leas than 100 people, 217 between 100 and 200, 423 between 
,500, 230 between 500 and 1000, 93 between 1000 and 2000, 
2000 and 3000, and 14 between 3000 and 5000. 

founders of the Bijjlpur villages, which are seldom less 
lile or two apart, have generally chosen for the site of 
tlement a patch of light or red soil slightly raised above 
The favourite sites are along the main rivers especially 
lend of the river where the floods 'have piled high w^all-like 
■ To the south of the Krishna many villages lie in the light 
^^picklj drying soil near the foot of the low lines of sandstone 
B*rom a distance the first parts of a village that catch the 
^the trees and the village tower. Closer at hand the trees 
ijnerally found either to form a mango grove or to shade the 

id line the hedgerows of a plot of watered garden land, 
two trees are also generally planted in front of the village 
leide the temple, and self-sown in empty plots in different 
[ the village. The villages may be divided into two classes, 
ind unwalled. As stones are abundant, by far the greater 
of villages have walls. The village walls are ten to twelve feet 
and two feet thick, plain and >vithout loopholes or battlements, 
of stones and earth mixed with gravel. In the village walls there 
i?rally at least one entrance, a plain deep flat-topped gateway 
)d by a path which is roughly paved with large stones, aa 
the village flood-water drains through the gateway. As a 
outer face of the gateway is plain covered with a coating of 
jlixod with cowdung, and for a few feet on either side the 
btjilt with special care. On entering the village the 
is f<.)und to be about twelve feet deep and to have on either 
ied three or four foet above tho ground, a room about twelve 
Ig, eight deep, and six high, with a heavy flat earth roof 
on rough wooden pillars. In the gateway in the face 
ilnlfortn wall on one side is a fire-niche, and sometimes ou 

Chapter I 

CKNfiufl Dot; 



[Bombay 6i 


fter ni. 




the other wall is a niche for the shoeB of any one who is rc«iiQ| 
in the gateway chamber. In small villages the prateway chnmbt* 
are the headman's office, but the gateway is genera-lly only u 
vellers' rest-room, or a spot where villagers gather to smoke 
talk shaded from the sun. Inside of the gate on the right ha 
a temple of Uannmdn, a small plain shed raised tive or six Ib 
from the ground, the walls of rough stone and earth and sand, 9ltA 
the ttat roof supported by rows of undressed wooden posts. Roant 
the temple is a little plot of ground enclosetl by a rongh low 
wall, and generally shaded by one or two trees, lieyond the 
tho village dwellings line both sides of a narrow rough path, 
houses varying in stylo from well built walls coated with a w< 
kept mud plaster, through many degrees of roughness and carelc 
ness, to the house of the labourer which is little more than a xaai 
roofed shod with a thatched hut for cattle and litler. The str 
front of a rich villager's house is a long stone and earth wall with 
gateway, sometimes plain and flat and sometimes arched, the wa 
pointed with mortar for a iwti or two on either side of tho gat« 
In the gateway, ou either side, as at the entrance to the vilh 
a chamber called deliUj where during the day the household si 
and talk and the women spin, and at night one or two of 
family or a servant sleeps to guard tho house. The gate oj 
on a yar<L On one side of the yard is a cattle-shed ; on the 
an open space with a shed for grass and straw and a pyraiuii 
cowduug cakes. In a small altar in one corner is a basil plant 
The dwelling stands in front. In the first room, which is ca 
pardvi or snpa, the people sit and talk during the day and sleep 
night. Behind the entrance room is tho raid-house or iniij-gad, wit 
on the right a strong room or kole in which money is kept, and 
the left a cooking and eating room where the cooking and eatioj 
vessels are stored. Near the cook-room is the god-room. G raia 
Btored in a per or pit sometimes in tho house sometimes onl 
There is also a place for washing, almost every one who can 
it using warm instead of cold water. The poorer houses have 
more than three rooms. 

In the skirts of the village are the quarters of tho Mh^rs 
HoliAs and of the MAugs or Mddigers whom the body of villa£ 
hold impure. In many villages in the ilhar and Mang quarter at 
woU-built houses with stone and earth walls and flat earthen roof 
There are also almost always some poorer dwellings with rud 
stone walls and roofs thatched with cotton stalks and rushes, 
are many remains of cattle and always some unsightly rul 
and strong smells. Still the houses and the ground close 
houses as a rule are well swept and clean. 

Outside of the village, at a dilTcrent quarter from the dwel 
of the impure, are the huts of some wandering gang or half-se 
tribe. Among these in smalt roughly made huts with one ro« 
and the place round dirty and untidy, are the dwellings of Vadt 
of two classes, the grindstono-ciittere and the builders. The calUi 
of the hut-owner may be known by the animals that stand aboc 
the door ; if buffaloes are about the owner is a building Vadar, 



"leya he is a griuilstone-cutter. In either case there are 
i of small black pigs. Besides the Vadars, PhansipArdia 
T8 and a Bhats or begging genealogists, aud colonies of 
KiUmdn Jathii and Chhupparbaud^* or thatchers are occasioaally 
id out side of the village. The Latnaiiis or Upper ludian pack 
tlloL'k drivers always biiild their huts in the fields by them.seIveB. 

fear the hats of the unsettled tribes are often small enclosurea, 

Burroanded with thornSj others enclosed with li^'e milk-bush 

39. The thi.'rti-girt plots are the folds in which the Dhangara 

Lurnbars pen their sheep and goats at night. The risk of wolves 

inthorH 13 the reason why the thorn-hedge is so thick and ia 

»o high. The Hnor of the pen is beaten and kept firm aud 

by a plaHter of mud and cowduug. At night the sheep are 

?ded in with jaat standing room. Close by the pen is the 

lord's night hut, a small extinguisher-shaped sentry-box whose 

rooC is thatched with cotton stems aud millet stalks. The 

iDKSj which are surrounded by live milk-bush hedges are 

ly for storing fodder aud fuel. The fodder is chiefly Indian 

itoraw, each stem seven or eight feet long and an inch or two 

id, piled in the shape of large haystack. The stack is covered 

a coating of earth, and, except the surface layer, the straw 

kid to impi-ove l>y a year or two's keeping. Beside the millet 

s of cowdung cakes are piled six or eight feet higlu 

n the main the large villages are large editions of the 
y bavo one or two special features. The chief peculiarity 
: ; tower. The tower, geoerally but not in every case, 
111 the village euclojjure. Almost all are of rough stone 
or without earth. They are hollow and have generally one 
ibig in the wall alxtut eight feet from the ground. They seldom 
*nj suited for dofcnco. They are rather watch-towers from 
rhich the })eoplo in the fields got warning of the approach of 
inds of Peudharis aud other monnted robbers in time to hurry 
selves aud their cattle within the shelter of the village walla. 
the need of them is forgotten. Thoy are taken to be a trace- 
16 good old days whnn life was easy and each village had 
igh to pparo to dock itself with walls and a tower only for look'a 



•CKKsua Di 

td ui the Bombay Karnfitak the Bijapur villages, 
11 and lab<)uror8, ^oem formerly to have had 

staff of twi /■« or hereditary village 

ts. The twt / ir« were, the jmiil or 

IbeadmaD, tlie kulkarni or accountant, the joehi or asti-ologer, the 
l^^rai; or temple ministrant, the jtondr or goldsmith, the sutdr 
|or carpenter, the parii or washerman, the nhdvi or barber, the 
Mian, the Mhdr or Uolia the village watchman and 
ag or scavenger, and the Chambhar or shoemaker, 
idee iLesse aome villages had a mathapati or LingAy at priest^ » 
ior_Mn ham mad an judge or marriage registrar, and a mulla 
lOat, Some villages had also BArkers or village X^urv^yora^., 
headman's lienchmen, Korbus and Katekara or village 
who held rent-free land and were occasionally employed 





Ipter III. 



by Government. In 1817, on the introduction of Britiab mle, 

these officers the pdtil or headman, the kulkami or village ol 

and the talwdr or watchman were alone continued as Govcrui 

village servants. The other members of the staff wore ( 

their hereditary lands on paying a ^Mrft or, and . 

were left to make what arrangements they chose for seoiaiug tin 

services in return for grain and other payments at harvest time. 

The Pcitil (M.) or Gauda (KL) has generally the revenue and po^ 
charge of a village, the duties being in some cases divided be 
a revenue and a police headman. The chief duty of the 
potil is to look after the petty crime of the village, and of 
revenue ■pntil to collect the Government land revenue. The 
headman is generally aLingayat of the PanchumsaUor Banjig '■ 
and sometimes a Maratha, a Dhangar, or a Musalmdn, i'< 
holding land on a quit-rent he draws a fixed salary 
Government, The office of headman is generally bcreditaiy. 
the social head of the village the headman leads all village fe 
and is the first to receive the betel-packet or pdu'Hupiiri at vil 
marriages and other public occasions. At yearly fairs the hei ~ 
also receives the slaughtered heads of he-buffaloes which are of 
to the village shrine. He takes away the heads and buries thet 
his own enclosure. The village clerk or nccouutaut call 
Kulkami (M.) or Shdnbhog (K.) keeps the village accounts, writ 
the landholders' receipt-books, prepares the village rctumf, 
and records the findings of village juries. With a few eXv 
the kulkarnia are Brdhmans. As a rule, each has ch^. 
one village and sometimes of a group of two or three sr 
villages. Besides qait-rent land they have fixed money stipendi 
The office of village accountant is generally hereditary. Besides! 
the headman and accountant, the village has, of^ watchmen anc 
m essen g(-r8, Talwars, Mhars, Mdngs, an d Shetsandis. Tn somei] 
villages Ko l karsTB^kerSj ^Atekera, and Korbu s are also found. F<i 
Government these servants act as village police, messengers, 
revenue-carriera ; for the villagei-s they act as watchmen, bounds 
settlers, and scavengers. The Shetsandis or land- deed bolders 
not vatgyiddr or hereditary but removable. They are adpported partlj 
by the grant of rent-free land and partly by grain payments fro 
the villagerg. Of the uon-Governmeut members of the village st 
the a utdf or carpenter mends the field tools, the kurnhhar or pottc* 
acts as torch-bearer and performs certain religious rites wben the 
village is attacked by an epidemic, the nhdvi or barber is the villa 
messenger and musician, and the cknmbhdr or shoemaker rei 
field leather work. Their services are generally paid by the vill 
people in grain allowances. The gurav acts as pujdri or templ(, 
miniati-aut at the village shrines amT Folds the temple land oi 
quit-rent. In most Bij^pur villages the bulk of the people are" 
Brdhmanical Hindus; in some the bulk are Lingayats. Brdhmanicul, 

Hindus and LingAyats have separate religjous office- 1 

the BrAhmanical Hindus joshU, imrohiU, and ^naikddhifat^ 
and the LiogAyats viathddayyas, gandchdna, chalvddifi, and hasi ' 
Except PAnch;-' V ' '' •- - — ' t?, the vil! ' 7ri ia^ 
jtriehi oi Br^h . and otL 



He generally holds land on quit'reot. Braides 
g aa a priest at ceremoDJes, the joaki reads the Hiudu 
draws up horoscopes, and tells iackj moments. Id a 
a lioutte, besides cash, the Josfii rec<^ives cooked food, and 
-BriUicuan house he is given Qudressed food. In a 
family tlio joshi is nut the sole priest Hia feea ai% 
divided between himself and the purohit or family priest 
* e Jrjgki in the ceremonies and worships the house goda. 
\iyati or monastery-head is the deputy of the relig^ioos 
tmrni of the village people and holds his appointment 
rly payment of fixed sums to the tviimi. lie inquires 
es of caste and rehgious rules^ and submits his inquiries 
'Orders of the ifivi nil. Thcmathddhipatireceiy' ' rj 

c«?remony. Vaiahnavs as a rule feed their :it 

and show them greater respect than Smarts. T he Linyavat 
officers are the inathadayya or monastery head, the gandchdri 
tery- manager, the cfuilvddi or Mhar sacristan, and the 
~ male temple servant. The riMlhadayya or monastery 
es at all Lingayat ceremonies, levies fines on breaches 
ipline, and admits fresh adherents to the Lingayat sect, 
nre paid by fixed fees. The gaiuUhari or monastery- 
sides at inquiries into divorce cases aod gets fees in 
chalfddi or ]Mhar sacristan attends religioDS meetings 
^mj^ an imago of a bull and a bell which he repeatedly rings, 
einga religious sonj^rs. He lives upon the charity of the 
Ati. The A.i.v vi f.r fpiiiale miuLstrant calls the people to social and 
ious c '>eps the temple, and prepares the reception- 

fi.r pi' ,-'s. Of the Kasi atid muUn, the Musalman 

ads, tlie kilzi registers marriages and the muUa leads the 
. ^* urs and slays animals for food. Besides in some cases 
rent-free lan^, these officers receive fees in cash. 

villages have generally their own village moneylender and 
ment or private vernacular school. In sending petitions 
tber points requiring a knowledge of English official forms 
generally consult the schoolmaster, and private school- 
aometimes work as notaries. Each villager is free to graze 
inber of cattle in the village pasture which in most cases lies 
village. The villagers generally ase as fuel cowdung 
i> or millet-stalk refuse, and cotton stalks. 'iTiey 
wood from the forest lands. Common forest landfl 
exist are used for grazing. Except by the degraded 
iaga, who have generally a well of their own, the village 
ikiog reservoir or well is used by all classes. In villages which 
B no M reservoir or well for the Mhdrs and Mings they 

• fcheii s filled from the buckets of other villagers. 

iribotiouii Ut works of local usefulness, making and repairing 
f t*_TiiDloB and reservoirs, arc paid by the well-to-do in cash 
as and by the poor in labour. In several cases since the 
ue old settlers have given their holdings to well-to-do 
)Je belonging to neighbouring villages. The new settlers are 
imos difitinguishod from the old settlers by taking the name of 
village u« a suruamc. 

Clutpitcr n 



[Sombay Oatetwcl 



The chief classes wlio move abont and beyond iho dtstriol 
tniik-ra and field hibourers. They go to Kdtinra, Ui ' 
Hellari^ Shdlaptir, Sittara, the Nixam's cuuutry, anu 
usunl time for leuviug the district is betwetu December and Aj« 
aud they generally return before the south-west rains. Bt 
also Bometimea go to the NizAm's country in search of empti: 
as state clerks. Besides these, Bhdt8, Dombdrs, GosA '' 
Kolatis, Lamanis^ and Vadars move about and S( 
beyond the district Except Gujarat and ^Nfarwar Vhu 
outsiders come to settle in the district. The snpply of labc 
ordinary purposes is greater than the demand. tJnder 
circumstances as in making railways or other great publi'" 
there is a scarcity of local labtiur, aud workers, both sl< 
nuskillc'd como from other parts of the Dcccan and ibe kurr 
A band of Cutch masons are at present (February 188 J) at w< 
tbe Krishna railway bridge. 

Bijdpur Hindus belong to two main classes BrAbmimic 
Lingayat. Bi-iihmanieal Eindus include u[)per aud middle 
residents, wandering tribes, and impure classes. I 't; 

include True Lingdyata, Atliliated Liiigayats, and ;vl 

True Ling-Ayats are the descendants of those wIjo were recittit 
Basav (a.i>. 1 154) the founder of the Lingiyat faith or were com 
to the Lingayat faith by Basav's leading disciples shortly 
deafh. According to Lingiyat books aud traditions the 
converts formed one caste. At present, they are divided into 
distinct bodies separated by difference in profession and relii 
observance. Still all ouj(jy full religious privileges and any of [ 
cau rise to the higliest religious honours. According to tbeirl 
accounts when the early zeal of the sect cooled tbo Lini 
gradually became more and more exclusive ; aud though 
Brdhmanical castes have since grouped themselves round Liug^ 
iam they have not been allowed to join the original Linj 
community. Tlio members of these affiliated classes wear fcl 
and follow Lingdyat customs and practices, but do not enjol 
Liugdyat privileges. The extent to which the different at 
classes share in Lingayat privileges is believed to dejieud chiof 
the time at which they adopted Lingayat practices. The desertio 
of Brahmanic priests in favour of Jaugara priests has spread 
among the local Bralimanical population. The practice has giv(Hj 
tomanyhalf-LiugAyat castes whose religious observances are irrej 
Some of them wear both the ling and the sacred thi'ead, aud ei 
'?pth Brahmaus au.d Jangams to perfprjuathcir ceremonies. 

Bra'hiuailS include eight divisions with a strength of 20,1< 
3'5'3 per cent of the Hindu populatiou^ : 

'The 18^1 census shows that 19,162 people born in Bfjiipur were In • 
fouikd in different parts of the Bombay Prosicloncy. The dctaila are, Dli.. 
Belgauin 4252, 8hoUpar 383-4, Kftn.xra 80l. Foono 4fi9, Satira 318, Katuaxm 
Niksik 58. ThAna 39, KJiAndeeh 36, and Abmadnagar 32. 




BtJAPVK BiUaujys, 18St. 

t txum. 





lUlMk riMMlM. 




1 =re 






2 -(i 

s ai 

l» 8 
«1 1 M 




eshasth Briilimans are returtieJ as rminbering 18,638 and 
d over the vrholo district, their nnmber being largest tn 
.^inalleat in Badami. The word Deshasth is generally taken 
n a resident of the plain or upland Deccan as distinguished 
l) ' "-■ west and the seabnard Konkan, bat, as the bulk of 
I nf the Bfimliay Karndtak eyen as far sooth as DhArwar 

be 1' not Dekkanis, it is possible that Sir 

ot*3 ex[ ^hasths means people of the desh or 

y, in the sense of local Brahmans, maybe correct.' According 
ir own tradition they came in old times from Northern India,* 
rn appearance they differ little from the other upper classes, 
luisths fomi about 92"44 per cent of the Brdbman population 
the flifitricT. They do not differ in names, stock names, or 
the DesKasths of Belgaum, Dhdrwar, or Kdnara. 
i into Sitid.rt3, Vaisbnavs, and Sav^hes of 
tfao Smarts are the moot numerous. Most Smarts and 
ava eat together and intermnrry. Strict Vaishnavs do 
c their daughters to Smarts, becaase, though they would 
o cat rice balls on that day, if it is suitable on other 
iTts do not scruple to uffe&rice balls to the bouIs of 
1 ou the lurifir eleventh fast day. This is inconvenient, 
whc-a a Vai^hnav woman is married to a Smart man her son 
At the time of offering rice balls to the souls of his deceased 
offer also a rice ball to his deceased maternal uncle, 
«oul of the deceased mat-ernal uncle, though a Vaishnav, 
to accept the offeriug even on the fast day. TbeSavishes 
c»v>ked l>oth by Smarts and by Vaishnavs, but neither 
t^rfcs Ti< ■ Tinrs eat with them. The only exception is that 

bkbnav -^ of Flaghvendra, the SavJlshcs' pontiff, will dine 

ii SnviUhes it IWghvendra is present. 

ain why the Suvashes, which is supposed to mean the 

i* pn*" ont of caste this story is told. A Brdhmao dig^ging 

id a pot full of charcoal. Ho knew the charcoal 

M evil eye had turned to charcoal. He hung one of 

-. of charcoal in front of his door and waited till some pure- 

.1 |.. i»on should be struck by the sight of gold. The charcoal 

Id be turned to gold only by the sight of some one whose glanoe 

hj6 gn 

.frtaniJi! PtViDolojpciJ Society, N«ir Scrian, I. 118. 

.now the people of BijApar say, th»t, Bupiiosing a row of man 

I. luiil without Hect markii, it would, with a few excoptinns, be 

QMi ' I'inch&lfl and other o1iiuD«c» of oriiftgmen, and iliflicult 

' And the upper cUm of husliAndnieii. Sir W. Elliot 

! n >M>riea, I. 118, i'£i.\'Si), wliu knew the pcopto 

}. :Vhnmn« h»d do Aryoa bloud and wcr« local 

to ■ , , , , , I ...-s. 


iBombay (HuttMn] 



ipter ni. 



had power to overcome the blight of the Brfihinaii's evil eye* A 
a tanner and hia daughter passed and the girl asked her fnt 
look at the gold. At all risks ho determiued to marry a wil 
would turn his dross to gold. He married and was put out of ^ 
He was rich in gold, but he was lonely. To get some of his 
fellows to forfeit their position as he had done, ho bailtai 
mansion with 125 rooms. He asked 125 mcu of bis caste 
separately and secretly to come and dine with hira. Each 
received in a separate room and thought himself alone till risfl 
after dinner to wash his hands at the house well he found the otl 
124 each washing his hands. The crime, could neither be h'\<iM 
nor forgiven so the 125 form a separate and inferior community. 

With a few exceptions Bijapur Deshasths are dark middle-di 
and unmnscular, the face is round, the features well-cut, and t1 
expression intelligent. Their hometongue is Kanarese. Theylil 
either in one or two-storeyed houses with umd or stone walls and I 
roofs ; the floor as well as the wall both inside and outside beii 
plastered witli cowdung. The houses are badly aired and are not clt 
Those who are in Government service have tables, chairs, aud oil 
European furniture; all have metal vessels, plates, lamps, wc 
boxes, and the other articles in use among Brdhmans. Manya 
cows, buffaloes, and ponies. The well-to.dohave family prieai 
servants both of their own and of other castes. Except 
Shdkt^ or worshippers of female powers who do it as part of tli 
religion and some whose English education has led them to disrc^ 
the caste rules of conduct, they are careful to avoid the nse 
animal food and of liqupj*. Government servants and priests 
two meals a day, aud those who work as husbandmen take thr 
Like the Kunbis the first meal of those who take three me 
consists of cold food left from the last evening's supper, 
staple diet is millet bread and chatni or a pulse curry, 
rice and vegetable curries being their special dishes. Both 
and women batJie before meals. The men wear a silk waistclol 
or a cotton waistcloth which bus been freshly washed and touofa< 
by no impure hand. After putting on the dining robe, they i 
sacred sun-hymn or gdyatri and seat themselves on low wooden i 
Before beginning to eat a Brahman dips his hands in a wat€ 
and passes his wet hand round his plate so that it is encirclec 
line of water-drops. On the right side of the plate, if he is a ~ 
he lays five, or if ne is a Vaishnav he lays three pinches of cool 
or whatever other food forms the chief part of the meal. The 
doles of food are called chifn'nina or Chitragupta's food. The 
supposed to represent the five dishes which should bo kept 
for chance guests. Ho takes a little water on his right palm, 
and swallows five morsels of food for the five vital airs or panch-i 
After this ho does not leave his seat till he finishes his meal, 
are good cooks and moderate eaters. They are proverbially foj 
sweetmeats, and make many sweetmeats on holidays and durii 
ehatuiiiids or four godless months from July to October. As i 
married women eixi from their husband's dish after he has finish^ 
meal. The men shave the head except a topknot which among 
is small and among laymen is large. The chin is shnvt'd. and ti 




tache is worn cat close by priests and by laymen fuU and long in 
V ,1-nioustaohe style. Men's ordinary dross includes 
■crod thread, the jacket or long coat, tho shoulder- 
, and country shoes. The women wear a bodice 

. -^ c..jrt sleeves and a robe whose skirt is puckered in 

and the end drawn back between the feet and tucked in behind. 

npper end is drawn over the back and the head which it covers 

Teil. In-doors boys below twelve wear a loincloth and out 

a long coat reaching to tho ankles and a skull cap. 

married women wear all the ornaments in ordinary use 

Lflrwdr Deshasths.' Widows shave the head, take off their 

tiose-riugs^ the lucky necklace, and glass bangles, and wear 

robe and no bodice. They are allowed to wear a gold finger 

""'"'i the word Ram engraved on it. Married women mark the 

h Vermillion paste and wear flowers in tho hair. The Smarts 

and red brow-mark and the Vaishuavs draw throe upright, 

Imped lines of sandalwood paste from tho top of the brow to 

of the nose. They also stamp their temples, arms and belly 

sandal pa-ite marks of Vishnu's couch shell and discus. They 

cmn, hardworking except the priests, sober and orderly, but rather 

■-■■■— I'd, hospitable, intelligent, cunning, showy, and thriftless. 

m own lands and houses. Some foUow the hereditary 

ship ; some are Government servants as tniimlatdara, 

'filg, some are house servants to woll-to-doDeshasths, 

tniders and bankei*s, some are cooks to merchants, and 

Losbandmen, either tilling their own land or land leased 

oUters. Except by minding the house tho women do not help 

M»D.' From eight or nine a girl begins to help her mother in 

QUSfif. Boys stop at school till they are old enough to earn their 

5. Some hold rent-free or quit-rent lands granted them by the 

wn. The spread of English has lessened their receipts as priests, 

in Ocvernmcnt service Chitp^vans and Lingtiyats press them 

^^ii^y borrow on personal security at twelve to eighteen per 

I igh, as a class well-to-doj they complain that they are not 

Li I .ju rtjs they used to be. 

Iirv?e who work in the 6elds rise early, bathe, recite the sandhya 
|» prayer and worship house gods, and breakfast on what 

-r from supper. In the busy season they take millet 
with them and dine at noon in the fields working till 
Thov come homo and sup, talk over their crops and 
cattle till nine, and go to bed. In tho slack season, that ia 
' '^ly, they come back at nine and pass throe or 

I _r and talking with their neighbours. Village 
ta or kulkaniis, village headmen or ■pdt'ih, merchants and 
out at daybreak, work, and return home between nine 
ten, recite prayers, worship the house gods, and dine between 

Chapter III 


HIV oic-.. n i„ i\,^ iit..-:r.,vor statistical Accouot. 
ha UfcUc : . give to their bu&^>aDds is prnverbinl, Sdlin 

Mdttm<f iin-kartn, TliAt ia tlio wuAver'a wifo does 

vork. tbb ti^4«iK>r't* du«8 hail, tho oilniAn's wife ia hia rulor, the BrlbtUKa's 


fBombay Q»ietl 



iptCT III. 

eleven and twelve. Thej rest for some hoars, go back 
work anil Htip after coming hoino before it is dark, and t«lkl 
joke witli their family before goiug to bed. Priests rise at 
bathe m cold water, recite the sacred (jnyatri, worship the 
^gods, and read soino sacred book. If tlieir services arc rei 
they go to their employers. If not they take their u 
remain in the house till the afternoon when they go to t 
temple; they return at nightfall, say their pra^ 
talk over any news that is stirring, and goto bed. \VeU« 
women mind the house, visit temples both in the niomiii| 
evening, worship the tuUi or sweet basil and the pimpal or 
fig,' serve their husband at his meals, and visit friends in 
afternoon. The poorer women rise early, clean the cooking vea 
sweep the house, bring water, cowdung the house-shrine, but 
and putting on a silk robo worship the sweet basil plant, cc 
their husband's dinner, and heat water for his bath. If 
has time before her husband comes, she combs her hair 
makes the brow-mark. She dines when her husband has finjj 
and busies herself in scrubbing cooking vessels and plat< 
cleaning rice and grinding com. She goes out for an hoar or ' 
either to friends or to the village temple. On her return she tni 
supper ready and goes to bed as soon as her work is over, 
too young for school spend the day in play. They hold thoi 
higher than any other Bnlhmans, but rank equal with ChitJ 
Karhddjls and Shenvis. A family of five spends £1 to £3 (Rs. lO-l 
a month on food and JLl (Rs. 10) a year on clothes. A house 
£10 to £100 (Ks.100-1000) to build, and 1«. to 4«. (Rs. 1-2) amc 
to rent. Their house goods are worth £5 to £50 (Rs. 50-500). 
birth costs £3 to £6 (Rs. .30-00) ; a boy's thread-girding £4 to. 
(Rs. 40-100) ; a boy's marringe £60 to £100 {Rs. GOO- 1000) ; ik^] 
marriage £30 to £100 (Rs. 300-1000) ; a girl's coming of ago £3 1 
(Rs. 30-100), and a death £2 £50 {Rs.25.500). T[ 
are followers of Shnukardchnrya of Malal>!lr, who lived u 
eighth century and is the apostle of one theory or chnaf, that the 
and the Supreme Being are the same. Though they lean to Shaivisj 
they hold the worship of Vishnu and ofShiv to be of equal imporla.c 
Tho Vaishnavs or Bhiigvats follow Madbavilchdrya who was bom] 
South KAm-ira in a,i>, HOD. Ho was the apostle of the dual tht 
or ilvnitmat that tho soul and the Supreme Being were different^ 
held that Vishnu was the true object of worship, 

Though the keen rivulry which formerly marked the relati* 
between the Smfirts and the Bhagvats has to a great extent pafl 
away tho Vaishnavs arc still careful to show their dislike of ~' 
Some of them when passing a Shaiv templo cover their fi 
a cloth that they may not see it, and most of them take pi 




ving ShtiiV fast days with special feasting. In small matters 
show their difference by marking their brows and by brushing 
tcfith up and down instead of across as the Shaivs do. The 
y gods of Smdrta are Khandoba of Jejuri in Poena, 
' - ' -hvnr of Gokam in Kanaraj and Bhavdni of Tuljjipur i» 
"s country, and the Vaishnav family gods are Mahalakshmi 
ir, Vithoba of Pandharpur in yholdpurj and Vyaukateah 
igiri in North Arkot. Images of the family deities are 
in the house and are worshipped every day by bathing thera 
Mdter, rubbing them with sandal paste, and ofiFering them fruit 
era and cooked food, and waving lighted lamps and burning 
ttkincense before thera. In poor families the head of the house 
iorms the woi-sbip himself; the well-to-do employ a priest of 
sect called Acluirya who is fed and clothed and is much 
Some Smarts secretly worship Shaktis or female 
ittlies under the name of Amba Bhavani, Durga, or K4li. 
ti worshippers offer cooked moat and spirits to the goddesses 
afterwards eat the offerings. Some Smilrts worship an earthen 
- ' ! m of Shiv. It is made every day with the right hand 
•d on the palm of the left hand. The guide of the 
- at S^vanur in DhArwarj and of the Smarts at Sonda 
'Vn. During his visitation tour the Vaishnav guide 
bis followers with heated metal seals called Shrivintira or 
iky tnuitni marked with Vishnn's conch shell or shankli and 
discus or chakra. Of late this practice has begun to fall into 

oulrts keep almost all Hindu fasts, lyid specially observe the 
' f SUrdvan or July-Angust, SankaahtiH or troublesome dark 

1 all montljs, Shauiitrndo.ths or Saturn's evenings the 
jcDths.andiS'/ii't'ra/ny orShiv's nights the fourteenths of the dark 
e». VaLshnavs observe their special fast days only, the fast days 
lunar elevenths, now and full moons, and Gukiddshtami or 
-.rhth in dnrk -SAmraw or July-August.^ Both Smarts and 
ifo on pilgrimage to Benares Gaya and Prayjlg in North 
' '. ar in Madura, and many other holy places of less 
I rite places of Sm.-irt pilgrimage areBAdami in Bijdpnr, 
im, Jt'juri in Poona, and Shrisbail in North Arkot; 
iv pilgrinijvgo DwArka in West K^thiawdr, JIathura in 
'(Vest IVovinces, Pandbarpnrin Sholilpur, and Vyankatgiri 
Arkot. Deshasth Bnihmans have strong faith in 
_'. astrology, sorcery, and ghosts. 

n sacraments or snnshira most Brahraans observe 

, :...- ad -girding, marriage, a girl's coming of age, and 

Women are confined with the help of a Kunbi midwife in a 

g-in room which is specially set apart. The moment of birth is 

iniJlj noted and told to an astrologer who prepares a birth-paper 

The child's navel cord is cut and the mother and 

1 in warm water. The babe is given some castor 

ti iLa mother a mixture called <n(n^/»at*<fa or ginger -mixture 



* I^Mhacth fMta and fearta is ^ven in tha Db&nrir SUtiatical Account. 

I Bombay 





vt cutechu, myrrb, and powdered dry dates^ mngcr, cocoa Iter 
and molasscB. For the Grst two days the child is fed with hi 
and after that the mother suckles it. The mother's diet is co 
dry rice and clarified bntter. She ia held impure for ten days, dc 
jvhicli she is nursed by the midwife. Wlien the ten days aro 
the midwife is giren 2s. to 8». (Rs. 1 -4) in cash and the robe wor 
the woinau, and sometimes also a new robe. When children are I 
lit buch unlucky moments as when the moon is in Vyatip-U. nr 
hun or mottii in VaidhrUi, the family priest kindles a j^i 
or iji-ahoKhanfi fire to tiiru aside the unfavourable infl'j 
planets ;' and the father Ixjfore looking at the child's face ni08 
look at the reflection of bis own face in a cup of melted clarified button^ 
During the first ten days after the birth, for about an hour in 
L'vening, the family priest reads shnntipdth or quieting tt^xts to gi 
the mother andchild from evilinlluences. On the fifth day the mic" 
stii-ks a lemon on the point of a dagger and lays it on a low wc 
Btool with a numberof glasslmngles. To this dagger which is sopf 
to represent Satvai or Mother Sixth, the midwife offers sandal, vei 
lion, and turmeric paste, and semicircular cakes stuffed with pulBC 
molasses. On the tenth, female neighbours are called to the B«l 
or mighty Ram ceremony. When they come a bamboo has" ' 
of rice is laid on the spot whei"e the child was born and tli 
of the mighty Rdm is traced in the rice. The mother ruV 
paste on her palms, and marks the rice red in five pi 
comers and in the centre. The child ia laid on the noe 
wooden churning stick is placed near it. The women 
wave lighted lamps roui^fl the face of the mother and the 
betelnnts and leaves lime and gram are served, and the gB 
withdraw. On the eleventh the floor of the house is cow^dui 
and the household batho and change their clothes, the rncn 
putting on a fresh saci-ed thread. The family priest gives them 
five cow-gifts or pavcfujavija to swallow, and some Brahmans nr 
on higgi that ia a mixture of hot pulse and molasses. The fa 
priest who is one of the guests ia presented with money in 
for reading the sacred books. On the twelfth night a nnmbe 
Brahmans varyiug accoi'ding to the father's means are asked to dittf 
The mother stands on a low wooden stool with a cap coveringi 
head, foi"ehea<l, and temj^les, and with country shoes on. Ft 
neighbours and kinswomen bring trays with caps, frocks, and 
for the child and its mother. They set the cradle in the 
room and forming two parties stand opposite each other oi 
side of the cradle. One party takes the oblong granite Kjtut- 
pestle and puts on it the babe's hanH or wire necklace, and tl 
pass the stcaic-roller three times from one party to the othi 
beneath the cross bar of the cradle, the women each time s»j ' 
'Take Goviud and give riopal.* Then the child is thrice pa 
under the cradle bar in the same way as the spice-pestle 
passed, four kinswomen lay the child in the cradle, and each 

■ yifntijKii 18 when a iievr moou in the Shrivan or DIumiBhta mansion folbi 
RtindKy : VnhlhriH is when the una or moon is on theaame aide of either solatice 
bt equal decimation but opposite direction. 



fi nnnic. The name chosen is given by the eldest member of the 

id is the natno of a deceased grandfather or of some other 

.itjou who is dead. One of the house women bends over the 

ftnd whisptTS kiir-r-r in its ear, and after saying kur-V'T-r she 

r« the name. While she is doing this four or tire little girls pa^ 

on the back. The child is then taken out of the cradle and 

iventv the mother who is seated on u low wooden stool. Before 

ikin'_r lb*? child she rubs her hands and face with turmeric powder 

her brow with vennilHoii paste. The guests wavo 

\>H round her face, turmeric and Vermillion are handed 

ind, and the guests are feasted. After supper they withdraw, 

if the preseut trays filled with soaked gram. For her first 

lent a girl generally goes to her parent s. 

re girt with the sacred thread between seven and eleven. 

'b father susks au astrologer to examine his sou's horoscope 

to fix a day fur the ceremony. In the morning of the day 

sforo the throad-girdiug a god-pleasing or devk/irya is performed 

^Upii the family gods are solemnly woi'shipped, castemen and women 

jd, and married women .singing merry songs rub the boy with 

sric paste. The boy's father and mother, with friends and 

go to ask caste people to attend. Some of the caste 

liM them and go with them to the village temple, where the 

II and go back to their homes. Next morning the 

in hoar before the fixed time and the boy takes the 

St or vwtrikahhojan eating in the cook-room for the last 

of the same dish with his mother. He is brought out of, bathed in warm water, and in presence of the guests 

' ' ' i.-d by a barber. After beingshaved he is again bathed 

' or bnhulr where the priest girds him with the sacred 

with :t -! . II [ii'-.c of deer skin tied to it, makes him put on a 

of iKuiiMi L'l.r., to which a turmeric coloured loincloth ia 

lOd, and puts in his hand a stick of pala^ or Butea frondosa. 

' iuher kindles the sacred fire or honi and whispers the snn 

or 'j'iyatri into the boy's oar.^ The boy takes in his hand a 

r'fc wjJIet or y/tofi and beginning with his mother goes round 

lesla and gathera alms. At the end of the begging money is 

to the priest and to begging Bnihraans and the guests are 

to a rich dinner. The festivities last till the fourth day 

Ibati the lioy'i^ ochro-coloured robes are taken off and ho is dressed 

CTcry-day clutlies. 

Buys an^ married between twelve and twenty and girls between 
' Till eleven. Widow marriage is not allowed and polygamy 
od. The ofTor of marriage comes from the girl's parents, 
o^tk rither some relation or their family priest to tiud a 
lie matcli. When a match is proposed the father of the boy 
pri, or a friend or relation on their behalf, visits the house 
btiy and girl to see whether tho match is suitable. If the 
^sal is accepted, the family priests both of the boy and the 
ttaked to ooroparo the horoscopes. They choose a lucky 

Chapter '. 

nia rutu, Om ! Let tu tliiok tho wonbipful light of 


[Bombay OaMtteer, 



ipter III. 

hour dui-ing the tnarriago season which laste from MdrgashinH 
NoveniLer-December to Jt'shth or May- June, oxceptiug tho mont 
of I'aiiiih or December - January and Chaitra or March -Af 
The fathers settle the amount the girl's father is to pay the Iwj 
who repays in money and ornaments twice as much as he receive 
Next cornea the betrothal. After sending word that they are comii 
a kinsman of the bridegroom's with some married women goes 
the bride's. At the bride's a party of caste people are mot and 
bridegroom's kinsman is received with great attention, Wh« 
guests are seated, the bride is brought before them by her fathc 
the boy's kinsman marks her brow with rod paste and lays in loA 
lap five halves of cocoa kernel, five dry dates, five pieces of turmenl 
five betelnuts, five plantains, and a handful of rice. He seats her 
his lap and puts a little sugar in her mouth. Presents of money 
made to the priests, betel and lime are handed to tho guests, 
the bridegroom's party though pressed to remain for 6up|>er 
home. When the marriage day draws near, the bride's father aoD( 
a party to the bridegroom's to ask them to the wedding. When tl 
bridegroom belongs to a distant village his party come a day or ti 
before the lucky day and put up in a temple in tho girl's villap 
Along with his people he is there received by the bride's father, wl 
washes bis feet, rubs them with sandal paste, and presents tho 
with a headscarf. This is called aimantpujan or boundary woi 
Tho bridegroom then goes with his party to the lodging whic 
boon prepared for him and iuvitatious are sent to caste 
When the bridegroom roaches his lodging, a party of 
women come bringing co(^ked food from the bride. Early in 
morning married women sot an earthen pot full of water at 
comer of a square marked by cotton thread which is passed save 
times round the necks of the pots. They bathe the boy in wttt 
taken from tho pots and dress him in a new suit. His paren^ 
bathe, put on sUk robes, and, with tho help of tho family pri« 
worship the guardians of the marriage porch or vmndapdrvt 
Tho bi'ide's people do tho same in their house dressing the br 
in a girl's narrow robo without drawing tho upper end over 
breast or head. When her dressing is finished the brido w< 
new earthen pots which wore brought the day before with 
pomp from a potter's house. When the lucky moment fixed for 
marriage draws near the bridegroom wearing the bdsinyh or marriaj 
brow-horn is seated on a horse and brought to the bride's. At 
bride's he is met by her father who leads him to a raised sent in 
booth and brings in his daughter, carrying her on his hip, and tl 
boy and girl are seated side by side on two low wooden stools, 
boy's father fills her lap with dry dates and other articles, and 
goes to the bouse shrine and worships her father's house gc 
While tho bride is away her parents wash the bridegroom's fee*" ' 
him with scented powder and paste, and pour water on his 
hand which he sips. On the bride's return she stands opposite 
bridegroom and her parents join her and the bridegroom's haz 
and pour water on their hands, A cloth whose centre is markc 
with a red Jain cross ia drawn between them. Tho family prii 
handB red rice among tho male guests and recites lucky versos 



jaJd^ihiaJkjf, while the guests keep throwing the red rice over tbo 

At the Incky moment, which is fixed by the filling of the cup 

tl»« prio-t'? water-clock, the cloth is suddenly drawn aside, the 

:• huuds, the musicians raise a deafening din, and 

use guns are fired. The ufiiciating priest wind.s a 

>a thread five times rouud the hands of four priests, twists it. 

cord, cut^ the cord in two, ties a piece of turmeric to each 

\itu»d binds one to the boy's right wrist and the other iro the 

"-»t. The lucky thread or mam/ttlsulra, whii-h is prepared 

_ girl, is given to the bridegroom, who fastens it round 

rKleii ueck and the priest kindles the sacred fire or honi. The 

walk five titaos round this fire and take seven steps in front 

it with their skirts tied together. Betel leaves, betelnnts, and 

»r*3 handed to the guests, the ends of the bride and bridc- 

>m*a cluthes are untied, and they eat together with a company 

rried women. For three days after the marriage the bride and 

)m stay at the bride's father's and during that time the 

(.are feasted. On the fourth day the pair are bathed. The 

_ )m is dressed in the rich clothes and ornaments which 

l|g;iveti by the bride's fatlier, and the bride in those given by the 

r-...>Ti, nnd for the first time the upper end of the bride's robe 

- fjishion passed over her chest and head. The pai-enta 

Ei.-ii'.' and bridegroom exchange presents and the bride- 

I'a Tii'ither lays in the bride's mother's lap five pieces of bodice 

ii'r articles. The girl's mother walks into the house 

holding over her head a metal tray with a lighted latnp 

kit, walks five times round the marriage guardians while her brother 

a naked sword slanting through the' light of the lamp. At 

«Qd of the fifth turn the soot which has gathered on the blade 

off and with the soot the bo}'^3 and girl's faces are 

The parents of the bride then make over the bride 

•room's parents and the girl is seated on her mother- 

■ . On this the bride and bridegroom, riding the same 

the girl in front, start for the village-temple where they 

lip the god and go ou to the boy's lodging. At the boy*a 

a little oookod rice is waved round the faces of the 

id thrown away as an offering to evil spirits. Their thread 

lets *re taken off, and the couple go to the house shrine and 

to t' At the door of the shrine is a metal cup full of rice 

a C-' iiicnt in it, which the bride upsets with her left foot 

The bride's father gives a feast at hia house and the 

.s father asks his own party to dine at his lodging. 

Wlion a Brdhman girl comes of age she is dressed in gay clothes 

luinnted with flowers and jewelry. She is seated under 

Honied catiopy or maiilap and her husband's clothes arc 

ric water. In the evening of the third day 

iii come with sweetraefits which she oata. Ou 

>anh day i<fio is bathed, her husband is seated beside her^ 

iiir lap tH filled. 

Whrtt sickness takes a fatal turn the dying man is bathed. 
»iuco of t' '' ■ in the outer hull or public room is washed 
struvrn red tlarhh gi-aaa and sesamum seed Over 

Chapter '. 


Bra ri. MANS. 


rBombay Qm 



ipter III. 


the sacred g^ass a wbito blanket is spread and the dying mnn 
laid on tbe blanket ; the five cow-gifts are put in his nioulh : 
ho makes gifts of money, cows, clothes, and furniture to Bt 
priests. When no sign of life remains, friends and kins| 
gome and bring all that is wanted for tho funeral. If the d< 
a married woman who leaves a husband alive she is dressed ia 
regular robe and oraamented with glass bangles and other jewelf 
her eyes are marked with black salve, and her brow with vermillic 
paste. Except the face men and widows are covered all over with] 
white shroud. The body is placed on a bamboo bier to which it 
tightly tied by a hemp rope. Meanwhile tho chief mourner ' 
cold water and shaves his head and face and again bathing d 
a now wet waistcloth, straps a second waistcloth across his shoali 
and, with tho help of the family priest, makes ready some 
fire in an earthen jar. When the fire is ready he carries tho firef 
by a string, and starts close in front of the bier, which is carrie*! 
the shoulders of four near kinsmen and is followed by a bond 
friends and relations. Half-w^ay to tho burning ground the 
stops, the bier is set on the ground, and a copper coin is left 
The bearers change places and the funeral party moves on to 
burning ground. On reaching the burning ground the mourufl 
cuts the ropo which tied the body to the bier by rubbing it betf 
t"wo stones. He pours the live coals from the firepot on 
ground. He goes to the nearest water, fills the jar, and pour 
a little water into the mouth of the corpse. The body is set on aH 
pile of wood with the head to the south and the feet to tho nurtl 
blocks of fuel are laid over it, and the pile is lighted, When tl 
body is consumed the chief mourner takes on his shoul-f'"- '1'J 
earthen jar full of water, goes three three times round the j 
of his relations at each turn piercing the bottom of the jar wnh lim 
lifestone or ashma, and at the spot where the head lay dashes th^ 
jar on tho ground. All who take part in the funeral jtr 
bathe in a pond or river and go to tho house of mourning, w i 
spot where the spirit left the body is cowdunged and a lamp 
lighted. Close to the lamp is placed a small earthen vessel coti 
taining water and a coil of thread tho end of which is 
to a peg driven into the nearest wall. Tho funeral party go to i 
temple or rest-house and sit there till the stars come out. ITi^ 
after-death ceremonies begin on the tlrst, third, fifth, or othi 
odd day before the tenth. The ashes and bones are gathered sud 
thrown into water and Bnihmans are feasted. On tho tontb 
day the chief and other male mourners go to tho burning grooBt 
and offer balls of cooked rice to crows, and, before thoy retur 
the house is washed with a mixture of cowduug. If the croi 
at once feed on the rice balls tlio mourners think that the dc 
left with no nnfulfilled wish. If tho birds do not come the ch»« 
mourner prays them to oat and promises to carry out all tho dc 
man's wishes. If even after these prayers and promises the croi 
will not eat, the chief mourner takes a blade of sacred _ 
and with it touches the food. On the eleventh day they go outsio 
of the village to complete tho funeral rites and do not return til 
tho next day when coromouial impurity ends. On reaching hot 



io chief monmer bathes, and feeds five prieBts and others who 
•he funeral party on victuals separately cooked. On the 
li the house is ngaiti cowdimg-ed and the caste-peoplo are 
Breuchus of social discipline aro enquired into and 
Miid by their spiritual guide during his tour of visitation^ 
. people teach their boys as well as their girls to read and 
ite Kanare&e nod Marathi. 

,'8, returned as numbering 178, aro found thinly scattered 

rer the whole district. Some are beggars, Romo watchmen, and 

bmo petty traders and sweetmeat-sellei's. They are a branch of 

le KAnnyakubja3, who do not eat with them. Their home is North 

lia liixd their home tongue is Hindustani. They aro not perma- 

kl settlers and occasionally visit their native land.* 

.'nv&'s aro returned as numbering 438 and as found all over the 
>t except the sub-divisions of Bij^pur and Jndi. Almost all 
'imaus at Ilkal are Kilnvds and they are hereditary village 
intantd of a good many small villages in the neighbourhood. 
9j are found in the Bdddmi sub-division, and there also hold 
rcral hereditary village-clerkships. They differ in no impor- 
j>articular from Deshsisths who look down on them and 
!»ithf>r eat nor marry with them. Telagu and Konkauasth Brdhuians 
but do not marry with tbera. They are husbandmen, priests, 
moneylenders, and are well off. 

Sa'rhada'S) returned as numbering 236 and fia found in small 
iirnN'-r-i in all the larger villages, came originally from Karad in 
o employed as cooks by Mzirwari Vdnis, some are 
mtSj and some are potty dealers. Though long 
ItieU iu the district, they \nflit their original home from time to 
preferring to marry their children to their caste-people at 
rarhiid. Their customs differ little from the customs of Deshasths.* 

[c istllS or CniTPAvANS are returned as numbering oGl 

[u ; biuly scattered over the district. They are immigrants 

the Koukan. As far as memory remains the oldest families came 
stime of BijApor rale, some as beggars and some in search of 
lent. Their number increased and they prospered under the 
r4b,aDd since the couutry pa«sed to the English many Chitpjivana 
>aa Goverixment servants, some of whom are settled in the 
(They are landholders, Government servants, cooks, money- 
id beggars. They are fairer, taller, and better-featured 
Brdhmans, Their home tongue is Manlthi but out of doors 
Kinarese. They are intelligent, frugal, sober, indus- 
id enterprising. Many of them are well-to-do. 

lOnvis are returned as numbering sixty-nine and as found in 

ill nuriitiiTS in B^d^mi, Bflgalkot, BagevRdi, Bijjipur, and Hnn- 

id. They are emigrants from Belganm and DhdrwAr. They are 

iment servants. Their customs do not differ from the customs 

Igaam Shenvis which are described in the Belgaum Statistical 


Chapter III. 







Kanojtt cuatonu arc given in the Poona Statistical Account. 
* KontaniMtli cuatomB &rc given in the Poooa Statistical Aocount. 

[Bombay Gtxet 



ftpter III. 


Tirguls are retnroed as numbering eighteen and as found ob 
in Bdgev&di and Bijdpur. They are supposed to have c<'\ 
the Toiugu country about 200 yeara ago. They bavo no sob 
Their family stocks are Blitlradvrij, Kaushik^ K^syhaj), Lo 
^apj and persons belonging to the same family stock do not vi 
marry. Thoir home tongue is Kaoarcse. They are dark, midc 
sized, muscular, hardworking, and sober. They are ganleuers 
AH a* class are well off and free from debt. They nre Si 
worship all Br^hroanical gods, keep the usual Hindu holidai 
fasts, and make pilgrimages to Allahabad, Benares, Nasik^ 
Tuljiipur. Their customs do not differ from those of the Desl 
■who look down on them, and though they use water bix>ugl 
them do not take food cooked by thtnn. Breaches of csiSie 
are enquired into and settled by caste councik. 

Vidurs, returned as numbering eighty-seven and as found 
small numbers in Bagevddi, Bijitpur, and Siudgi, are said to be 
illegitimate descendants of Brihrnaus. Their name in trac«il 
Vidnr the illegitimate son of Vyas one of the leading characters 
the Mahabhirat. They have no subdivisions, but persona known 
belong to the same families do not intermarry. Their customs do i 
differ from those of the Deshaathsj who neither eat nor tuarry 

^^^'°- 11 .1 II 

ISrdiimanical timdoB permanently settled included ihirty-oi 

divisions with a total strength of 220,9<J2 or 38-88 per cent of thj 

Hindu population. The details are: 

Bjj^pur Brabmaskal Hisom. 





' DiTiaioK. 




Agw&la ... 
























Oav^dla -. 












Oahtiuiu ... ,„ 




























Jiiiirnrs ., 




































Sur>ikv«Aih) Uds... 























Tbtal ... 





AgarvalSaro returned as numbering twenty and as found oolj 
in Bijapur. Their names, surnames, stock-names, and family -gods 
not differ from those of the Agarvdlsof Pandharpur with whom tl 
Iwith eat and marry. They are said to have come about 1 50 years i _ 
for trade and are said to be descended from Rajput ancestor 
Thev aretuU, wheat-coloured, mnscular.and manly. Their J 
is MariUhi and thoy live in one-storeyed terrace-roofed h- ■ 
using the same dress nnd food as the Belgaum Marathtis. 
hereditary profession is selling perfumes, but they are also hnsbandi 
They are religious, respecting Brahmans and emplo3'ing them I 
perforin their ceremonies. Their spiritual guide is a North Indiau 
Bnihuiau whoso head-quarters areat Poona. They are a hardworking 




r. neat, anrl onlorly peopla The only peculiar foatare in their 

. 'ny is that, on the morning of the day before the 

- -t a post in the ground and spread wheat before 

i on the wheat set a stnall water-pot. On the water-pot 

iuip which they keep baruing for five days. On th<B 

Hn^ day when the lucky moment comes, the bride and bride* 

'ic'ing the lamp and the post. Their death ceremonies 

r from those of Rajputs. Offences against caste rules 

re. i'bey are punished by fine or loss of caste according to 

rion of the majority of the castemeu at meetings held subject 

Irmtition by their spirituul teacher. They teach their boys to 

and write but do not take to new pursuita 

BG<lax*8, or Bcrads/ are returned aa numbering 21,262 and 
int] over the whole district They are especially common in 
kmi in the south. According to their own story the founder 
jir tribe was one Kannayya, a fowler and hunter, a devout 
lippor of Shiv, Pleased with his devotion Shiv and his wife 
■•1 to Kaunayya and offered him a choice of boons. Kannayya 
Shiv to make him and his descendants sure shots and to 
iKc his and their lands grow corn without mucli labour or water. 
■ 1 his prayer, and all Bodars are good marksmen and 
;ind fowliug, growing only the rabi crops which 
lither much water nor much care. The names in common 
>ng men are Bhimoppa, Diisdppa, Durgdppa, Hanmappa, 
ma, and Ramappa ; and among women Bhimawa, Durgavva, 
tiiavva, Ramavva, Rangavva, and Yallavva, The KAnarese 
>rd 0pp<i or father ia added to the naiaes of men, and nwa or 
lie names of women. Most of their surnames are place 
Lralnavni, Chimalgikar, Khfiuaparkar, and Sulikirikar. 
■i are not peculiar t'O particular families, and persons 
■:;ame surnames are allowed to intermarry. 

sy are divided into Berads proper who go about with the 

of the goddess Durg-Murgavva in a box on their hoad, Jaa 

m, NAikmaklus or chiefs' sons, and Ramoshi Bcrnds, who 

ler eat together nor intermarry. The only one of these classes 

are fonml in Kal/idgi are the Ndikraaklus. "With a few 

tiotis, all are dark and muaculnr, audof middle height, with round 

flrtt cheeks, thin lips, and lank or frizzled hair. Their homo 

le (8 corrupt Kanarose, and some out of doors speak incorrect 

UJii. Tho well-to-do live in one-storeyed houses, with either 

»*• or mud wallH and terraced roofs, costing £G to £20 (R«. 00- 

nirer families live in huts which are built at a nominal 

r dwellings are dirty and untidy and are generally 

iMOOW-housos as well as dwellings. Their house goods iucludo 

few cleaulv-kept metal drinking vessels and plates and earthen 

oking vessels together worth £1 to £10 (Rs. 10-100). The 

' ':**ep servants of their own caste who, oxcluaivo of food 

:, cost them £1 to £2 10». (Ra. 10-25) a year. They 

Chapter 11 


' Tb« KAitarcae BcdAru sccinci to incAii lmnt<TH trom hftr hunting. The MarAtliftn 
ImU Ut«ia BcT»^i« kud tho Haanlqidns Uodiira which thoy auppoM to meou (bo (cuioM. 

[Bombay Gftset 


iptOT III. 

keep cattle and banting doga. They aro great eat^rs^ bat poor cool 
and have a special fondness for sonrand pungent dishes. Their Stat 
food is bread, split-pulse, millet, and yegetables, of which thoy 
three meals. His food costs a man about \^d. (1 a.) a day. 
lioliday dishes are polls or sugar rolly-polies, pulse broth or *rfr, 
hadhiin or sugar-duoiplicgs, molnasea cased in dough and stetrc 
prepared only on Nntj-pnnchini in Shrnvnu or July- August. They 
said to use all flesh except pork. They eat flesh as often as they 
afford it, except on Saturday which is sacred to Maruti or on Tuea 
which is sacred to Yallamma. On Mdrnavmi that is the day befo 
Daaara in October thoy cook and oEEer flosh to the godde 
Bhavani. Some drink liquor daily, and most drink at the Mobarr 
time, but on the whole they are moderate drinkers. Some drii 
hemp-water or hhinr/, some smoke hemp-flowers or g'hija, at 
some eatopiam. Of late the use of narcotics has been sproadintr. Tl 
men shave the head except the top-knotj and the face <• 'i( 

moustache. The men wear a headscarf, a waistcloth or i 
a coat or ehouldercloth, and shoes or sandals, together costing 
to 30». (Ra. 4-15). Their ornaments are earrings, silver bangU 
and a silver girdle, together worth £2 to £5 (Ra. 20-oC 
Women tie the hair in a loose knot at the back of the head, 
dress in a backed bodice with short sleeves and in a robe whc 
skirt is not passed back between the feet and whose upper end 
draw^n over the head. A woman's dress costs \2s. to 30«. (H8.6>]| 
a year. They wear car ornaments, nose-rings, wristlets, armlet 
and necklaces, worth £1 to £5 (Rs. 10-50); the poor have on^ 
one ornament, the luc^^-giving necklace worth 2s. (Re. 
Except a few of the well-to-do and those who are messenj 
and constables, the men and women are so untidy in their dr 
that among high-class Hindus Bedar is a common term for 
sloven. Most have a store of clothes for holiday use, tl 
women keeping their marriage dresses with care for 
occasions. The Bedars wore formerly a warlike dangerous cla« 
notorious thieves and highway robbers. At present as a class tht 
are orderly, hardworking, thrifty, hospitable, and free from crim^ 
Some are husbandmen, some village watchmen or talwi'm holdi ng f r 
grants of land, and some are labourers. Some of the husbandmc 
till their own lands and enjoy the produce ; some till land belom 
to others paying either a third or a half of the produce, 
women and children help in the field. Field-labourers, 
as well as women, are paid in grain, men getting corn worth abdC 
6iL (4 as.) and women corn worth about '6d. (2 as,) a da^ 
Some of them add to their income by selling milk and clarific 
bntter. They suffered heavily in the 187<> famine and many hsa 
not yet redeemed their lands from mortgage. They have ci 
with moneylenders and borrow at twelve to twenty-four per ce 
a year. They call themselves Naikmaklus or chiefs' sons ; oth( 
call them Berads or Bodars. High-class Hindus rank them beloi 
Mnsalmans. They rank themselves with Maratha Kunbis and othc 
field-working classes, and look down on Holias, Mjldigs, ati< 
other impure classes and even on Vadars and Lamdns. Thoy stai 
for theii' fields soon after daybreak, but, except when the rabi 




l^hi crops have to be looked after, tbey seldom work after midday, 
sxcopt when bardpressed they do not work their bullocks on 
ronuay, as Monday is sacred to BaBavanna, whose animal form is 
bolL A family of five speuda 12s. to £1 (Els. O-IO) a month on 
'and 8*. to £1 IO5. (Rs. 4- 15) a year on clothes. The birth 
Jild costs a rich Bemd l-in. to £1 (Ra. 7-10), a middle-clasa 
8ff. to 12m. (Rs. 4-G), and a poor family 2». to is. (Rs. 1-2). 
wedding costa a rich man £aO to £40 (Rs. 300-400) and 
r's £4 to £5 {Rs. 40-50); a man spends 
10 (Rs.100-200) on his son's we<lding and £2 to £3 (R8.20- 
on big daughter's ; and a poor man spends £6 to £10 (Rs.GO- 100) 
son's wedding and £1 to £2 (Rs. 10-20) on bis daughter's. A 
in a rich man's family costs £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30), in a middle- 
family £1 to £1 10,v. (its. lO-lij), and in a poor family lOx. to 
s. 5-10). As a class Bodars are religious, Thc-ir family 
is are Durgavva, Mallikdrjuu, MAruti, Venkateah.and Yallamiua, 
images, made either of copper brass or silver, they keep in 
honses. They worship their house gods generally after bathing 
iiesdays, and ^Saturdays, on full or new moon days, and on other 
»y«. They offer thoir house gods food on days when they 
before cooking. Besides their family gods Bedars worship 
findu gods especially local or village gods and goddesses, of 
iora their favonntes are Maruti and Vyankatesh. They keep most 
linda holidays, chieHy Do«ara in September -Octc)ber, Divdli in 
bober-Novemljer, and Ihe Ashvin or October- November new moon 
id on the Mil rej<t all risk or December- January new moon 
113 they perform the dangora fii?ld-rite. Like Raddis they 
»old charngfi or field feasts in honor of Tjakshmi.- They fasten 
lodM's mShrdvan or July-August andon all ordinary Saturdays 
ITaeadays when they take only one meal in the evening. Besides 
i cooked after bathing, on all big days they offer the gods 
luuts. dry dates, sugrir, molasses, camphor, and incense. They 
lajin Vdlmiki, the author of the Rfim/iyana, as a castefellow. 
19 Vdlmiki was devoted to RAma, the seventh incarnation of 
riahun, the Bedars identify every god witli RAm, and begin their 
by utteriug the word Ram. They pay deference to 
la and call them to officiate at their marriages. They havo 
ha 80f»th.«»aying, consult astrologers, and havo faith in 
They have an heredit-ary manned yuru or religious teacher 
to their own caste and is the religious and social 
community. All social disputes are settled by him as 
r kntfimani. He has power to put out of caste any ono 
uaste roles and to allow them back when atonement is 
On his death ho is succeeded by his son. If a woman is 
out of castej either for adultery or for eating with a member of a 

Chapter III 

other estimate* of monthly cort of living ia fnim<Hl on the bn-sls tbat 

Kiiy T^t^il tli«» feTAia and otiior Article* it u»c». Tlie actiuil cash 

vriil lower oruers *1 •' r »ro 

'.-refore liecoiieitlerikl' itefi, 

..„, '■'■? Tiioro tlmn rna,:: _ - ^liit- of 

l:1o« which Ui" 'ancca the ditfcretit ciA^iU4 ot tiic peo[rIc 

- I .ud c/>uru</« arc givcu below undur Kaddia. 

[Bombay Oi 



^pter in. 


lower caste, before she is allowed back her head should be shaved ia 
the presence of the katlimani. The present practice is to en* " ' 
hairs of her head with a razor, and for the caste-officer or , 
to touch her tongue with a live coal of rtu wood. A little lnj^ti-i 
jlso given her to drink as li<jnor is thought to purify her body. W L' 'j 
a man is guilty of incest with a kinswoman of his own stock or 
gotra he has to purify himself by shaving his moustache, brr-.'- ', 
and top-knot, by bathing in cold water, and by drinking a h 
ijuantity of liquor in the presence of the guide and caste-people. 

After the birth of a child the midwife cuts the navel cord, batboa 
the child and mother in warm water, and lays thera on a cot in a 
retired part of the house. The mother is given a mixture of molassea, 
dry cocoa-kernel, dry dates, dry ginger, and pepper, and is fed on 
boiled rice, wheat puddings, and boiled millet mixed with moU-^^f^ 
and clarified butter. A woman remains uuclean for five <1 
after child-birth. During each of these five days her head is 
anointed with clarified butter, her body ia rubbed with turmeric 
powder mixed with oil, she is bathed with warm water, and aq 
earthen pot with burning cowdung cakes is laid beneath her cc 
The child is rubbed with oil and bathed with warm wat 
Unlike most local Brahmanic Hindus, Bedara do not perform anj 
fifth-day ceremony. From the sixth to the thirteenth the mother 
and child are bathed every second day. The child is nan ' 
cradled on the thirteenth, and millet, wheat, green gram, b< 
pulse mixed together are served to all present. The hairof ai i , 
whether a boy or a girl, is cut for the first time either during mu 
first or the tliird mouth after birth. A girl should be married when «ho 
is between six months and twelve years old.^ The offer of maiTiag< 
comes from the boy's parents. When a match is projxjsed, the Ixiy' 
father with friend.s, goes to the girl's house and gives the girl's mothe 
4.«. (Rs. 2) and three-rjuarters of a pound of sugar, putting a little snf 
into the girl's mouth. He declares in the presence of caste-peopl 
that the girl is betrothed to his son, and is treated to two meal 
one on the first and another on the next day. After the seconC 
dinner, he returns homo with his party after fixing a lucky 
for the wedding. At a lucky hour by the help of a Bri' 
astrologer the boy's father goes to the girl's to perform the bhasl 
or betrothal taking with him a robe worth 10*. (Rs. 5), five bodit 
cloths worth 2s. (Re. 1) each, a cocoanut, five dry dateSi 
betelnuts, five turmeric roots, and five plantains, or some sil> 
gold ornaments. These thing.s are laid before the girl's he 
gods. The bridegroom's father tells the girl to put on the robe 
the ornaments ho has brought, and seating her on a black blani 
lays in her lap the cocoanut and other articles along with a haudi 
of rice. The guests are given betel leaves and betelnuts at 
sugar. To this betrothal village officers aa well as Lingaynt pri« 
are called. The boy's father and his friends are treated to a fei 
of Bugar-dumplings or kadbus and clarified butter, and next 

•Tho dangliters of wutows by tbeir secitjid liuslianda marry boub of widows by tb« 
Bcoond Uusbunds ; and daughters by Crat Lubbauda marry ^o^B by lirst busbuiuU. 



[eagnr roily- p<:)lies. On the lucky day fixed by an astrologer 
bride and her friends come to the bridegroom's where she and 
Diothor alone remain the rest of her party being lodged in a 
U© honse. Soon after she comes, the bride and bridegroom 
)lje«'i with turmeric paste, and bathed in water. The bathing' 
iken from two pots round which a square or ^urgi haS 
rn and a pot set at each corner of the square and encircled 
>tloa thread which runs round the neck of each pot. After 
th the bridegroom puts on gay clothes and the bride is dressed 
white njbe and white bodice, and both go and bow before the 
iBf godfl. On returning thoj' are served with a moal of cooked 
lot, p«?A-Roup or i*dr, and clarified butter. Next day tivo married 
'Ithe village border and return to the village boundary 
ige MAruti'a temple, bringing two saplings one of 
%hh or milk post the other of handarfjujnhh or marriage booth 
At the temple a married woman washes their fiices and 
Lvofi a lighted lamp round their heads. They then come in pro- 
lion to the bridegroom's and drive the saplings into the ground 
,£runl of the house to form the main posts of the marriage booth 
is afterwards built with a mnrriago altair. In the evening 
re given a dinner of cooked millot. After supper the goddess 
u or Lakshmi is worshipped. Four clay buckets each able to 
about a quart, a pitcher, and a small pot are brought in 
sion from the potter's house who is given undressed food enough 
good meal. In the small pot two little sticks are laid with 
hotil leaves tied to them by cotton thread. These two sticks 
•] rdrnhdns or Ram's aiTOWS. The bridegroom and bride 
married women bathe in water frOm a Hurgi or pitcher and 
in haste. They Ik)w to the house gods and are fed ou 
:elli or sfuMaya and the guests on sweet cakes or poUs. On the 
day, the bride and bridegroom are again bathed, dressed, and 
to bow before the family gods. Some men belonging to the 
i©'« p«irly put veruucelli in a bamboo sieve, cover it with a new 
tb, and take it to the bridegroom's. This present is called the 
iibkam or square earth -offering. It is touched by the bridegroom 
^*-*-pn by hve mi*u, three belonging to the bridegroom's party 
lo the bride's. The bri«le and bridegroom are mounted on 
jk, the bridegroom wearing the marriage coronet and the brido 
rcr-net on her head. They bow before tho village Mdrnti, 
aooootutut, and ouch ])ays the priest l^ci. (1 a.), who names 
or family-stocks. Meanwhile, four men, sons of 
>>.-ir iirst hiisbands, stand at the comers of a square, pass 
ind ft cotton thread moistened with clarified butter and milk, 
it off, and twist it with a Bvefold plait. It is coloured red 
• mixtarc o£ lime and turmeric powder and with a piec« of tur- 
tird to its end is wound round the bridegroom's wrist. A 
Uiread is prepared and tied round the bride's wrist. Mean- 
% Bnihiuau draws a lucky Jain cross or »vti3tilc in red paste 
centre of a newly washed white sheet. On their retnrn from 
lo of M^vruti, the bride and bridegroom are set facing each 
bridegroom standing on a sLono slab and the bride in a 
lot with tniUot in it The Brahman priest holds a cloth 

Chapter ' 



between thcin, and repeats mautjalaghtah or luck-giving verses. Al 
the end of each verse the priest thruwa rice on the heads of the Ixjj 
and girl, and the guests join in the rice throwing. The priest tell 
the bridegroom to touch the mangaUutra or luck-giving uocklaceJ 
and fastens it »x>nnd the bride's neck ; and Icankann or wHstlel 
afro also tied to the bridegroom's right wrist and to the bride's lef 
wrist. BrAlmians and LingAyat priests, both of whom attend, 
given money gifts, and the officiating priest, who is a BriihiiM 
paid 28. to 4^. (R8.1-2) in cash. The bride's father treats 
caste-people to a dinner, and the bridegroom's fatlier gives them 
8upp>er. After this the bride and bridegroom five times rub eacl 
other with turmeric paste. Between nine and twelve at night, t)i( 
bride and bridegroom are mounted on a bullock and led to the loca| 
Maruti's temple to bow to the idol, where they break a cocoanut, 
each pays the priest \\d. (1 «.) for naming their j^o/r^w or family-at 
When the procession reaches the bridegfroom's house, a coc< 
is waved round the married couple and broken as an offering to evil 
spirits. The bride and bridegroom are then led, or if young 
carried to the god-room to bow to the house god.«i, where they eat tl 
hhum or earth-offering supper with three married women and \.\ 
men. After supper, tlie bride and bridegroom are seated on a blanket 
on a sasakhi or rice-scat At the end each of them says the other'^ 
name and the tinsel chaplot is taken from the bridegroom's head anc 
the flower-net from the bride's ; and the bride's party are treated 
vermicelli or skevaya. Next evening comes the ndijuaU or snako-* 
worship, and a ruhjvaU hlnan or snake-worship earth-offering feast is 
given to the five married women who brought Lakahrai's jars from 
the potter's house. The^bride's mother hands her daughter ixj 
the mother-in-law asking her to treat the girl as her own daughter. 
The rice with which the bride's lap was filled at the vardi or retur 

J)n)cession is cooked, offered to the liouse gods, and eaten by the 
jonse-people with friends and relations. This ends the marringe, anc 
next day the wedding guests leave for their homes. Some take the 
bride to the bridegroom's on the day after this feast and some afte 
a few days. The girl remains there for a day or two and does Dol 
go to live with her husband before she comes of age. They perfor 
no ceremony when a girl comes of age. They allow and praetis 
widow maniage and polygamy and allow divorce. Polyandry 

With a few exceptions they barn their dead. The body is washeil _ 
and dressed, the brow of a dead man is rubbed with nahes, and the 
head of a dead woman is docked with a tiower-uet. They c.'vrry 
their dead on a bier except the poor wlio carry them in an old 
blanket. After burning or burying the body, the funeral party 
bathe and return to the house of mourning. On the third day, the 
mourners take rice, hdnohui or semicircular cakes, and water to 
tlie burning ground in a small new earthen pot, and lay them 
near the spot where the deceased was burnt or buried. The 
wait till a crow touches the offering. If no crow comes to eat, thfl 
chief mourner promises to take care of the deceased's childrei 
K even after this the crows refuse to eat they give the food to 

go home. Oa the sevonth, ninth, or eleventh day, the ashes 

les of the Joad ftro gathered and thrown into water and 

and relations are feasted. At the cud of a month friends and 

' 1 to a feast at which gnat's flesh is served. Some 

.t the end of the first year only ; others at the en<\ 

They have a large commanity and their social' 

nqaired into and settled by the headman or kattimctni, 

113 are enforced by putting out of caste any one who 

9 mr iji. \Vhen the headman aits to settle a case, he calls 

Ifpectablo CHstemen, and with their consent delivers jadg- 

'^ of thorn send their boys and one or two send their 

I The boys learn to read, write, and work easy suras. 

British rule the character and condition of the liedars have 

improved. In spite of their aufferiog from the 187t> famine 

%y be considered a rising class. 

ISf or Palanquin-bearers, are returned as numbering 582 and 
d all over the district, especially in Indi. The home speech 
I is Mwrifhi and of others Kanxirese. The well-to-do live in 
inayed substantial houses with flat roofs and the poor in mud- 
hais. They are dark and strong, with regular features, and 
lie height. The men wear a small cheap headscarf^ waistcloth, 
prt drawers. Some shave the head clean -, others leave tho 
j^L The women wear the full Mardtha robe without pass- 
B?rt bnrk between the feet, a bodice with a back and short 
B^ bangles. They bind their hair with a cotton string 

Pbl . it witli flowers or use false hair. They are not clean 
■ dress and have a liking for gay cojours. Their staple diet 
ku millet bread, fish, and vegetables; and on holidays they eat 
ad drink liquor. They are dirty, but active, hardworking, 
and even-tempered. Their hereditary profession is carrying 
iios, but most catch fish and some till land. They are Briili- 
^Rindus, keeping all ordinary holidays and paying particular 
Vio Araba-Bhavani, Jotiba, Khandoba, and Vishnu. Their 
i^monies are on tho occasions of birth, marriage, and death, 
lould be married before they come of age. The boy's father 
ajr the girl's father £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30). A Brihman priest 
,»t marriages and a Oosavi at deaths. In the marriage 
tho bridegroom stands on a low stool and the bride on a 
itaining bits of of various colours. They bury their 
lonm ten days. Tho funeral rites are performed between 
^tU and tho thirteenth. Widow-marriage and polygamy 
and polyandry is unknown. Breaches of caste rules 
itxl according to the opinion of the castemen subject to 
Ion by their hereditary headman who is called kenijiinvaru 
and who belongs to their own caste. Bhois do not send 
^ya to school or take to new pursuits. 

'ftlldis, or Masons, ax'c returned as numbering 74GG and aa 

iiUover tho district and in greatest numbers in Bagev^di. 

- fctory of their origin or of any former sotllemeut. 

a common use among men are Uuuamanta, Malhlppa, 

Pii&ppa, and Sangrlppa j and amoug women^ Bhdgawa, 

Chapt«r III. 




rBoin1)ay (htxet 



kapter III. 

Gaupavra, Jfinakawa, Malavva, Pulnf»avro, Satyawu, ami Yula\ 
Tho Kdnarese dppn or father is adiied to men's naim-s, and nvva I 
rnotber to women's names. Their Burnames are BhandigaraT 
BhaiiuliyAravaru, Chyamadiavru, GiuJatiavru, Gnusliavru, K\ 
diavru, Lauinvru, Modeuavrn, Rjiniyanavru, and Shin^rrini 
They have neither divisions nor family-stocks, and pers('i 

the same surnames cannot intermarry. To look at they u, 

from thclocal Kunbis except that they are somewhat darker and taiJj 
They speak a corrupt Kdnarese at home and Marjithi and Ilindust/ 
abroad. They live in one- storey ed houses with mnd and stone 
and thatched roofs, their house goods inclndiog earthen ve« 
with one or two metal pots for drinking water. They own cat 
and dogs but do not keep servants. Their staple food is bread, 8| 
pulse, and vegetables, and their holiday ditshes are sugar rot 
polies and rice. They like sour and sharp dishes. 'Ihey 
caste-feasts in hon<jur of marriages and of the goddess Yallauii 
Some bathe daily and worship tho house goda -beforo they 
Othera have no house gods and worship at Milrnti's temple. Exc 
goats, deer, hare, poultry, and fish, tliey deem animals unclean 
do not use their Hosh. On Dasara in September-October thoy kt] 
goat in honour of Tulja-Bhavani, and after offering it to the goddc 
feast on its flesh. They may nee animal food daily. Thr-y 
liquor and other intoxicants, genemllj'^ in the evening, and dor 
the Holt and MiihaiTam holiduys they drink to excess. Drinkiiij 
said to be on tho increase, and some have drunk themselves ic 
debt. Almost all of them have their heads clean-shnved, only a fl 
grow the top-knot. A man's every-day dress inclodes a headsc 
a waistcloth or a loinclofh, a jacket, a shouldercloth, and a pair* 
shoes. Their men's ornaments are a ^/n'fcWh' for the ear, a banf 
and a twisted wai8t<'hain. On holidays and high days rich 
wear silk-bordered waistcloths and chintz jackets, and poor 
wash their every-day clothes. Women wear tho robe and boii 
They cover the head with one end of the robe, wrap the otl 
round the waist gathering the skirt in puckers and tuck it n{ 
the navel. Their favourite colours arc red and black. Asamc 
men, rich women have a separate stock of clothes for holic 
use and poor women wash their overy-day clothes and wear tin 
The ornaments worn by women are the vdli, ghanii, and jhainJn\ 
tho ear J the chinchpati m\d mangnhfifra for the neck; and silt 
bangles for tho wrists. The rich have a large store of uniamet 
As a class they are orderly, hospitable, hardworking, tlulfty, 
mild ; but most of them are dirty in theii* habits. Formorlv 
were both masons aud salt-makers ; now as salt-making has 
stopped they are masons, husbandmen, or labourers. From 
of twelve boys begin to earn about M. (2 aj*.) & day. 
generally employed in making cow-houses and other rough bnilc 
Sometimes boys are apprenticed to a skilful m.ison who 
them a penny or two a day when they are at work. lie 
them the different ways of making walls and the use of the 
plummet, square, haminor. and otlacr tools. When he has mnstt 
his work the youth sets up for himself and earns Ms. to 16s. (Ks.7- 
A month. A good mason earns la. (8 os.) a day; aiidsouie specially 


rkmen cam even as inach as 2^. (Re. 1). Thej generally 
2#. (Re. I) for building a wall twelve feet long, two foet nod 
)r thick, aiid one foot and a half high. If the work is not 
kt, t' ' t\i is increased even to uiueteeu feet. Thej have 
f V, I XoveMiber to June, but from June to November 

•3 of them are not taitght their craft and*' 
I' ir women help theiu bj working in the 

I by guuiiug Cotton. Field labourers are paid either 
»r grain, their daily earnings representing S^l. to ijd, 
£xcept those who are given to drink or have been wasteful 
niarrinir."!, as a class Gav»ndid are free from debt. Some 
tbtjrrovv ivt twelve to twenty-four per cent on |)ersoual security, 
have to mortirage lan.l or to pawn ornaments before they 
a lo;ia. They rank with Kunbis below Brahmans and 

women and children work from morning to eleven and then 
Ac two they are again at work and work till sunset. They 
•*• ' 7 ling Hindu holidays. A family of five spends £1 C«. 
13- 151 a month on food and dress ; a house costs £2 
rij build, and 3i^ (2 (ig.) a mouth to rent. 
^> II £2 10«.to£7 10a. (R8.25-70). Only 

as hasbandmeu keep domestic animals. A birth costs 
tv. . .-. 3J - S), a marriage £5 to £10 (Ks. 50 - 100), and a 

8*. to£l lOo. (Ra. 4- 15). As a classGavandis are fairly reU- 
ta. Though their priests belong to the Oshtiiara caste, they 
;t BrtiliLuans and consult them as astrologers to fix the proper 
mi' lud a girl's coming of age, and for reaping and 

p t\ -,. They ask them to be'present at marriage and 

't'-9. Their family deities are Hanmantdev, Tulja- 
. :katramaa, and Yidlamma, aud their special guardian 
ikatraman. Tbey go on pilgrimage to the shrine of 
Lfniman at Vyankatgiri in North Arkot and to Tulja- 
kvani lit Tuljapnr in the Nizam's country. They keep almost 
[Hindu fasts and feasts. They have an hereditary ijuru or 
'tus teacher who is called TrikamtAtjicharja and belongs to 
Itbam caste. Ho advises them to lead a good life and to keep 
their caste which ho says is the best caste in the world. 
kintoin him from a fund raised by their oastemen. They 
l-not to worship local deities or evil spirits. The images of 
>d8 are in the funn of human beings^ of bulls, and of 
I in brass or copper and some are of 
. believe in witchcraft and soothsaying. 
Itiary modiciuus fail, an exorcist or sorcerer is called 
the sick with charms and amulets. If a person is 
by a family ghost, the ghost will not leave him unless 
the exorcist, Tim head of the family promises the ghost a 
yETuring of food and cloth. Outside spirits are easily driven 
II by an exorcist or by some one sotting tho 
->. j'vrrif or wide-awake god that is a god in the 
of his divinity. Sorcerers are sometimes 
« ^ ige by destroying an enemy's life. If 

ixurciat eucceedis m briagiug about the death of his client's 

Chapter III. 



^pter in. 

enemy liis servioca are eoon in great request. Poopio 
that many BijApnr proprietors and estate-holders havo been kill 
by sorcerers and that most men of this class keep sorcerers 
guard them against secret attacks. Professors of black or deat 
dealing magic are to bo found in almost all castes. The 
•Vhich Bijapur soothsayers generally make use of are Prashnacl 
maui the fortune-teller literally meaning the jewel of ans 
to questions, and a Sanskrit book containing tables filled 
letters or numbers. When a man comes to consult a Bootksa? 
the soothsayer tells him to lay a betelnnt on one of the tables 
to open the book by means of a little stick. The soothsayer th( 
refers the number on which the betolnut has been laid or the 
letter he catches sight of in the page at which the book has 
opened to some other book, and tells the man whether he 
succeed or fail. On the pages of the book called Prashnachint 
maui are figures of gods and demons. When the man opens tl 
book at a page with a picture of a god the soothsayer tells hi 
that he will succeed and describes the virtue and power of 
deity and the means he should take to please him. If the ml 
opens the book at the picture of a demon he has no hope of succc 

When a Gavandi child is born, the child and the mother 
bathed and laid on a bedstead under which a pot ■nHth burni 
cowdung is kept to guard them from cold. The mother is gii 
dry cocoanut-kornel and molasses to chew. Half an hour after h^ 
delivery she is fed with boiled rice and clarified butter, and tl 
diet is continued for five days. In the evening of the fifth da-y tl 
midwife worships the goddess Jivati, and takes with her to her hot 
the dish of sugar rolly-p^lies and sugar dumplings, and the rio 
split pulse, and spices which were offered to the goddess, and tl 
waving lamp she used iu the worship. The lamp is cairii 
under cover because if any except the mid\vife sees it the chil 
Bud the mother will sicken. On this day a caste feast is git 
On the twelfth or thirteenth the child is laid in a cradle 
is named after a family-god if it is a boy, and after a fatnilj 
goddess if it is a girl. If a Gavandi woman loses sovend ii 
she calls her next child Tipya tliat is rubbish or Dhond] 
that is stone, hoping that tho child will bo spared as it ia n^ 
worth tho evil spirit's time to i-ob her of rubbish or of n, stoi 
At the end of thirteen days the mother is free to go about * 
usual indoor and outdoor work. In an engagement oeremoi 
tho boy's father takes to tho girl's house a robe, a bodiec-loth, 
cocoanut, three pounds of sugar, and some betelnats and kjifos, 
lays the cocoanut before the girl's house gods. The girl 
seated on a blanket and tho boy's father marks her brow wi 
redpowdcr and puts sugar in her month. The girl is told to dressl 
the robe and bodice, betel is served to all present, and the boy's fat 
and kinspeoplo are feasted on sugar-dumplings. In the betrot 
or hd^htngi the boy's father offers a cocoanut to the girl's he 
gods, the girl is seated on a blanket, and the boy's ia,t 
marks her brow with rcdpowder and gives her a robe woi 
£1 ^f. (Ra. 12), three bodicecloths worth 4s. Is. and 3(2. (Rs,- 
8 (18, and 2 as.) the last being white, two cocoanuts, a jhamki o? 


ip worth 10». to £.\ (Rs. 5-10), and a ghanti or earring wortli 
£2 (RiJ. 10-20). Ho alao gives the girl's mother a robo worth 
(Ka. 7) and two bodicecloths one worth Is. (Rs, 2) tJia other 
I 1*, (8 ax.). Kosppctable castenicn, who have been asked to 
B3 this ceremony, are served with hotel and withdraw. The 
t>hal onda by a dinner of sugar rolly-polies and sugar dump-' 
, rice, and vegetublcs, given by tha girl's father to the boy's 
r and his kiuspoople. When, with the help of the joski or 
ogcr, the marriage day is tixodj the girl's father sends souio 
Fitb a bullock to brinj^ the bridegroom and the bridegroom 
Hfith one or two of his kinspeuple. In two different squares 
Btrl'd house, the bride and the bridegroom are rubbed with 
3nc powder and are bathed separately. They are again rubbed 
tnruieric powder and bathed together iu the saino square. At 
corner of thia squaro ia set a drinking vessel with a cotton 
..'d five times roand the necks of the four vessels, 
athiug is over a married man stands at each cornei' of 
^UAro, and the four together lift the thread, and sprinkle water 
the vessels ou the boy and girl. The pair then leave the 
'0 and waiutju wave lamps about their heads. The girl ia 
ed in a white robe and a bodice dyed with turmeric powder 
boy is dressed in a rich suit of clothes. At the time of 
"q st-vnds in a basket containing rice, facing the 
stands on a low stool. Between them the BrAh- 
a white cloth with a cross drawn in yellow in 
it, throws red rice on their heads, and ties the 
aUnlra or luck-giving thread round the biido's neck. The 
M throw rod rico on tho bride and bridegroom and the ceremony 
wr. In the feast given after the marriage tho bride and 
ni feed each other. The officiating priest receives 2*. 3*/. 
ID cash- When a girl comes of age a marriage consumma- 
mony or phithhnhhan is performed. 

dia burn their dead. After death the body is washed, 
iu a waistcluth, and carried on a bier to the burning 
tho Bon of the dead walking in front holding a firo-pot 
string. At the burning ground the body is laid on a pyro 
i>l-ciUcP9 or firewood, si.^ feet long and one foot and a half 
I. After burning the body the mourners bathe and go to 
On the third day cooked rico is laid on the spot where 
\ »s burnt. On tho tenth the chief mourner attended by a 
|Hp prieet goes to the burning ground and throws a ball of rice 
iSkir and presents tho Brilhman with money and undressed food. 
I* and widow marriages are allowed j polygamy is allowed and 
is^d } and polyandry isunknown. Thoyhaveastrongcastefooling. 
icttlement of social disputes is in name left to their religious 
icr or guru, TrikumtAt^charya. But as the gtirti, does not 
JMm dtsrifiles ofteuor ihan once in twolvo or fifteen years ho 
Hi 'I some respoctablo members of the caste. Offenders 

Ki-- -■ .^;her by fine or by loss of caate either for a time or 
f9T. They rarely send their boys to school. When they send 
thej keep them at school only until they loarn to read, write, 
eaey sams. 

Chapter' III. 


[Bombay Oazet 



ipter ni. 


Gols, Gollas, or GoUers, meaning Cowherds, are retumi 
aa numbering 1376. Thoy are divided into Advi Gols, Hat 
Gols, Ki'irfhna Gols, P«ku4k Gols, and Sliastra Gols, wlio neitl 
eat together nor intermarry. No Shjlsti-a Gols are fount} in HijApt 
lirishna Gols, who are a very small body and are also called Yada\ 
are found at Satgnudi in Bijapar and at Hoskuti south of tl 
Krishna. At Satgundi six or seven families, among them tl 
headman's family, are Krishna Gols. They speak Kj'marese and aj)pe 
to have come from the NizAm'a country. They are small landholder 
Thoy wear neither the ling nor the sacred thread, and have nothii 
to do with Jangams. Thoy huvo a gum or religious tefxrlirr 
their own caste who is called Ushtumor. Both ho and a Brahnw 
come to their marriages. They burn their dead, and their grea 
god is Krishna. In the Muddebih^l snb-dirision, at Talikc 
Nulutyad, and Kour, a few families of Gols call themselves Bhio^ 
and apjxjar to be Hanam Gols. They are small landholders at 
miuistrauts in Hanumant's temples. They speak Kanarese l)ut M 
said to have come from the Nizam's country. They never wear 
litig and are married by a gum or religious t^jachcr of their o* 
caste called Sumer or lord. They bury their dead. Their 
honse-god is Somndth. In the village of Badami a Valekar 
messenger family call themselves P6kndk GoUors as ilistiuguisl 
from the Kenguri GoUers who have tlocks of white sheep in tk 
NizAm's country. These Pdknak GoUers never wear the ling, the 
worship Hanumant, Gudrang, aud Krishnadev. and bnry their den 
They have a tradition that they were brought from the Advaui 
Adoni country as shepherds when the Badami sub-division 
thinly peopled. It is not'ciear whetiier they are of the same diviaic 
as the Bhingis or a separate class. 

Advi or Telugu Gols are wandering medicine-sellers. Amon^ 
Advi or Telugu Gols the names in common use among men av 
Babdji, Bala, Bdlardm, Bdpu, Ddmdji, Tlanmanta, Lakshman, B&gbid 
Kaghundth, Rama, and Yaslivant; and among women Bahina, Bhi_ 
Gunfibai, Lakshmi, Manjula, Rakhma, Sita, Venubai, and Yallavvl 
Ji or sir and rdv or lord are added to men's names, and awa or mothi 
and bdi or lady to women^s names. Their surnames are Jadha^ 
]More, Pavdr, Shinde, and Yadav, and other surnames usually boi 
by Marathas. Persons bearing the same surname are not allowdd 
iotenuarry. Tlieir surnames and their traditions seem to show tb( 
they belong to the same stock as the Marathas. Apart from drc 
they differ little from Manlthas in appearance. They are dm k»-r at 
have a wild and a somewhat cruel expression. Their features 
strong aud their forms plump and about middle height. The no80^ 
straight, the lips thin, and the cheeks gaunt with high or low 
bones. The hair is generally lank. Their home tongue is T« 
but fi'om wandering in diirereut parts of the country selling herbal 
medicines, they have loarnt abrokon Marathi and Hindustani. Th« 
are a wild (leople, and riiroly live iu good houses. Their huts 
generally built outside of a village or town. They are dirty 
their habits, and do not keep their houses or their furniture cU 
Except a few drinking pots and dining plates almost all th( 
vessels are of earth. Only thoso who arc hiisbaudmou own cattle 


it almost all keep asses to carry their tlmgg, and pet dogs. Their 
lea about, food are the same as those of Marathiis ; the uuly 
fforence is that their poverty forces them to live on the 
leapest food. They batho ouly on Sundays and Tuesdays when 
ey worship the house gods and offer theiu cooked food. Thoso 
at have no house gods go to a ifaruli's temple and worship 
■^niti. At the end of a iBarringo they kill a goat in honour of 
uljn-Bhavani. Tf'they could afford it they would eat flesh daily. 
!!sidc>s country spirits iind palm-beer they tlriuk henjp-water or 
kfinij. and smoke herap-flowcrs or ffanja and tobacco, and eat opium, 
^hon they eat flesh they use liquor or narcotics to excess. The 
en either shave the head clean or leave a topknot and shave the chin, 
hose who sell medicines wear a red-ochre tunic falling to the knees, 
round turban, a waisteloth, and shoes. On holidays, they cast 
ff the tunic and the oddly folded turban, and dress in a headscarf, 
sluiulilercloth, a jacket, and a coat, Hia dress costs a rich man 
out 10*. (Ks. 5), a middle cla-«s man about Sn. (Ks. 4), and a poortnan 
bout 4k. (Hs. 2) a year. Husbandmen wear the nsnal dress of the 
tatrict. They have no separate stock of clothes for holiday use. The 
mamenta womby men are earrings, bangles, and twisted waistchains, 
worth about £tl (Rs. GO) in the case of a rich man, £2 lOi*. 
U, 25--'iC) in the case of a middle-class man, and lOif. 
O) iu the case of a poor man. AVomen tie the hair in a knot by 
lien thread, or wear the hair in a braid. They dress in the 
tliuary Mardtha fidl-backed bodice and robe except that they do 
thi; skirt of the robe between the feet and tuck it behind, 
ruenta worn by women are earrings, necklaces, bracelets. 
Is", and toe rings. The names of the different ornaments aro 
mo lis the names given in the account of Liugayats. A rich 
's ornaments are worth £8 (Ra.SO), a middle class woman's 
.40), and a poor woman's about £1 (Rs. 10). The poorest 
ire at least a man^alsulm or luck-giving neck-string, worth 3^. 
Ka. 1 1), which every married woman must wear during her husband's 
etimo. Tliey are hot-tempered, impudent, haughty, cunning, and 
y ' ' jiven t<i drink hardworking and thrifty. They 

i ine-sellers. Besides dnig-selling, they draw 

guiut'awormis with a pin, and bleed with the help of a copper 
After tho end of October, when the rainy season is over, 
epeod abont three months in the woodlands and wastes looking 
ota, herbs, fruits, and bulbs. They carry these herbs and other 
•Qd oxydcs of metals and minerals in two bags formed by tying 
tho four ends of a square ochre-coloured cloth, and 
led one at each end of a stick which they carry on their 
Idcr. They hawk their drugs. calling as they go, ' A doctor to 
wiml ; A doctor to draw out guineaworm.* Tliey cure liver 
Biileen diseases by branding with a red-hot iron. Before 
nbing a modiciue they go through the form of feeling the 
Their specific for asthma is the bruised roots of the black- 
apple or datura smoked like tobacco in a hubble-bubble for 
one days, during wliich the patient should live on broad 
Bait. The roots should bo dried in the shiuJe. The fine 
l(?avea of tho pculi pdtri creeper cure cold in tho head. 


[Bombay Gazette 



ipter III. 



and a decoctten of these leaves is a sure cure for cougli and It 
fever. A scorpion-bito is cured if a man withoot speaking bit 
some loaves of a gum arabic tree. Acacia arabica, chews tlie| 
spits a 111 tie of the juice into the sufferer's ear, and appli< 
chewed leaves to the bito. A mixture of human and swine dl 
an antidote for arsenic. Besides these they have several 
and medicines which they administer sometimes with sncce 
and sometimes without success. In additian *to honsowork tht 
•women plait mats of wild date ichalu (K.) nhouii (M.) leaves PhojoJ 
sylvestris, and help the men when they are at work in the titflc" 
Their state has varied little for many vears. A few are in de| 
chiefly because of marriage expenses. Iheir creditors aregenersJI 
men of their own caste as regular moneylenders refuse to 
advances. They call themselves Gollers and are known as Goll( 
They rank below Br^hraans, Lingdyats, Rajputs, Manithiis. 
Sonars, from whom they eat. They look down on Dhangjir 
Vadars, Dombdris, Korvis, and Jiugars, and do not eat with thtft 
Men hawk their drugs all day long, returning to eat their mt 
The women and children mind the house and plait inata 
wild date-palm. Almost their only holiday ia on Daaara 
September - October. A family of four or five spend 1-ts. 
16«. (R3.7-8) a month on food. A first-class hut costs £2 ^Ks. 2( 
to build, and has house goods worth £4 to £6 (Rs. 40-60); 
second class hut costs about £1 lOs. (Rs. 15) to build and ht 
house goods worth about £3 (Rs. 30) ; and a thinl class hn 
costs 10«. to £1 (Rs.5-10) to build, and has Louse goods wor 
£1 to £2 (Rs. 10-20). To a rich man a son's wedding costs aboc 
£15 (Rs. 150) aud a daughter's about £8 (Ra.80); to a middle-cl 
man a son's wedding costs about £8 (Rs. SO) and a daughter 
wedding about £4 (Rs. 40) ; to a poor man a son's wedding cos^ 
about £6 (Rs. 60) and a daughter's wedding about £4- (R«». \n\ 
As a class Gollers are religious ; their family gods are V- 
Tulja-Rhavani, Margui, Yallamma of Saundatti in Paras 
Mira SAheb of Miraj. They kill a goat in honour of Tiilja-BhavriB 
and after offering it to her feast on the flesh. In the mouth 
Shravan or July- August, they bathe on Tuesdays and SaturdavB, 
worship Mdruti and their house gods, and eat one meal in 
evening after making an offering of cooked food to the honso ■• 
Of late years some have taken to bathing daily and WTm 
house gods. They have neither priests nor a religion 
but they call a Brahman to conduct their marriages. Tho^r^ 
the leading Hindu holidays. They worship village aad 
deities, but profess not to believe in witchcraft or soofchsa}!! 
Almost all of their customs are the same as Maratha customs. T 
only difference is that the bride's father gets £2 12«. (Rs. 26) as 
price of his daughter and in return gives four feasts. Thont 
they livo together as a separate body thoy have little caste feelini 
Social disputes are settled by some respectable castemen, w| 
have the power of putting an offender out of caste or of fining hii 
When a fine is recovered it is spent on a caste feast, and when 
person who has been put out of caste is let ba:^k he is mado 
worship a god in presence of the caste-people and to give a a 



lth» temple of the god wliom he worshipped. They do not 

" Ireo to school and take to no new pursuits. Boja 

n to the forests and learn the names and use3 of the 

18^ Girls live at home with the women and Icaru to plait 

has been no change in their state for manj years. 

•a't "Va'nis, returned as numbering 854, are found in most 

^ud large villages. They have been long enough settled in 

)ur to loae i:onuection with Gujardt, though they keep their 

Mge and in some cases their small ronnded turbans. The names 

»on use among men are Ananddaa, GaneshdiSj Gopitldis, 

idds. and Govinddas ; and among women Ambabdi, 

ir, Jaranilhai, Mauakbai, Rukhm&bai, and Tulsibai. I'he 

the word »het and the women the word bdi to their names. 

i^m no family names, their surnames being the names of 

id of callings. The commonest of them are Dnrbdr, Qoni, 

Itti, Shultipurkar, and Talegavkar. The class includes many 

^of which the chief are Deehdval, Kapol, Khadayat, Ldd, Mod, 

*orT4!,and Vdida. These divisions eat together, but do not 

They can be known from other people of the district by 

:iclace of thin beads of tulsi or basil wood. In appearance 

not differ from other local upper-class Hindus, being 

rk for Vdnis. When fully dressed they closely 

arile the Dc.sha.sth Bnihmans of Poena. They speak GnjarAti 

id Kiinarese abroad. They live in ordinary better class 

rith stone and mud walls and flat roofs. They are good 

leJr staple foml being rice, wheat, pulse, vegetables, milk, 

led butter. In poor families s^jikod millet and Indian 

inch used instead of rice and wheat. A family of four or 

bs. to £3 (Rs. 1 5 - 30) a month on food. All bathe daily 

st meal and worship the house gods. They are stricfi 

ailing neither flesh nor liquor. The men wear the 

dress of the country, except that some wear turbans and 

^eadscarves. The women have given up the Gujarat petticoat 

small upper robe and have adopted the full Maratha robe, 

'wy wear without passing the skirt biick between the feet. 

)diocs are not backless like those worn by Gujarat women, 

l-backed like those of Mardtha women. On dress men 

to £o (Ra.8-30) and women £1 to £2 10s. (Rs. 10-25) a 

jlh men and women are fond of ornaments, some families 

stock worth as much as £100 (Rs.lOOO). As a class 

•tempered, orderly, sober, thrifty, hospitable, and fond 

leir hereditary calling is trade. They keep shops, lend 

*n«3 follow mnny branches of trade. They are a saving class 

rank with local traders and their daily life 

-t. Except by minding the honse the women 

lelp the men. In religion they are Vaishnavs, respecting all 

ir and local doitieft find keeping the ordinary feast days. 

iiriily deities are KAlikddevi, Kotaridev, and ShiddhmAta. 

B,"who is a manifestation of Vishnu, is the chief object of 

ioQ. Their lesuling fast days are the ekddatthia or lunar 

I of every Hindu mouth, and Ookula^htami in July- August. 

li on Shivrdtra or Shiv'a Night in February -March. 


Chapter U 

OujarAt Yi| 

ffiombay 6*i«tl 



?ter III. 
it VjLnist 

Tbeir priest is a Gajardt BrabTnaD^ who officiates at tbeir marrifi^ 
and other ceremonies; bnt thoy also respect other Bri' 
Their religious guides or mahdrdjds, to whom they pay th<' 
honours, and who at times \isit them and collect contributinns, nrw 
southern orTelugu Brtihmans, descendants of the great VuishnaT 
teacher Vallabbd,chdrya who is said have been born in a.d. 1479. Girls 
are married between five and eleven^ and boys between sixt4.'en and 
twenty. The boy and girl are rubbed with turmeric paste four or five 
days before the marriage duy . On each of these days they are rubVi- <1 
with fresh turmeric paste, but are not bathed till after the marriHift .s 
over. In the Brahmanabh and Kashyap family stocks on the day on 
which they are rubbed with turmeric paste two tarmeric-coloured 
strings or kankaris are bound to the wrists of the boy and girl. On 
the marriage day the bridegroom comes on horseback in procession 
to the bride's house. During the marriage both the bride a»d 
bridegroom are made to sit on low stools, the bride dressed in 
jifUal or white robe facing the west and the bridegroom the eastJ 
and a curtHin with a central tumeric cross is held between ther 
by the officiating priests. When they are seated the mnterna 
uncle of the bride binds the manyattrutra or luck-giving neckli 
round the bride's neck, the priests recite the marriage seme 
ending it with a blessing on the couple, the guests join the priest 
in showering coloured rice on the pair, the bands of the bridfl 
are joined to those of the bridegroom, and a red thread is p* 
round their necks. The Idjdhom or bornt offering of parched 
and other after-ceremonies are the same as those of Br^hraj 
The only difference is that a potter is paid 10». (Bs. 5) and thir 
six earthen pots are brought fi-om his yard at the time of the buml 
.offering. Betel and dry dates are served and the guests withdrairj 
On this day the bride's father feasts the bridegroom's party. Whei 
the girl comes of age, she is held unclean for three days, duriof 
which she remains seated apart. On the fourth day she is batht 
and presented with a robe and a bodicecloth, and on a lucky daj 
within the first sixteen sho is allowed to enjoy her husband*^ 
company. In the fifth month of her pregnancy her mother present 
her with a green bodice, in the seventh mouth the simantontiayttt 
or hau'-parting ia observed, and in the tenth month she is carrie ' 
in a palanquin to a temple to bow to an idol. Though they do nc 
wear the sacred thread widow-marriage is forbidden, and tl 
widow's head is shaved and her bangles are broken on the tenth daj 
after her husband's death. A widow always dresses in a red rol 
and a red bodice. Polygamy is allowed, but ia seldom practiaec 
for boys are always at a discount; polyandry is unknown, Thei 
bura their dead and perform the regular Brdhmanic funeral rite 
The after-death or memorial rites begin on any odd day within 
first twelve days after the death. On the thirteenth Ganpati 
worshipped under the name of Shrdvmpnja or Shrdvan that is t\ 
spirit-month worship, and they ask caate-people to dine. Soci 
disputes are settled at meetings of the elders of the caste. As 
class they are well-to-do. They teach their children to read aa<] 
write and keep tbeir accounts in GujarAti. 

Hanba'rs are returned as numbering 657, and as fou&i 

to Bil^mi, B^gallcot, Bijtlpur, and Hangund, and chiefly iaB^ami 
Aod BJjilpQr. They have no tradition of when or why they caftie 
into the district, or of any former settlement. The names in 
mmmon use among men are Bjillappa, Bharm^ppa, Dhariudppn, 
Haomdppa, Halappa, Kfireppa, Purddppa, ShisAppa, Yalldppa, and. 
Yerappa ; and among women Badavva, Bhimavva, G-angavva,' 
Hail ma wa, Lalavva, Mangidavva, Ramavva, Satyavva, and Yallavva. 
Their surnames are Boluydvani, Hosoryivaru, Kiriyivarii, and 
Knrij^rara ; and the names of their family stocks are Annelvarfl» 
CIttvikdyAoavTD, Chunchalvaru, Guddelvuru, Hnlvaru, and 
lliagarinavsru. Sameness of stock but not sameness of surname 
bars tnarriao'e. Their home tongue is Kannrese, and their patron- 
drJues are Mangalav^ra of Mangalgad near Chimalagi in Bdgev&di, 
Maruti, and Yaliamma in Parasgad in Belgaum. They are of 
two divisions, Bile Shiriyavrus and B^nnad Shiriyavrua, who neither 
est * - 'her nor intermarry. All BijApnr Uanbars are Bile 

irt ^ ; the Bdnnad Shiriyavrus are found only in the 

Malia^i. They rank with Dhangars, and are dark, strong, and 
wclNioadc. They live in one-storeyed houses with earth and stone 
wmlh !kud tiled roofs, and their house goods include two or three 
cop|«*jr poLs and some earthen vessels. Those who hold land 
liaYe farm servants and all own cattle and pet animals. They are 
gr»t eaters and had cooks and are fond of sour and hot dishes. Their 
•iaple food includes millet bread, rice, pulse, and vegetables. They 
Imthe once a week and visit the temple of Maruti and bow before 
the image. On other days they perform no worship before their 
morning meal, and none of them have images of their goda in their 
buosos. Once a year they sucrifioe a goat to the god or goddess who 
giiania their fields, and to Mangalavva or Mother Luck at the end 
of the festival held in her honour. Their holiday dishes are stuffed 
oUcen and rice Ixuled in cocoa-milk mixed Avith molasses, and flesh of 
•11" pt beef and pork. They driuk no Uqnor and neither 

ail- i .wer or gi'inja nor eat opium. The men shave the 

k pt the top-kuot and the face except the moustache and 

o^-u- - Women tie their hair into a back knot, but do not put 

on bUa Itair or wear Bowers. The men wear a pair of drawers, a 
Hhooldorcloth, a shirt or handi, a headscarf or rumdl, and a pair of 
MiedaU ; iho women wear the robe hanging like a petticoat from the 
<ni" ' 'des and a bodice with a back and short sleeves. Both 

a keep a store of rich clothes for holiday wear or for 
n. The ornaments worn by men are the earrings 
-, the waistbands callod kaddorda, and the wristlets 
('*; those of the women are the earrings called hugdis, 
CO called iika, and silver wristlets and bangles. As a 
iin* are dirty, hardworking, honest, orderly, and thrifty, 
t ikI of show and hospitable. Thoy are a land-holding 






iiio deal in wood and many work as field labourers. 
ij ther havo little skill. Their services are chiefly 


It • Beed-time and harvest. At other times the demand is 

da)L They rest on all Mondays and on the Jycahtha or May- June 
futl'mooa 'litis woin<?n mind the house and help the men in the 
fiuUL A» a failure of rain throws them out of employment, they 

Chapter ] 


. Hahi 




kpter III. 


often run in debt in bad seasons^ and they BotnetimeB Kott'vw (■ 
nie«t marriage and other charges and to buy cattle. As r; 
are poor. A family of five spends about 18«. (Rs. 9) a riioi: ; 
and £1 4w. to £2 (Rs, 12 - 20) a year on clothes. A house ooet- 
,£10 (Rs. 10-100) to build and their house goods are worth 
£1 10*. (Rs. 8-15). A birth costa 4«. to 8s. (Rs. 2-4), ft 
marriage £10 to £20 (Rs. 100-200), a girl's marriage £1 to K. 
(Rs. 10-26), and a death 4j». to 8*. (R8.2-4). Their potr-vti- 
are Maruti, MangHlavva, and Yallamma. They pay no 
Brahtnans and do not ask them to thoir ceremonies. Th. 
belong to their own claaa. They visit the shrines of MangtUavva n 
Mangalgad in B6gevd«li and of Yallamma at Parapgad in Belgaom. 
They keep no Hindu holidays except the Cobra's Fifth or Natjpumchm 
in IShrdvan or July -August, and the Mdifh fnll-moou or 3^; ►» 
pauruimu in February. They never fast. They visit tho to»»i' ' 
Maruti, offer him a cocoanut, burn camphor before him, an- ! 
to keep them and theirs from harm. Tiiey have a teacher ci 
caste, whose office is hereditary. They believe in soothsaying, 
profess to know nothing of witchcraft or evil spirits, 'i'hey perl 
both marriage and death ceremonies. On the tif th day after the 
of a child Satvai is worshipped with offerings of Vermillion and rint; 
pulse boiled together mixed with molasses and cocoa-kernel so 
On the eleventh the child h named. Its hair is^ cut for 
time between the end of the first and the end of the third mmi 
settling marriages, the boy's father visits the girl's house and p 
her with tifty betelnuts and fifty leaves and four pounds of snj 
Caste-people are asked to attend, and sugar is pnt int^ the 
mouth in the presence of all. The boy's father pays the girl's mui 
2«. to 10«. (Rs.l -5), betel and sugar are served, aud tho caste-] 
withdraw. The boy's father is treated to a ditmer of rice, pnl" 
and stuffed cakes. For the botrotlial or hdshlaiji, the boy^a futhcr 
again calls at tho girl's house with a present of four pounds r.f liri 
dates, four pounds of betehiut, fifty leaves, twelve pounds of ttKupn, 
two pounds of cocoa-kernel, a piece of bodicecloth, and five tiiniurir 
roots. The girl is seated on a blanket, her lap is filled with 
and five kinds of fruit, aud her mother is pnid £1 (Rs. \{>) 
presence of the caste-people met at the house. Tho gut 
feasted on sugar rolly-polies, rice, and clarified butter, an 
is fixed for the marriage by the village joKhi or astro!- 
the happy day the bride's party lead the bride to the bruL. 
and they live there till the marriage is ovur. In the o 
the couple are rubbed with turmeric paste and on the n© 
the gods aro propitiated. On tho third tho conple are 
dressed in white, aud taken to bow in MAruti's temple 
return to the bridegroom's they stand face to face in 
before the bouse separated by a turmeric cross or nandi 
cloth held between them by the mat<?rnal uncle of tho bri 
thread wristlet to which a piece of turmeric is tied is bonnd 
the right wrist of each of the couple, and they arc blessed, aQ< 
is thio%yn over them. Then comes the hhum or esirth-offej'i 
which rice aud cakoa aro set in a dish, which the couple aro 
to worship, and they are feasted on the rice and cakes ia 




ith five married women. The other guests and the caste-people 

'■■d ami in the evening the couple are made to visit the trmple 

li, wht-re tbey place a lightt^d lamp before the god, bow to 

aud return kume. Then they bow before their family gods, 

in the presence of caste-people the parents of the git;^ 

^minlly make her over to the bridegroom's mother. The party 

he bride are feasted on nngoli a dish of rice and millet boiled 

ither and mixed with clarified butter and molasses, cakes, rice, 

poise. A string is fastened to a peg in the ceiling, a dry 

I ]8 tied to the end of the string, and aa it twists round one 

> bridegroom's men tries to cut it off. When the dried date 

off the bride's party leave taking the bride with them. On 

luoky day the girl comes back to her husband's. When a 

|rl comes of age she sits by herself for four days, but no ceremony 

periunued. On the tiftb she is bathed and ia sent to live with 

1 They do not raise marriage pc>rche8 nor are the 

<1 in a square or aurgi made by setting an earthen 

lb oacu corner. When a person diea, a peg is driven into 

dl and the body ia bound to the peg in a sitting posture. 

the dead is a man he is dressed iu a waistcloth and head- 

rf, and iu a robe and bodice if she is a woman. The body is laid 

blanket or cuarse cotton cloth and carried to the burying ground 

'■<1. A stone is laid on the gi-ave. Some burn their dead. 

Miird day they visit the place, worship the stone that was 

id on the grave, aud leave an earth pot or mor/a Indian millet flour 

idled in wat<)r, and a second earth pot full of water. They wait for 

[time to see whether a crow t<juche8 them and return home. On 

fuurth, fifth, or sixth day the house Is cowdunged ; the chief 

>uruer with the four corpse-bearers Imve their heads shaved and 

them. They then dine at the house of the dead. 

bK nth after the death a waistcloth or robe is left in the 

where the death occurred and the caste-people are feasted. 

perform no memorial or thraddh ceremonies. They are 

jnnd tcgf ther by a utrong caste feeling and their social disputes 

Jed by their hereditary ca.>;te head Kiimannaof Nasibi, whose 

ms are obeyed on pain of loss of caste. They do not send 

I tfi school or tnko to new pursuits. On the whole their 

. jaary and they show no sign of improvement. 

>r8, or Palm-Tappers, are returned as numbering 645 and as 
in small niuubers all over the district. Their number ia 
lAUrsf. in Rigalkot and least in Bijdpur. They are divided into 
aud Ndniad llgers, who eat together utid intermarry. The 
common use among men are Ammtppa, Baldppn, Hojappa, 
ippa, anil Narsappa ; and among women Araritavva, BhAgavva, 
ktra, inilnvva, KamAkka, Bayarva, and Yallavva. The 
jse dpfin c>r father is added to the names of men and akka or 
is mother, to the names of women. Their surnames are place 
Ij? names), as YnllAppa ShArigar that is Yalldppatheliquor- 
i that is NarsAppa of Ayeri. Among their 
lavru, Golenavrn, Korenavru, Mudenavru, 
iiivru. Mfuibers of the same family-stock are 

Chapter IIL 


red t< 

firry, as they are snpposed to be descended 

[Bombay Qazetted 



fcpt€r III. 

from a common ancestor. Ilger men may be known by tho g^oK 
rings which they wear in their ear-lobes from infancy to des 
They are like Kabligera or fishermen and differ from them only bwat 
they follow a separate calling. As they are fond of gy muaft 
^crcises and are always climbing the wild-date palms they arc 
strong muscular body of men. They are generally plump, of midc 
height, and brown. Tho nose ia flat aud long and the cht 
are gaunt with high or low cheok-bones. The luen'a hair is most 
lauk and is worn in a top-knot. Women tie the hair into a kn^ 
at (he back of the head by a woollen thread. They speak Kiinare 
both indoors and outdoors, using bhella for bdia a dish ai 
other incorrect words. Thoy live in ordinary houses one storey hij 
■with stone and mud walls, and flat roofs. The houses are not cl« 
and their few house goods are neither clean nor neatly arran^ 
Except a few copper drinking vessels and dining plates, all the vess* 
in the house are of earth. They own bullocks, cows, aud goats, a| 
rear poultry. Some of them keep three or four buffaloes or ponij 
to cari7 skins filled with palm-juice. They never load bullocks wi^ 
palra-juice skins as thoy honour the bullock as the god Basavani 
Their daily food is bread, split pulse, and vegetables seasoned wi| 
heated oil, assafoetida, cumin-seed, mustard-seed, salt, and chillis 
» It costs 1 ^d. (1 a.) a day for each person. They are very fond of eatit 
bread with chilly powder moistened with oil. The holiday dishes 
sugar rolly-polies and sugar dumplings or /:<i^6!w, vermicelli or xhcra 
is made at Holi in March aud at Divdli in October-November, dui 
lings on Ndgpanchmi in July- August, and roUy-pollies on other he 
days. They eat the flesh of hares, deer, goats, and poultry, and 
Dasara in September -October they sacrilice a goat to the goddf 
Yallamma. Some of the dressed flesh is oflcred to the goddess, and 
rest is oaten in company with friends and relations. They vow gc 
to this goddess, and kill them in her honour at the time of piiyi^ 
the vow. On such occasions and at marriage and other ceremouj 
they give caste feasts. If they cau afford to pay for it thoy 
animal food on all days except fast days. All of them bathe daj 
ai^d worship the house gods before eating the morning mt 
Those that have no house gods go to a MAruti's temple to worsl 
They drink lifjnor, smoke tobacco, and use other narcotics j but thj 
do not drink the jnice of the wild-date palm, as they consider tl 
wild-date palm to be their sister. If they eat flesh they always drii 
liquor, and this they generally do twice or thrice a week. Men wt 
a waistclotb, a hhouldorcloth, a jacket, a coat, a headscarf, liH 
shoes. His dress costs a rich man about £2 (Rs. 20) a year, a midd 
class man £1 to £1 4*'. (Rs. 10-12), and a poor man Qs. to 1( 
(Rs. 3-5). The ornaments worn by men are earrings, bangles, 
twisted waistchains. They cost a rich man £6 {Rs. 60), a miJdle-ch 
man £5 (Rs.SO), aud a poor rann Vis. (Rs.G). Women wear Mardi 
backed bodices, aud the full Maratha robe covering the head wi 
the upper end. A rich woman spends about £1 10a. (Rs. 15) a y< 
on her dress, a middle-clasa woman 18*. to £1 (Rs. 9-10), and a 
woman 85. to 1 2^. (Rs. 4-6). They wear the usual earrings, neckli 
bracelets, armlets, and toe rings, a rich woman's stock costing abc 
£10 (Rs. 100), a middle class woman's about £5 (Rs. 50), and a 




tan's about £1 10«. (Re. 15). The poorest woman bas one omament 
xgaUutra or lucky necklace worth 3«. (Ry, 1^). A few rich 
bay fine clothes for holiday use, but most wash their every- 
>tbe8. Their daily dress Ls simple aud dirty, and is of local 
roven cloth. They are hardworking, hot-tempered, dirty, and*. 
not given to drinkiug thrifty. Their hereditary calling is 
vie palm tapping and palm-juice selling. They climb the trees, 
triangalar hole under a leaf, and tie on a jar to gather the 
The juice is carried in skins on buffaloes or ponies into a 
kor a village to the liquor contractor's shop, where it is sold by 
•r wornpu from six in the morning to eight in the evening. Men 
kid 12a to 14«. (Ks. G-7) a month for palm-tapping and women 
d <]#. (Rs. 3) for selling the juice. The men make some money 
Iljng p."*lm-juice on the way to the shop, and the women manage 
[liidc a part of their receipts. Palm-juico is sold at \\d, (1 a.) 
and ia much dnink by the lower classes. The men take their 
ith them and train them in their craft, and their girls accompany 
"»era and learn everything about selling the palm juice. 
>ing is one of the most flourishing industries in the 
~ many of the higher contractors have made their fortmies. 
MMTftalm-tappers, some earn their living as husbandmen, their 
kelpiag in the field-work. Most of them are labourera 
Itirely dependent on the liquor contractor. To raise a loan they 
we to mortgage or pawn property, and even then have to pay aa 
as • per cent a year. Their calling is considered low. 

laij- 'vats, Manlthas, Rajputs, and Kabligers will serve 

^iood only from a distance. On the. other hand Ilgers hold 
elves superior to Mhars, Mangs, Vadars, Korvis, and 
ibh&rs, and will not eat with them. Men and children work 
morning to evening and the women sit selling toddy till 
it At nicrht. In the cold months the wild-date palm yields much 
(ho hot mouths the juice has a great sale; and during 
'fasons the Ilgers are busy. They do not stop work 
lit the year. During the Moharram holidays palm- 
. u^ed by Musalmans. A family of five spends 1 6s. to 
'; a month on food. A rich man's house costs more 
Li" »va 100) to build, a middle-class man's about £5 (Rs. .50), 
id a pcor man's about £2 !()«. (Rs. 25). A rich man's house goods 
)rlh more than £10 (Rs. 100), a middle-class man's more than 
». 80), and a poor man's £2 10». to £5 (Rs. 25-50). A rich 
andii £10 to £15 [lia. 100-150) on his son's wedding and £10 
)) on his daughter's wedding ; a middle class man spends £8 
)) on his son's wedding and £7 10*. (Rs. 75) on his daughter's 
ig; and a poor man spends about £5 (Rs. 50) on each. The 
of ft growD-up member of his family costs a rich man £3 
W), a middle-class mnn £2 10«. (Rs. 25), and a poor man about 
[Bft. 5V 11*.'f«rs are religious. Their family deities are Yallamma 
inn, Tuljii-Bhavdni of Tuljapur in the Nizdm's 
of Hippargi in BijApur, and Hanmappa of 
in bijapur. Thoy have a Br/lhman priest, whom they call to 
ito at marriugo and phalashohhan or girls* coming of age, and 
Ixes the days on which ceremonies should be performed. Their 


[Bombaj Oaxett 



ipter III. 

fnnerals are attended by a Jangain or LingAyat priest. B«iW 
Hindu gods tLey occasionally worship and make vows to Muhai 
madan saints, chiefly Hastgirsfiheb of Ilashiuipir Darga in Bij^|ii| 
Nabi S6heb of Asar in Bijapur, and Khoja Biinde Navdj Stihob 
.SCalburga in tbe Nizam's country. During the Moharrani holida^ 
they kill a goat in honour of these saints and feast on its flea 
Tbey keep some of the principal Hindu holidays, and fast ot 
on two days, the eleventh of the bright half of Ashadh in Ji 
and on 8/iivri'itra in February. The men fast ou Shriirdn or Juli 
August Mondays j and the eldest woman of every family lil 
on fruit and roots during the Navrdtra or first nine days 
Ashvin or October. They worship village and local deities. 
Braaller images of house gods are made of brass and copper 
casters ; and the larger images are made of stone by stone-cutted 
To bring the god into these images, a Brahman priest sprinkM 
them with the punchdmrit, that is curds, milk, clarified batter, bone 
and sugar. Undressed food is given to Briihmans and Jangams 
the caste is feasted- Their customs dilTer little from those of Kabf 
gers or fisberraeu. They form a separate community, but there 
little unity among them. They have a headman who settles tb« 
social disputes nnd imposes fines and other punishments. He ia Ali| 
posed to be the lineal descendant of tbefirst llger,and his son snecf 
to his authority after his death. They do not send tbeir d 
school or take to new pursuits. As pensons of different en 
lately taken to palm tapping some of the Ilgers have been forced I 
work as day labourers. Ou the whole they are a docliniog cji&te. 

Jingars. numbering 310, are returned as found in Bfic 
Btigalkot, Ilkal, and BijApur and in large villages throughout iH 
district. They Uve in one-storeyed houses with walls of mud and ^ 
roofs. Their homo tongue is Martlthi and their fauiily god is I^lalaj 
They look like Maratha Kunbis. The men wear the waistclot 
either the shouldercloth or a short coat and the headscarf, and 
women weai* the«<i't/t or robe with a sbort-sleeved and backed bodic 
The robe hangs like a petticoat from the hip to the ankle and tl 
upper end is drawn over the head. The men wear the top-knj 
and the sacred thread, and both men and wouaen wear gold 
silver ornaments, which do not differ from those worn by the Jiof 
of Belgaum. Tbeir hereditary calling of .saddle-making 
tbem well when the country swarmed with horsemen. At prest 
they are painters, carpenters, toy-makers, and book-biudei 
They are a decent, hardworking, intelligent, and well-bohav( 
people. They eat meat and fish and drink liquor. Their sk 
season is the rainy months and their busy time the fair weather, 
their trade has greatly suffered from the want of demand for saddl 
they find it difficult to make a living. They have to borrow to mt 
marriage espensea. A family of five spend 10*. to £1 (Rs.5-ll 
a month on fuod. They are religious, respect Brahraans, and cm] 
them to perform their ceremonies. They keep all Brahraanical 
and holidays, their chief day being Dasara iu October. Their be 
are invested with the sacred thread and widow-marriage is strit 
forbidden. Their marriage ceremonies last four days. On the fix 
day, both in the house of the bridegroom and of the bride, U 



touoar of the honse gods. On the second dnr the bride- Chapter HI. 
les io proceasioij from hia hooae to the bride 8. At the Pon^i7ti 
the marringe booth he is received by the bride's father, 
^tj washed and wiped with a cloth, and lighted lamps are * J'^*'-^**' 
xoand hia face. He is lod to a low wooden stool set opposite. 
>ol. The bride is carried into the raarriage-hall by her * 
incle or other kiusuiim seated on his hip. 'J'he bride and 
room sit facing each other, and the family priest draws 
^^oople and a cloth is held between them. The priest 
^Boured rice to the gaest.3 and repents sacred verses. 
are verges are being repeated both the priest and the guests 
otduared rice on the heads of the pair. When the verses 
fed the curtain is withdrawn and a hctm or sacred fire is 
L On the third day the girl'8 father gives a caste dinner 
the fourth diij the boy's father entertains the community, 
lerforra a ceremony at the girl's coming of age with the help 
'Khmnn priest. 'I'heir death rites resemble those of Kunbis. 
)rd which is nsed in tying the body to the bier and the stone 
'hich the wator-pot is pierced are buried and dug out on the 
Uy, when the chief mourner conies to the spot and worships 
Uld throws them into water. Social disputes are settled afc 
gB of the caste council of adult men. They send their boys 
lol bat take to no new pursuits. On the whole they are a 

^ * " Lermen, are returned as numbering 15,033 and KasimesuC 

J the banks of the two leading local rivers, the 

the Krishna, and in the country between them. They seem 

wejjeopleas the fishing Kolis of the'Maratha country. The 

immon ase among men are Bbimdppa, Kallappa, Malldppa, 

Rama, Ranappa, and Shidappa ; and among women, 

Gautravva, Gauravva, Nagavva, Shidavva, and Tulsavva. 

laraes except place and calling names. They are 

iynt and Brabmanical Kabiigors, the Brdhmanical 

iig^yat division. The Lingayat branch are describ- 

.. . , ivru3. Almost the whole of the Brabmanical Kabli- 

Ui the class called Gangimakkals or river children, who 

iiCallod Ainbekars or watermen from the Sanskrit ambu 

lero are two other classes, Bail Kabligers or bullock 

ntid K * ' from door to door with an image 

iefisDui. 1 1 ofthese last are very small classes. 

three divisions m-ither eat together nor intermarry, 

little in appearance, religion, or customs. Among all 

fW*, except Gangimakkals, proved relationship is a bar to 

■'" '''■ "^r-iMgiinakkals have many family-stocks, of which the 

yavru, Bilochhatragiyavru, Ghantenavru, Kengen- 

II, and llfiggclavru. Members of the same stock 

. • iuturmarry. The Gangimakkals speak KAnareae. 

I^^em live iusmull walled houses one storey high, with Hat 

Bniw who are too pnor to have a house live in huts. Except 

twu dining plains ami drinking vessels almost all of their 

g and storing vessels are made of clay. Those who own laud 

ioniostic animals and sometimoH a pet dog or sheep. They 

rBombay Gftfldtt 



iptor III. 

aro a hardworkiag class, and great eaters, thoir staplo diet 
millet bread, split pulse, sauce, and vegetables. Sot - '' 
aud curds are added to the daily food as a change, L 
claaa Hindus their holiday dishes are polis or cakes roiltij rt 
molasses. goiUu huggi or busked wheat boiled in milk ami mil 
'with rough sugar, and shevaya or vermicelli They are not boui 
to bathe daily. The house goda are worshipped ou new al 
fall moons and on other holidays. All nse animal food and Liqac 
the animals eaten being the goat, sheep, deer, hare, and tish. 
other animals are either held sacred or impure and are not edt 
Besides liquor, hemp-flower or >jdnja, and tobacco are freely si 
The Gangimakkals, who are the local ferrymen, are oftea-^ 
powerful fine-looking tdcu like their brethren on the Konl 
coast. They and the Knrubars are the sturdiest men in 
district. The village pchtdrdn or athlete is geuerally eith< 
fisherman or a shepherd, his face and neck beautified with yellij 
earth, and perhaps with a yellow flower in his ear. The men*a dr 
is a headscarf and a pair of knee-breeches ; seldom a coat, and 
shoiddercloth thrown over the shoulders. The women dress in 
ordinary robe and bodice without passing the lower end of the rol 
between the feet. Both men and women have a few ornamenU mc 
of silver and of small value. Like most of the local Brahmauij 
castes, even the Brahmanical Kabligers have not eacaf 
the influence of LingAyatism. Just as a Kunibar or sbepherdji 
he rises to the position of a village headman, generally puts on 
ling and calls himself a Uande Vazir, so the Kabliger ju'tlil as ' 
Akalvildi in Bijjlpur, and the Kabliger kolknr or patiL's servant i 
Bagevadi and Mungoli iti Bijjipur. are occasionally Lingayats. 8tl 
oases are rare because few Kabligers have risen to high posing 
The chief gods of the Brahmanical Kabligers are Yallamma 
Basavanna, Like many other Hindus they make offerings 
sngar and frankincense to the ^Moharram biers. Formerly 
Gangimakkals proper had a guru or religious teacher who 
called Ambiger Chavadaiyya. Since his death they have no 
and have forgotten what relation their old guru bore to 
disciples. They keep some of the regular Hindu fasts and fea 
Their chief holidays are the Yugddi or Hindu New Year's Day 
March -April, Shimga tho full-moon day of Phdlgun in Mat 
April, Dasnra the tenth of the bright Imlf of Anhrin in Septoml 
October, and Divdli the new- moon day of Ashvin in Octol 
November. Tlieir fast days aro Shivnifra or Shiv^s Night ou 
thirteenth of the dark half of JV/a/y/t in February-March, the oleveni 
oi Aghudh in June -July and of Kiirtil: in November- Docoml 
On iShnivan or July -August Mondays they eat only one meal< 
the evening. They worship all village and local gods. They ' 
ft strong faith in soothsaying, and like others of tho lower ore 
are great believers in witchcraft and sorcery, aud are much 
of sorcerers. If an Ambiger is possessed by a ghost the 
remedy is to make him sit before the house gods and rub his fol 
head with ashes taken from the god's censer. If the ashes fail 
scare tho ghost an exorcist is called. He writes texts on a piece 
paper and fastens the paper to the arm or neck of the possess 


Sometimeg, instead of paper, a small copper cylinder, filled 
s on which charms have been breathed, is fastened to the 
arm or neck. The spirits which trouble Kabligers are uf two 
ffhosta and casual spirits. The family ghosts are the 
g mothers who have died in child-birth, or have died 
ildron behind theiri, or of young women and men' 
love or unmarriud, or of misers who have left a 
Family ghosts of this kiud can never be driven away 
demands are not easily satisfied. The ghost of the young 
geoerally troubles her children's stepmother, and will not 
...I ... .1. . stepuiother promises to treat her children well 
\- ofTe rings. The miser generally haunts the man 
il 1, and has often to be satisfied with a yearly 

\' I casual ghosts are driven away by thrashing 

M, or by biying an offering of food near the place 
g _-> L'S. Wlien a male ghost enters into a woman's 

ti female ghost enters a man's body the matter is serious, 
coaxing nor thrashing is of any use and they stay in the 
H they weary of them. Serions cases of this kind happen 
I lu dies with an intense and nnsatisfied love. The 
out divisions of BrAbmanic Ambigars are much 
Mju at) a child is born its navel cord is cut and both the 
KJter are bathed and laid on a bedstead. The mother is 
kernel and molasses to eat and is fed on hnsked millet 
lid eaten with clarified butter. In the evening of the 
the midwife worships the goddesss Jivti and carries to her 
ise t^ ' 1 in the worship. The lamp is covered because, 

,orn i ife sees the lamp, 6ome evil will fall on the 

r. Biahmnnic Ambigors are married by a BrAhman. 
lied up to their twelfth year; widow marriage is 
and 18 common, polygamy and divorce are allowed and are 
*, and polyandry is unknown. When a girl's father accepts 
of marriage, the boy's father goes to the girl's and lays a 
' 1 and a cocoauut before the girl's house gods. The 

xl with betel and withdraw, and the boy's father is 
.t ruds theeiigag<?racnt. On a lucky day some weeks 
the betrothal or hdehttigi. The girl is given a robe 
worth 10.«. (Rs. 5) and two bodicecloths each worth 2*. 
Her motlier is given a robe and a bodicecloth worth 1 ». (8 as.) ; 
I pieces of bodicecloth are laid before the girl's house gods. 
to these clothes the girl's parents are given fourteen to 
tpuund-iof MUirjir, fourteen pounds of dry dates, fourteen 
-i>mo betel leaves. On the day before 
room is taken to the bride's and on the 
ly both the bride and the bridegroom are bathed in a 
•qtuire. A copper drinking vessel is set at each corner 
[oaro, and a large water vessel in tho centre with some 
n it, and thread is wound five times round the vessels, 
riyuts the circle of five threads is cut in two and each 
und ruuud a turmeric root and fast/oned to the wrists of the 
girl. The bndo is dressed in a white robo and a white 
is docked with more ornaments than those worn on the 

Chapter lit 




kpter ni. 

hdfthtagi or betrothal, and a condition is made tbat on no acooonf. 
certain ornaments bo removed from the person of the brida The brit 
groom id given a pair of wnistcloths seven and a half feet long ai 
a pair of ahouldercloths fifteen feet long, a turban, a pair of 
i|nd some rings. Rice grains are tied in the skirts of the bl 
&nd bri'legro«im'8 garments and the skirts are knotted to( 
The bride's Brdhman priest leads her to a blanket cove 
rice, and the bridegroom's priest leads him to the blauket 
makes him stand facing the bride. The bride and bridegrodm 
told to throw rice five times on each other's head, and the priests recij 
eight auspicious verses or mntujaldshlak serving rice to the guest 
they may join in throwing the rice over the pair. In the evenii 
bride and bridegroom are seated on a bullock, and, with their br 
adorned with tinsel chaplets go to worship the village Maruti. 
their return the guests form into circles of six or seven round a plat 
and together eat from it. In one of these circles the bride ai 
bridegroom are seAt^ed. After the feast the Viride and bridegnxil 
bow to all the guests and the guests withdraw. When an An.bij 
girl comes of age she sits by herself for five days. On the fifth 
she is bathed and the women of the caste are asked to a feast, 
lapfilling or j'holshobhan takes place on the fifth day or on thi 
lucky day after the fifth. From the third mouth of her pregnane 
a woman conceives longings, and her longings are satisfied lest 
child may have an evil eye regarding the article which was not givfl 
to its mother when she longed for it. In the fifth month the pregns 
woman is given a bodicecloth aud in the seventh month the 
parting or shuant takes place. In the hair-parting the pre 
woman is given her favounto dish to eat, and the family and kinsj 
present her with a greeu bodicecloth and a betelnut while 
sits on a low stool or a blanket. On a lucky day in the soveui 
month the pregnant woman is given a robe, a white robe or piital at 
a green bodicecloth, and her lap is filled with a cocoanut, fii 
plantains, five dates, betelnuts, and some rice by her mother-in-law 
some other married woman. Her brow is also marked with i-edpowd* 
Her husband is given a waistcloth and friends nnd kinspeople 
feasted. Like Liugdyat Kabligers Br^hmanical Kubligers bury the 
dead but do not call a Jangam. On the third day all of them go to ' 
burial ground, cook a quarter of a pound of rice in a new eart 
pot, and lay the rice with raw sugar and clarified butter on the gra^ 
They afterwards light a firo to bring the crows and watch the croi 
from a distance of a hundred paces. Sometimes many crowa coi 
and do not touch the rice. Then the mourners pray and saj 
they will carry out the dead man's wishes, and the crows T 
to eat the rice and the mourners bathe and go home, 
tenth the house is coated with cowdung, the clothes and 
household goods are washed, and a goat is killed. A blanket 
spread where the corpse was laid and millet chaff is scattered 01 
the blanket. The dead man's clothes are washed and the folded oloj 
is laid on the chaff. Red powder is sprinkled on the folds 
flowers are laid before the clothes and incense is burnt before thei 
some cooked mutton is laid before the clothes and four eastern* 
are seated to dine on the spot After the foar men have dined 



sra of the party and the other ^ests hc^n to eat. 

_ the fifth or some other odd month after the death a 

or mukharatn if the dead was a inan^ or a top-like vessel if 

was a w<>ra»o, is bouj^^ht from Bome lonal goldsmith and is 

le the hoas^e gods. To the mask a waistcloth and a head; 

mr^ ' ], and to the top a robe is oflfered aud a goat* 

led iie mask or the top and its dressed flesh is offered 

ma^ or the top on the day when it is Brst luid among the 

gods. If the deac] person was a great drinker Bpiritiioua 

laer is also offered. Child-marriage and wi'low-marriage are 

•^■-'Irgamy is practised, and polyandry is unknown. The 

Kabligers have nn.iks or headmen, bat their authority 

lid a committee or jianrh settles all disputes. Though 

. , sturdy, and independent people, the Kabligers are not 

• rUe in wealth or position. They are at present one of the 

classes in the district, aud their children are hardly over 

it to school. At the same time they are a very respectable, 

iteuted, and happy class, hardly ever appearing iu the police 

irta except for some assault, generally the result of a quarrel 


T Distillers, are returned as numbering foTty-seven and 

iitd in Bijapur and other important places in different parts of 

Krict. They are fair with well cut features and the men wear 

>pkD0t, the moustache, and whiskers. The women braid their 

tlie back of the head without using flowers or false hair. 

bonie t,r>!igue is KAnarese, and they live in one-storeyed houses 

wjjT ■ rraced roofs either of stone or of mud. The men 

iTMir a V i I, a short coat with a sho'uldercloth, a headscarf. 

And tN'intry shoi^s, and the BrAhmanical sacred thread. The womea 

ydr>-y Ml the hill MarAtha robe and a bodice with a back and 

m '?vt)s. Their staple food is either millet or wheat bread 

P** "■ ['Nise. They use fish and the flesh of sheep, goats, the hare, 

nod domestic fowls, when they are slaughtered hy a Musalmdn. 

sy arrt hardworking and clean, their hereditary calling being 

raakinp: fynA ':clling of liquor. The new excise rules, by 

ig and raising the price of liquor, have driven 

to husbandry and labour. Their women and 

jn help the men in the field and in their shops and add to 

>&!« of the family by working ns day labourers. They are 

»n& The principal objects of their worship are Shiv, Viehnn, 

' ' v show much respect to Deshasth BrAhmans 

Their marriage and death ceremonies are 

le same as those of Kunbia. The marriage ceremony lasts 

A BrJlhmnn priest attends on the wedding day and on 

re)f(h day after a death, aud repeats verses and in return is 

money and undressed provisions. Child-marriog© and 

>lygnmy nni practised, widow-marriage is forbidden, and polyandry 

|Knotm. 'I'hey earn eriout,'h for their ordinary expenses aud have 

rrow to rnf>et ^pi^cial charges. Their caste disputes are settled 

«©ctiog« ■ Men. They send their boys to school till they 




rBombay Qtse 



ipter ni. Komtis, or Traders, are retnrned as numbering 4C9. 

— . arc found in big towns like Ilkal and Bdgalkot. The 

jpulataon. Komti is wbimsically derived frota the Kdnareso word kiti 
KOMTiJs. * dirty. The name is said to bave boon given them 
^^count of their dirty clothes. They are rare north of 
'Krishna. They are essentially a mercantile class, though tb( 
Bometimea combine the farm with the shop. They apjxiar to 
the same people as the Vaishya Vania of the Mardtha coi 
Tlie names in ordinary use among men are Ann4,ppa, Bitldpf 
Bliimslppa, Oopaliippa, Rangrippa, and Sheshiipjm ; and nmoil 
women Bhagubdi, Krishuabai, Lakshmib^i, R/idh^bdi, Rukhi 
and Sitiibiii. Men take the words rfii;, appa, anna, and .v/(r;/ri_ 
their names, and women the word hdi. Calling and place uanies 
their only surnames. They are divided iuto Tupat Komtis and Yei 
Komtis, who neither eat together nor intermarry. l"lie Younis 
found in the NiiSilm's csountry ; and all Bij^pur Komtis are Tupa)! 
The legend of the origin of the two classes is that Kankyamma, 
daughter of Kusumsheti, when carried off by a low caste chief vo? 
a vow and leaped a great leap and was carried to heaven. 
Komtis who following the example of Kankyamma leapt as 
ehc leapt went to heaven and their descendants are the 
The Komtis who leaped short, or who looked so long that 
never leapt at all, are the ancestors of the inferior Yennia. 
Tupats have one hundred and one gotrag or family-stocks. 
Bomo cases more than one stock has the same rwAt or founder. Thi 
the Mulkal, Munikal, and N/ibhikal stocks are all branches of 
Mndgal stock. At a marriage they have to ascertain not on| 
that the bride and bridegroom belong to different stocks, but tl: 
the stocks have a different ristii or founder. Their house languj 
is properly Telugu, but many of them can speak Mardthi, and 
can speak KAnarese. They appear to have come northwards frc 
the Madras Presidency, but have no memory of when or why th^ 
came into the district or of any former settlement. The Komi 
of Bdgalkot differ little from Sondrs in figure, person, or bearit 
The other Komtis are less clean than thohe of BdgaUcot ; but 
not differ from them in appearance. As a class they are of midc 
height with well-cut features. They live in ordinary houses oue 
two storeys high with stone and mud walls and flat roofs, cost 
£10 to £100 (Rs. 100 - lOOU) to build, and with house goods wor 
£10 to £100 (Ra. 100-1000). The houses are clean, airy, 
comfortable. Many of them have cows, she-buffaloes, and a po* 
or two, and those who own land have bullocks. They employ sol 
and pay them £1 in. to £4 (Rs. 12-40) a year with and '£4 
(E8.40-G0) a year without food and clothing. They are mc 
eaters and good cooks, being fond of sweet dishes. Their staf 
food includes rice, millet bread or grit, split pulse, vegetables 
chatnis with an occaaiomvl dish of curds and whoy. Their food c< 
8rf. to 6d. (2-4 a>f.) a head a day. Thoir holiday dishes are fewi 
timt is balls of gram flour passed through a sieve, granulate 
fried in clarified butter, and seasoned with boiled sugar ' ghivt 
piLffed cakes ; khir a liquid of rice, milk, and sugar / mdn 
pancakes; hesam or balls of gram -flour made with' sugar 



>r balla of wlieat flour, sngar, and clariHoJ 

■ ijeuten cakes fried iu clarilied butter ; jiWCs 

t tlour fried in clarified batter and dropped in boiled 

:t or rice fried iu clarifiod batter boiled strained 

stii^r s(v£Fron and otber condiments ; moltrhur a 

i^hty <jt hiindi ; and Liiaundi a kind of cuatard made by* 

'nilk to a slight consistence and raising it with sugar and 

' :dos these the poor have their polls or cakes rolled 

-:ies and their kadbua or lumps of inolusscs coated 

k layer of dough and steamed. Of these dishes one or 

.j.iJe ou every holiday, and four or five at marriage feaata. 

le every Kutnti bathes and worships his house gods before 

ir>rtting meal. The religioits perform the vaishradov or 

•ej in wkich a little food is thrown into the fire as an 

•d Agui. Every male Komti who has been girt with 

<\ ifi careful to sprinkle a line of water round the 

_ ui which he is to eat, to set five pinches of food in a line 

rVlr.l.r aide of hia plate as an offering to the CJhitraguptas 

r-y of Yam the god of death, and to pour a littlo water 

iLi ' I is right hand and sip it before beginning his meal. 

ml to efit bo ta.kes five littlo morsels into his mouth 

uilirwig to the five vital airs, apdn, j'rdn, stuitdn, ndun, and 

A.t tlie end of hia meal he sips a little water in the 

'Way as at the beginning. They neither use animal food nor 

juor. As a class they are free from vice. Their dresa ia 

I^Bod more seemly than that of many of the castes of the 

A man's daily dress includes a headscarf, a waistcloth, 

a coat, a pair of shoes, and rarely a turban, together 

10<r. to £2 lO/r. (,Rs. o- 25). His ornaments are a hhikhdll or 

a kunllii, yophj or chandrahiir round the neck, and finger 

fether worth £20 to £D0 (Rs. 200 . 500) and upwards. Tlie 

p^ftT^. Tiiurn careful about their appearance tban the men, and 

They comb and plait their hair iu a braid and 

^tviiii iii'wera. Some of them use false hair. They dross iu 

robe and the full-backed bodice, spending £1 to £3 

JO) a year on their clothes. Rich women are adorned from 

^ffct M'itb ornaments, including cfmndrakor and kevda for 

1(1 ',. jhauiki. and blieru for the tinr ; nath for the 

, ' , siidhiiihkc, putiihjnchhndl, sari, avlijiichimdl, 

fcii»", padin, and kathnne for the neck ; hdjubands and vdkia 

18 ; pdtlin, kdnkuns, and todiis for the wrists ; rings for the 

•| A k*tnJiitrp<iltn round tho waist : pdijant< and mdkhiK on the 

idjodviM ou the toes, all together worth £100 (Rs. 1000) 

A niiddle-clasB woman's ornaments vary in value 

10*. to lit (Rs. 2.T-'tO) ; and the poorest have at least tho 

;klace worth 4*. (Rs. 2). Tht^y keep special clothes for 

IBo, some of local and others of foreign make. As a class 

orderly, gTjo<l-nntured, hospitable, clean, and thrifty. Somo 

frich are fond of show. Only a few Komtis hold laud 

' lid raou or till through servants. Most are 

Ml rs, grocers, cotton and gold merchants, 

CcrSj uitd moueychaogors. They rarely reuiain a-a 





ipter lU. 


eervauta with other merchants, bat trade independently on 
own account. Their mercantile year begins on Kdrtik shwh 
pratipada in November. They buy grain and cotton {rc»m tl 
growers, and elolh in the different weaving centres. The 
yomen mind the house and do not help in their work, 
boroplain that competition has lowered their profits. Komtis ha^ 
B good social position. They wear the sacred thread, and apj 
to eat from no one but BrAhmans. In no single case does a Kom^ 
wear the ling. The gn-at goddess of the Tupats is Kankjarai 
They worship almost all Hindu gods and goddesses and are spiKnal^ 
devoted to 8hiv and Pdrvati. They visit the places held sacred " 
Hindus and keep the regular fasts and feasts. They have 
religious guide who is a Telugn Yajurvedi Urdhman. He is 
married man and hia office is hereditary. Like other local hij 
caste Hindus they believe in astrology and have faith 
witchcraft and sorcery. Their customs are almost the same 
Brahman customs, and like them they gird their boys with 
sacred thread, marry their daughters before they come of 
and forbid widow-marriage. Polygamy is allowed and practi 
and polyandry is unknown. Their marriages and" 
are performed by Brdhmans. The details do not differ from' 
details of a Brahman marriage except that the texts are o( 
Vedic but Puranic. On the fourth day after the marring 
the gotra puja or family worship is performed. In this ceremoi 
the hundred and cue caste-stocks are represented by livinj 
persons or if there is no one of the stock present by bete) nut 
and the persons and the nuts are worshipped. If any one of tl 
gnests remember.^ a stcJck that ha3 been forgotten he is warmll 
thanked by all present. The Kumtis burn their dead. When tt 
body leaves the house, like Brdhmans, they make a hole in 
floor where the body lay and put a light in the hole. On tl 
way to the burning ground there is the usual stop, the heir droj 
water and sesamum in the corpse's mouth, and the bearers chan^ 
places, take up the bier, and again go on. The stone which is ns 
to break the earthen water vessel which the heir carries round 
pyre is thrown away ; and the uppermost of the two stones 
were used to cut the string that binds the body to the bier is 
as the jiv'khuda or stone of life. The mourners before returaii 
to their honses must look at the light which is kept burning wl 
the dead man lay. This light is kept burning for fifteen dayd 
During tho^ days at meal time, befure any member of the fftroi^ 
eats, food and dnnk must be laid before the lump and throt 
on the roof of the house. On the sixteenth dny the light is put oa( 
On the third day the a-slies and boues are gathered and thrown int 
water. Some bones are kept ; and they and the life-stone are tak€ 
daily to the river and washed, and a rice ball is hiid before them, 
thrown into water, and the bones and stone are again brought hotnl 
On the fifteenth day the bones and life-stone are thrown into the riv« 
It is not nsnal to lay food on the grave. The deceased's death 
is celebrated in the same way as by Brahraans, on the cnrrespoudi 
lunar day to the death day in the spirit fortnight in Ufuulrapad 
August- September. They have a headman whose authority seema i 

linal. He is given tho first seat at all meetings aud betel leaves 
Its are served to him before any one else. Social disputea are 
lU&d at meetings of adult castcmen, and tho proceedings 
|Klted for the orders of the guide, who has the power of 
^■kitting out of ca-sto, and allowing back into caste. 111. 
01 tlieir grumbles about tho effect of competition on trade 
, Komtis are an exceedingly prosporoaa class, and will 
»ly rise in importance when the district is laid open by 
jfu lind its trade is developed. At Bdgalkot they freely send 
children to school. They do not enter Government service 
^hiMo trade pays better than Government service. 

Btriy&'s or Chhatris are returned as numbering 6444 and 
pid all over the district. They hold more village headships 

SLth4,s, and turn up unexpectedly now and then in quite 
Ages. The famiiioa of village headmen speak only 
and are often remarkably dark and must have been long 
conntry if they are northerners in more than name. They 
rk and tall and most of them live in oi-dinary houses with 
and clay walls and fiat roofs. They dress like cultivating 
bis and their staple food is Indian millet bread, pulse, and 
liut they eat fish and the flesh of goats, sheep, and 
, are clean but hot-tempered, and work as husbandmen, 
iits, and labourers. Their customs differ little from 
ims. Their family gods are Vyankoba and Mitruti 
boir priests are Deshasth Br^hmans. They keep tho usual 
I Casta and feasts, and believe in soothsaying, witchcraft, 
strologv. Their social disputes are settled at meetings of the 
len. 'they do not take to new pursuits but are a steady class. 

f is, returned at 1115, are fonnd in considerable numbers 
rt* of the district except Hungund and Indi. Like the 
Kunbis they come from the Maratha country. They speak 
hi at home, and in appearance, food, dress, customs, and 
'"' from the Mardtba Kunbis of whom details are 
il Account of Poena. 

rubars, or Shepherds, are retarned as numbering 94,786 
^ktind in all parts of the district. Next to the Lingil^ats tho 
Hb are the most numerous and important caste in the 
Wr In Muddcbihfil they have a great majority of tho village 
btpi^ nnd throughout the district they certainly hold mora 
:in any other caste, jiorhaps more than all other castes 
p;- ._: 1 . All speak KAnavose and are essentially sons of the soil. 
lire a rural not a town trilie, thougb they are also found in towns. 
— •'•-; lr>d into Hattikankans or cotton wristlet-wearers 
M or wool wristlct-wcarers. Those eat together 
) u<;L luLcrmarry. The Hattikankans or cotton- wristlets are 
je most nomerous; but though they hold many village 
xips thny are not so well off as the Ilaude-Vazirs or Lingayat 
erdi«. The Unikankana or wool-wristlcts arc a smaller body and 
and in small numbers everywhere and in considerable numbers 

kr • «■ HAddmi. Hattikankans or cot ton- wristlets are 
i , SangArs, and HatkArs, who eat together and 


Chapter IIL 






[Bomtey Oizi 



lapter III. 

intermarry. Both classes of shepherds are small, d&rk^ and stroi 
built, remarkably sturdy ard independent. They are more li) 
Kabligers or Fishermen than any other class, and wilh the fish^ 
and the Masalm^us, as far as bodily vigour goes, form thoj 
Jbone of the people. The village wrestler i» peuurally a »bej 
and they are fond of taking village service as vdlekars or wat 
They live in one-storeyed houses with mud and stone 
thatched roofs, or in wattled huts whose walls are sometimes 
of a sedge called ap in Kanarese. Their houses have little fumiti 
Except one or two platters and a fow metal drinking vessels «»ll 
tdmfifjds, all their vessels are of earth. They are great eat«^ 
taking two to five meals a day ; but are poor cooks. Tboir staj 
food is millet bread, a sauce of pulse boiled and spiced, 
pot-herbs. Their special dishes are polls that is sugai- roi 
polies, skevaya or vermioelli, goilhi hurjiji wheat husked 
Doiled with molasses, and rice. They ojit flesh except beef 
pork, drink liquor, and use tobacco and other narcotics. Ai 
the men the rich wear the waistcloth and coat ; but the 
both divisions, village watchmen, small farmers, and othei 
specially fond of knee-breeches and of a short luose shirt. Tbl! 
form a capital working dress. As his clothes are commonly 
pink, and as his face and neck are daubed with yellow powdd 
head swathed in a large white kerchief, and his ear decked 
a flower, the Hattikankan wrestler or watchmau is goufirally. 
rather picturesque iigure. The haii* is Avorn short, th'. 
being seldom more than an inch long, and the face is shav • 
the moustache and eyel)rows. There is nothing peculiar in 
woman's dress. It is the ordinary short-sleeved and backed boc 
and the full robe worn without catching the skirt back bott 
the feet and the upper end drawn over the head. Both men . 
women have a few ornaments the same as those described in 
account of Lingdyats. They are worth £1 10«. to i2 (Hs. 15-20)| 
In house and person they are decidedly clean. They nre VA 
honest, and have a great name for sturdiness and obstinacy ktI 
sometimes results in their appearing as defendants in assault uii 
They pre a cheerful, frank, and decent people. Large iiui 
both of the Hattikankana and Unikankans live as hu.sbandm< 
the barer parts of the district the Hatikankans have tlocks 
to 600 sheep, make blankets of the wool, and sell the lambs. 
Unikankaus do not own so many sheep as the Hattikankans, 
there is a rich settlement at the Darga or tomb close to BijApt 
who own flocks of sheep, weave blankets, till the land, and loj 
money. Tlie women of both divisions are hardworking. ^ 
mind the house and help the men in the field and in cardinj 
spinning wool, Men women and children Avork from moroi 
evening taking a short rest at midday. They have imly 
holidays in the year, the Hindu Now Year's Day in March -A| 
Vatiara iu September-October, and Divdli in October -NoTeral 
In wealth and social position the Kurubars come belnw the 
Lingdyats. Though holding so many headships there are 
wealthy merchants among them and the bulk are iu buin] 




• are i 
do ui.^ 


imninnce^ft In the local caste list they rack above KaWiptjrs 
' -low Hande-Vazirs or Ling:dyat sheplit do 

1 though a Kurubar eats from a li </Ar. 

iicfti Hiadus. Their great god is Birtipjpa, a hill 
.. Tvhfre, whose ministrants area clasi< of Karubani 
are called Vftdera and are the Kunibars' hereditary teachers 
They pay homage to Netteppa, whose shrines are at 
u in Uija.jiiir and at Ruji in Indi, and whose priest is a 
Their house gods are Birilppa, Netteppa, and yallammo, 
t daya they are worshipped in honse shrines utider the form 
human metal fignrc's. They keep the leading fasts and 
th of Brdhmanical and of Lingayat Hindus and rarely go on 
ge. Thoy respect BrAbmans, but their gtintt or religiooa 
are the VAders. Unlike the laity of either division the 
Mit no flesh and wear the Ihiy. Jangams do not eat at their 
''^ Vader boy occasionally marries a lay Knrabar's daughter, 
i>-r girl w^ill marry no one bnt a Vdder boy. The VAder 
iBTHof LhoUnikankansorwool-wristletsIive atKandgal, Anagvddi, 
BadyAl. They have a head priest who has power to fine, pot out 
[OMie,* and let back to caste. The high priest's office is elective 
is chosen from the Vader families by the respectable lay 
kans or wool-wristlets. All of them believe in eoothaaying 
'f, and the god Birappa is the great saver of Kurubara 
L-ssed by evil spirits. The possessed person is set 
imago of Birappa in the house-shrine, a noise of drums, 
..jt/cs, cymbals, and bells is raised, incense is bamt, and 
m» and cocoanuts are waved ronud the possessed person and 
wn in a retired spot somewhere outside the house as an offering 
,iho possessing ghost. Their child-birth ceremonies are like 
of Liugjiyat.H. Girls are generally marriud in childhood, 
es when only three months old. Widow marriage and 
are allowed by mont families ; polygz^my is. a!lowt?d and 
, and polyandry is unknown. Some Kurubars marry their 
r'a daughters. The VAders attend all umrriages. Among the 
iknnkanJi or cotton- wristlets the V'ddera help the Br/ihrnan priest; 
tho Unikaukans or wool-wristlets they perform tbe whole 
y on a day chosen by a Brahman astrologer. In both 
o first dfiy is the turnioric-rubbing day. On this day also 
on of the tribe to which the families belong, 
'A of hutti or cotton or of uni or wool round 
of iho bride and bri4Bfl|i|ii0- On the second day there 

the marriage oeVemony 

Hattikaukans or cotton- 

t sprvu.l i,n a raised seat, 

ji' i-\. . 1 with five betel 

in a platter. Hound the 

wnund, broken, and tied 

OS the lucky thread 

'< ^ or texts, and 

/"^^iets tbe Voider 

V "^^ft the first two 

h corner of a 

tit* ilitif 

ti or cotton c 


[Bombay Oazett 



^ter III. 




square and the fifth in front of ono of the sides of the sqaare. 
the great day four metal drinkiDg vessels or tdinht/dif and a Uala^h oj 
water-pot are set on the ground with a string wound five times roun< 
them. This string is broken and tied to the wrists of the eonpU 
3^he Vdder fastens the lucky-thread or mangahutra round the girl*| 
neck, knots the hem of her dress to her Imaband's, and throw| 
sacred rice over them. Both the Hattikankans or cottou-wrisi 
and the Uuikankans or wool-wristlets bury. The burial ritea^ 
like those practised by Lingayata. They perform special set 
on the tenth day and give a caste feast on the twelfth. Only 
few keep the memorial or miud-feast at the end of the first ye 
They do not send their children to school, and as they have take 
neither to schooling nor to shopkeoping thoy are perhaps not likelj 
to rise. Still they are the backbone of the middle-class populationT 
and next to the Ling^yats are the most characteristic custo in 

Lona'ris, or Salt-makers^ are returned as numbering 716 and 
found in BAgevAdi, Bijslpnr, and MuddebihaL Their home loui 
is Kandrcse, and their family deities are Khandoba and Yalk 
They eat fish and flesh and drink liquor, worship all local gods,! 
the usual liindu holidays, and respect Bi-dhmans and employ th« 
to perform their ceremonies. They do not differ from the Belgat 
Londris. They allow widow-marriage, bury the dead, and 
botiud together by a strong oasto feeling, punishing breaches 
caste rules at meetings of castemen. They do not send their boj 
to school or take to now pursuits. 

Mara'thas are retur^iedas numbering I5,S77 and as fonud in 
large villages, and occasionally in small villages. The j^toa rese ci 
t hem Are rs. They hardly differ in appearance from the people 
the counlry. A good many have come lately, but most are ol 
settlers, and many are ujiabl. ^ " M. Theyclain ' • 

from the Kshatriya kiugAIuL, ngtotheMai 

ruled from the GodAvari to the Tuugbhadra. The names in commc 
use among men are Biilu, Govinda, Jiiuba, Rama, and Vithoba ; 
among women Gajai, Ganga, Kflshi, Kushi, and Rakhnia. Th^ 
are divided into ni nety -six clans who eat together and intermat 
Among the claus are Bhonsle, Gaykavad, JtLdhav, Miine, Puvi 
Shinde, and YAdav. Men add rdv and women hoi to their name 
Their surnames are clan-names. Their main division is ii 
Barmash^ts or twelve parts and A karmd shAa or eleven parts ; 
Akarm^shas are illegitimate, andTare not allowed to marry with 
Barmashds. Formerly these divisions did not eat together, butj 
late this restriction has been removed. Most Marathils live in oi 
Btoreyed houses, with stone and mud walls and flat roofs. Tl 
houses are fairly clean and contain copper and brass cooking 
storing vessels. Souio employ servants to work in their fields 
almost all have domestic animals. They are great eaters, takil 
two to three meals a day. Their staplediot is millet bread, a sa 
of split pulfso, and a vegetable. They are fond of sour and paof 
dishes. They cat flesli except beef and pork, drink liipjor, and 
narcotics. They have a few special dishes for holidays and marriaj 



slike ihe people of the district they prepare rice balls stuffed with 

if and molassos on (jaiie^sh-chaturthi or Ganpati's 

li { or July-Auguafc. Most ui them bathe daily, 

»iily a t- before eating the first meal of the dny ; and 

tht ■i-n bathe only twice a week, on Sundays and 

The men keep the top-knot, wear the moustache, and* 

whiskers, but none the beard. Except a few who have 

[«n to the Kdnarese headscarf, they wear the three-cornered 

rbon, -waistcloth, shouldercloth, and coat. The women arrange 

hair iu a braid or in a knot behind the head. They dress in the 

robe and the backed bodice. Some of them pass the skirt 

'robe bock between the feet, while others leave it loose. Both 

and women have the ordinary ornaments of the district. 

iug ihey say is their hereditary profession. But except a few 

in the array, they are almost all husbandmen. They have 

lieadships in the Bijapur sub-diN-ision and one or two in 

, and a few of them are grain and cloth shopkeepers, but 

c; «Ju iiui hold by any moans a high position iu respect of wealth, 

Jiaty, or social pusitiun. They rank above Dhangars and below 

LtBjrdyats from whom thoy eat. Their daily life does not differ 

f* •" 'hat of other K^arese husbandmen, and their women mind 

i>-p and help the men in the field. A family of five spends 

Cl 4wf. (Ra. 10-12) a month. A birth costs them 4s. to 

2-10;, a son's wedding £10 to £20 (Rs. 100-200), and a 

£1 to £5 (Rs. 10-50). They are Smarts in religion, 

being Shankarficharya, the pontiff of hU Smdrt Hindus. 

i'irT ure not very zealous members ot the sect, and worship all 

Hio'da deities. Their house deities are Granpati, Keddrling, 

Kbaudoba, MahMev, M^ruti, Tulja-Bhavdni, Vishnu, Vithoba, 

Fyaukobtt, and Yallamma. The house gods are worshipped daily and 

' food is laid before them. They keep almost all Hindu fasta 

feasts. On Dasarain Ashvin or October-November all weapons 

wtrrahipped under the name of shastradevta or the goddess of 

piina and a goat is sacrificed to them. They occasionally visit 

[•en T''''^"''"tnire the shrines of Gaupati at Vdi in Sdtdi-a, of Keddrling 

jiAt if, of Khandoba at Jejuri in Pnona, of Mahddev at 

in S^tara, of Tuljd-BhavAni at Tuljdpnr in the Nizdm'a 

\''it hoba at Pandharpur in Sholapur, of Vyanktesh at Shri 

kot, and of Yallatuma at Parasgad in Belgaum. 

^e gods and goddesses, and believe in witchcraft 

id KKitiisaying. 

At tho birth of a child its navel cord is cut and with its mother 
I ii w balhed iu warm water and laid on a bedstead. The mother is 
- nannt and molasses to chew and is fed with rice and 
On tho evening of the fifth the midwife worships an 
"le by a goldsmith, offers hor parsley seeds or 
um, orris root or vckhand Iris pseudacorus, a 
It., nud oouked food, and waves a burning lamp before the 
■ carries this lamp with tho offering to her house under 
one should sco it and the mother and child should 
Miiii-HS. On the tenth day the house is plastered with 
d the mother's clothes are washed. On the evening of the 


r Bombay Of 


^pter III. 

twelfth clay the child is laid in a cradle aud oauicd; and kins]: 
and friends are asked to a feast. When a boy is six or twelve mc 
old his hair is cut for the fii'st time. In the engagement ceremat 
the boy's father marks the girl's brow with redpowder and Inj 
a cocoanut before her father's house gods. In the vidu- or betel 
•'packet giving, that is the betrothal, the boy's father gives t\ 
girl a robe varying in value f rom 6u. to 1 Oji, ( Rs, 3 - 5), a bodic 
cloth worth la. (8 as.), aud ornaments according to his me 
When the girl has put on the clothes her lap is filled withj 
pound of rice, five half-coooanuts, five dry dntes, five bet< 
and five pieces of tunneric. Sugar aud betel are served an( 
guests go. After the guests leave the hoy's father i9 treat 
palia or sugar rolly-polies. After fixing the marriage day th« 
take the boy to the girl's house, or if they are very poor they ti " 
the girl to the boy's house. On a lucky day two or throe days befc 
the wedding day, they rub the boy and the girl with turmeric powde 
On the marriage day the bride and bridegroom are bathed at the 
homes iu a square with a drinking vessel at each corner aud 
thread passed round their necks, aud the bridegroom, dressed in nc 
clothes with a sword in his hand, is led in procession to the girl 
house. The bride's father gives his intended son-in-law a suit 
clothes. The brows of the bride aud bridegroom are decked wi^ 
tinsel chaplets, and they are made to stand on two low 8t< 
facing each other. A white cloth marked with a turmeric crosA 
held between them. The Brahman priest who officiates at tl 
ceremony repeats lucky verses or manijalasihahs and throws grai 
of coloured rice on the pair at the end of each verse. The gocsl 
join iu the rice-throwing.* The priest tells the bride and bridegroo! 
to throw rice on each other's- head five times while he repeal 
verses. The bride and bridegroom are next seated on an alti 
and their brows are marked with oiled redpowder with graii 
of ricQ sticking to it. This rubbing of redpowder is call* 
eliej bhanie or bed-filling. The bride and bridegroom eat 
of one bellmetal dish along with some young boys and girls, 
this day or on the next day a caste feast is given. In ll 
evening the bride and bridegroom, seated on a horse, go 
procession attended by music to worship the village Sftjnil 
They lay betel leaves before the god, and break a cocoanut, 
go on to the bridegroom's. At the bridegroom's a nai ' ' 
married woman waves a lamp before them and breaks a . 
as an offering to evil spirits. Next day the bride returns 
her father's, and the guests eat a meal and return to their hom< 
When a Mardtha girl comes of age, she is seated in a 
dressed frame called mahhar for fourteen days or if her feiaU 
is poor for five days. During the first three days she is ht 
impure, and no one touches her. On the fourth day she is batl 
and allowed to move about the house. During these four da^ 
her relations bring different sweetmeats for her and 
of her kinswomen who bring dressed food for her 
to a feast on the day on which the phahhohhan 
consummation ceremony takes place. In everj- monthly siekn< 
after this she « held to be impure for three days and during the 

are askt 
or niArriai 


he lives in a shed or veranda outside of the liouse. In 

.. ;i mouth of her prejraancy the lap-filling ceremony takes 

When a Mardtha man or woman dies the body is laid on 

on a bier. The whole body except the face is covered with 

of n<^w white cloth and a basil leaf is laid in the mouth. 

the bier to the burning gronnd, the son or in his** 

xt of kin walking in front with a fire-pot hanging 

ud, After the body has been burnt to ashes^ thu funeral 

and return home. Meuiber.s of the deceased's family 

•I pure for ten days. On the third day the bonea and ashes 

ti.hI and thrown into a river or pond, and the ground where 

body was burnt is swept clean and sprinkled with cow'a 

r a stone is washedj bowed down to, and offered 

rli , a little milk, and a little water. The mourners 

sit »t a distance till a crow touches the balls when they 

piMJine. On the tenth, they prepare rice balls, lay them in 

J, and wait till a crow touches them. On the twelfth they 

funeral party. Others are asked but they do not come. 

>rship the spirits of the dead every year in the Spirits* 

It in Bkildrapail or August-September. Girls are married 

Iwelve. Widow nuirriuge is forbidden but is occasionally 

sd. Polygamy is allowed and practised, and polyandry ia 

As a community they are bound together by a strong 

img. Their social disputes are settled at meetings of caste- 

deci'sions are obeyed under pain of loss of caste. A few 

»r boys and still fewer send their girls to school. As a 

ro steady and fairly prosperous. 

^ ' r^^ nre returned as numbering 235 and as found all 

< except in BAgevadi and Indi. They are immigrants 

ir. The names in common use among men are Jethaji, 

I, Ramlul, Rilmratan, and Siirajmall; and among 

>\ Ganga, Jamna, Kushi, Pilrvati, and Rukhmini. 

-, aro A'garvala, Bagati, Baj^rji, Battad, Kankani, 

Uetiidad, I'irailji, and liati. Persons bearing the same 

,.i..f Inf. ■ Miarry. Their home tongue is Marwari, and 

iji otherwise called Vjankatesh of Tirupati. 

iitiii strong with well-cut features, the women 

^nd fairer than the men. They live in one or two 

h mud or stone wulls and tiled or thatched roofs, 

s and own cattle. They are good cooks and 

^, iind their staple fooJ is wheat bread, split pulse, 

,.. s, with sugar, milk, and clarified butter. They 

animal food nor drink liquor and their special holiday 

* its which they buy of local shopkeepers. As a 

hardworking, stingy, exacting, und unscrupulous. 

I oil-yelk'iP, grocers, cloth-mercliants, corn-deulors, 

and farnii-rs and servants. Their busine8.«i year 

ini either from the first of Ohaitni or March -April, the fifth of 

itfan or July- August, or the first of Kartik or October- 

e^fflb*^. On the first of Kilriik they close their old accounts and 

ttow books. The poor among them serve their rich relations 

Chapter 11 


[Bombay Oazett« 



ipter ni. 

as cooks or clerks on monthly salaries of 4s, to £1 (Rs. 2 • 1( 
they are in course of time admitted to partnership. In spite 
spending large sums in marriages^ the traders as a class are fail 
off. They work from morning to evening with a short interval 
noon for food and rest, and close their shops on anu and mc 
^lipse days. The landholders are said not to be well off. 
family of five spends £1 10«. to £3 (Rs.15-30) a month on foo( 
a house costs £5 to £20 (Rs. 50-200) to build, and £2 10«. to 
(Rs. 25 - 40) a year to rent ; a birth costs £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30),] 
marriage £50 to £100 (Rs. 500-1000), and a death £10 to £ir 
(Rs. 100- 1000). Thoy rank below Brdhmans and above Konl 
though the local trading classes look down on them. They 
religions, worshipping their family god Bdldji or Vyankatesb 
Tirupati, and offering prayers to the local gods and goddesses. The 
principal holidays are J?rtm-;iafa7Mt in March -April, Qokulashtai 
in Jaly- August, and Diidli in September- October ; and thoy fa 
on lunar elevenths or ekddaghis, and Shiv'a Night or Slui^ardtf^ 
in February. They make pilgi'images to Benares, Pandh&rpur 
ShoUpur, and Ramcshvar. They are Vaishnavs by sect. They hai 
great reverence for Brahmans and ask Marwar or in their absent 
local Brahmans to officiate at their marriages and deaths. Thi 
say they do not believe in witchcraft or evil spirits, but have gre 
faith in soothsaying. They do not bathe a new-bom child until j 
lucky day comes, when they coll and feast their friends and relatioi 
and have the child's name chosen by their Brahman priest, 
mother's term of impurity lasts nine days, and she keeps her rooi 
for a fortnight to two months. The child and mother aro pnrific 
on the tenth and the chiid is named on the twelfth day. Girls ai 
married between ten and fifteen, and boys between fifteen ai 
twenty-five. When the parents agree to the marriage, the be 
gives 28. (Re. 1) to the girl's priest in token of betrothal. 
a lucky day the bridegroom visits the bride's with music 
friends, and halts at a well furnished house in the neighbourhood 
The couple are together rubbed with turmeric paste by the worn* 
of the bride's house, but the bride alone is bathed, while tl 
bridegroom is made to touch the porch before her house and eui 
it. In the porch they are seated face to face on cushions. Tl 
priest puts a betelnut and a silver coin in the bride's left hand ani 
covers her hand with the bridegroom's right hand. A piece of clot 
is thrown over both, and they walk round a hom or sacred fire lit 
the Brdhman priest who repeats lucky verses and throws rice ove 
thom amidst the greetings of the marriage guests on both side; 
The lucky necklace or mangalsutra is fastened to the bride's necl 
and, escorted by the married women of the bride's family, tl 
ooaple go to the bridegroom's. All are seated, packets of su^ 
are handed among the women guests, and 2s. (Re. 1) are put in tl 
bride's hands. The bride with her company returns home, and tbi 
bridegroom follows in the evening. He spends three days with 
wife during each of which he is feasted. Ou the fourth the ceremonj 
of receiving presents from and of making presents to the bride ia 
performed and the bridegroom takes the bride to his home. When 
a girl comes of age, she sits apart for three days and then joiDS 




htu^birad tvithoat any special ceremony. They bam their dead 

moarn them ten days. Tho ashes of the dead are gvithered on 

tliTT'i day after death and from the first to the tenth day a 

imin^ on the spot where the dea^i breathed hia last. 

-- 1 to the eleventh crows are fed every day before tha 

ling me&l and on the eighth and ninth balls of boiled rice' 

buried in the hnrning: ground in the name of the dead. The 

jen of the dead purify themselves on the twelfth and feed 

Brihmans. At the end of the first, sixth, and twelfth months, the 

#rtfl f»r Mther chief nionmer presents Brahtnans with uncooked 

'I metal pot filled with water in the name of the 

■ leath-day he holds a yearly anniversary or shrdddh^ 

r mind-rite on the lunar day corresponding to the death day 

.xi vii^ .,^.„<,ilnya Pakmh or All Sonls* Fortnight in dark Bhadrapad 

or AnOTfit-Septemb<?r. There have been no recent changes in their 

pr. r beliefs. Early marriages and polygamy are allowed 

ML -"efl, widow-marriage is forbidden on pain of loss of 

CB '7 is unknown. They have a caste council and 

KT' Tes at meetings of adult castemen. They are 

labie to the Bhdi-bhdt or brother-bard of their own caste 

..- .= the deputy of their headman in Milrw4r. The hhdt keeps 

TBgialer of all Milrwiir Vdni families, a record of the chief 

Attaaia of their family history, and occasionally visits them to gather 

j«arly tribute from his castemen. They send their boys to school 

md %tv (nirly off. 

Meda'rs, or Basket-makers, are returned as numbering 283. 
They are found only in towns and large villages such as Sarved and 
Bilffi They appear to be the same people as the Buruda or basket- 
naxerA of the Mar^itha country. But unlike the Burnds, though 
le^ lered pure. The names in common ase among 

xui ^ .>:t, MalUppa, Ndg^ppa, Nuranddppa, R^m&ppa, 

and VaUappa ; and among women Basavva, Dyamawa, Gangavva, 
Gaaranima, Elanmamma, N^gamma, and Yallamma. They have no 
finally stocks, but are divided into several families, each with a 
wparate name. Their commonest surnames are Chendanigeru, 
KadflMV, Paugera, SiVlankyavru, and Pevreru ; persons bearing tho 
same »urnamo may not intermarry. They speak KiLnarese and there 
id nothing remarkable in their appeai"anco or dress. They live in 
ordinary one-fltorvyod houses with stone and mud walls and flat 
Tooii. They have little furniture, their house goods being earthen 
tMaols and a few nuilts. Their ordinary food is millet, split pulse, 
and vegetables. They eat fish and flesh except beef and pork, 
and drink liqaor whenever they can afford it and always on 
faolido; some use opium and Indian hemp. They are 

tSixier :> and bad cooks, their chief dishes being rice boiled 

aii'i '. .<i, polls or sugar roUy-polies, kndhua or sugar dumplings, 
and '' • •sjjax or vermicelli are occasionally made. They kill goats 
in hoooar of their bouse gods, on Mdrnavmi, that is the day before 
Dn*itra in AAhvin or September -October, and at the end of 
snarriacrea. Aj» a class they are orderly, goodnatured, thrifty, and 
hardworking, bat rather dirty. They make bamboo baskets, 
winnowiug baskota, sieres, fans, flower-bankets, sUk-cleauing 
• 577-17 


(Bomb&y G&utte 



ipter III. 


raacbiDes, and casketa. A few of them are basbandmen. 
bamboos used in their work are brought from Halijal iu Kdnn 
For a cartload of bamboos 2s. (Re. 1) are paid as cuttiug charg 
and 4*. (Rs. 2) to the forest department. Bamboos are also sold 
f.1 10«. (Rs. 15) the hundred. Winnowing baskets are sold at II 
(1 a.) each, and sieves at }c2. to 3<f. (^-2 a».). Mats sell at9ci. to 
(6-8 as.), and blow-pipes or hollow bamboo pieces afoot long 
fd. (J a.)- Fans, caskets, and other fancy articles fetch different pric 
according to the taste and ornament. A man and a woman toget' 
make five to six sieves and seven to eight winnowing baskets in 
day. Their women help in their calling as well as by working in tl 
fields. They make these articles to order as well as for sale. Soi 
of them are day labourers. Their trade does not make them rit 
but keeps them from want. A few add to their income by aelJ 
dairy produce. They always find work but the return is 8m« 
As they have to invest little or no capital, they rarely snl 
from a failure in trade. As their incomes are almost all sj 
in ordinary charges they are forced to borrow to meet marrit _ 
expenses. They borrow money at a half to one and a half per coi 
tk month. When a Burad borrows, the lender finds how 
working hands are in the borrower's family ; the larger the numl 
of working hands the more he will advance. The Medlirs aT 
Brahman ical Hindus, never wearing the liny and having nothing 
do with Jangams. Like other low BrAhmanical castes they are 
careful to keep the rules of their religion. Their chief divinity il 
Hulsingr^y of Gobar near Kulburga They are not married by 
Brdhmans, but by a married or savdshin woman of their own cast "" 
who is chosen by a BrdHman before each raarriage. One drinkii 
pot and two lamps are used. The priestess ties the lack-givii 
necklace or mangalaufra round the girl's neck and the marriage 
over. Med^rs bury their dead and hold the divas or memorial dt 
on the thirteenth. Their great teacher or (fitnt is a VAder or priestl 
Kurubar of Gobar near Kulburga. He seems seldom to vis 
Bij^pur. They have no headman and appoint a council or panch 
settle disputes. 

Mudlia'rs, literally south-east men, also called Kongis, 
returned as numbering 130. They are found chiefly in Bagevilc 
They are said to have come from Madras. The names in common 
amongmen are Aninjalam, Namashivdy, Nar&yansvdmi, Parmlli 
Bangayya, Somliug, Subrdy, Sundaram, and Varadraj ; 
among women Almelamma, Chinamma, Dhankotiamma, Kuppamma, 
Lachamma, Sundaramma,andT6yamma. Their surnames are Halveks 
Potti, and VaUdlkar. These are calling names and are not taken int 
account in settling matches. Persons belonging to the same clan^ 
intermarry. Their home tongue is Tamil or Arvi and their family gods 
are Shri-Vyankatraman, Vithoba, Shri-Ranganath, and Chidambar, 
whose shrines are at Vyankatgiri, Pandharpur, Seringapatam in 
Maisur, and Chennapattan. They are divided into Kongis and Naidua 
or Kavres and Vallalars, who eat together but do not intermarry^ 
Except that they are darker, they differ little from other natives 
the district. Indoors they speak Arvi or Tamil, and out of dooi 
liATiihi, K&nare&e^ or Hiudust^i. They live in one-storeyed terrat 




" hoQses with mad or stone walls. Their farniture includes 

:i and metal vessels, lamps and wooden boieSj and they keep 

horses, goats, aheep, and dog^s. The rich have servants. 

ro good cooks and are fond of pungent and sour dishes. Their 

-V diet includes wheat or millet bread, pulse, rice, and 

-. the cost of each man's keep varying from 3d. to 4Jd.* 

'«-.( ft day. On ordinary days they are not particular about 

g, but both men and women bathe on Saturdays, the men 

cooking and the women before taking tbeir meals. On 

jiTT. and at births, girls' coming of age, marriages, and deaths, 

;ire special dishes such as cakes and sweetmeats, 

have uo rule about preparing particular dishes on 

cstar occasions. They eat fish, mutton, and fowls and drink 

- .-""pcinlly on the ninth of the Dasara holidays. Some also 

lowers, opium, and other intoxicating drugs. Men wear 

en ' the shouldercloth, the jacket or coat, the headscarf, 

incdk !iud shoes. The holiday and Saturday dress is a 

bulri- more coi^tly. A woman's every-day dress is a short-sleeved 

•Dd luii'kod bodice, and a black, red, green, or yellow robe worn 

*: -sing the skirt between the feet. The men shave the head 

leu. <..ji . uti topknot and the face except the moustache and eyebrows ; 

•0(1 the women comb and tie their hair into a back knot. They ai-e tidy 

io tboirdrcf'B. The favourite colour among men is white and among 

Vomen red or black. They use either European or native fabrics. 

The woll-to-do keep a store of good clothes for special occasions 

H^ ihe poor use their ordinary dress carefully washed. Men 
pnen and children work from morning to evening, Saturday being 
Bir basjrst day. Their houses cost £20 to £100 (Rs. 200- 1000) 
Io baiJd, their house goods are worth £2 lOs. to £10 (Rs. 25-100), 
■r V linary monthly expenses of a family of five are between £1 

*•' ; A. 10-12), Theyare very religious. They honour Brdbmana 

W' <?ir family priests, and the objects of their special devotion 

■r»- ibar, Ganesh, Pandurang, and Shri-Vyaukatesh. They go 

on pilgnmngi* to Tirupati and Pandharpur. Their holidays are the 
Hindu iiow Year's Dny in March- April, Ndg-panchmi in July - 
A&in^t, Ganeah-chaturthi in August -Septr., Vasara and Divdli 
ID Si'ptomber- October, Makar Sankraman in January, and Holi 
in F«»ltniftrv- Mfirfh. Their chief festivals are X?i'r«7i in October - 
N' f/r Sankramnn in January ; and their fast days are 

&• lary, ^«/k(t(i/tf eA-di/as/ti in June-July and Kdrtiki 

1 Oct^jber-November. Both men and women wear gold 
ti ....... ornaments. Theyare orderly, clean, hardworking, and 

thrifty. Their chief calling is petty trade, and the women heli? the 

nea in thrir work. Some trade with their own capital and some on 

bfifrowetj fuudj. ITieir calling is well paid, steady, and improving : 

(hough mo8t borrow to meet their expenses. They rank 

with thtj Afudlidrs of Madras, below Komtis, Gujardt Vania, 

LtngdyatH, and other traders. They take food from no caste 

except Brdhinans. They say they have a religious guide, but 

»rft not able to tell where ho lives or what are his powers. They 

offiar camphor, dry dates, incense, molasses, and sugar to the village 

.4|l0d» oo holidays, and cooked food in addition on Saturdays. 

[Bombay Qaxett 



Lpter III. 

They liavo house images of their family gods which are eit 
of atone, of gold, or of silver, and they helieve in 80othBay« 
particularly in Brahman mediums. They assert that they have 
faith in witchcraft or in ghosts. They do not regularly observe ai 
jof the sixteen Brdhmnn sacraments. During the first two days ait 
a birth neither the child nor the mother is given any food except 
decoction of long-pepper Piper longum. On the third day th^ 
cook together pulse vegetables and rice and give it to 
mother. This diet is continued until the eleventh day. From ti 
seventh to the eleventh the mother is daily bathed in warm wat 
in which nitn leaves and the leaves of other trees are boiled, 
child is bathed in simple warm water from the third day. On 
seventh or ninth day they worship Shatikawa, break a cucoannt, ai 
offer it to her. After this at a lucky time they lay the child in tl 
cradle. Poor women remain in the lying-in room for a fortuigl 
middle-class women for two months, and rich women for thr 
months. Before the end of the third month they shave the heads bolj 
of boys and girls, either athome or at Shri-Yyankatgiri, or any otl 
place where they have vowed to shave the child. They marry tl 
girls either before or after they come of age and their boys 
sixteen. When a match is proposed the bridegroom's peoj 
to the bride's with a new robe, a piece of bodicecloth, a cocuanc 
two and four-tifths pounds of sugar, ten plantains, betel, floweJ 
Bandalwood paste, and such gold or silver ornaments as they 
afford. They are accompanied by friends, the family priest, ar 
neighbours. The priests repeat sacred verses, clothe the girl 
a new robe, and put the cocoanut, rice, plantains, betel, and bodic 
cloth in her lap. Bet&l is served, the boy's father is fcastf 
and they return homo the next day. After a time the day 
holding the mamage is fixed and the house is cowdunged 
ornamented with paintings; and either the bridegroom's party gc 
to the bride or the bride goes to the bridegroom's. When the par 
draws near the village boundary, it is led in processiuu to 
house. The bridegroom is first rubbed with turmeric paste 
women of the bride's house and then the bride is rubbed. TI 
are again rubbed with turmeric paste and bathed in the evenii 
This is done either three or five times after which both the brii 
and the bridegroom are again bathed and dressed in new clotl 
On the floor of the marriage booth in front of the house they 
rice and on the rice a mat, and seat the bridegroom on the r'lgl 
the bride on the left. Close to the seat are set two new earthj 
pots, two smaller pots, and nine still smaller which together cc 
2«. Qd. (Rs. 1^). These are filled with satsi or sprouted rice. 
varvanta or spico-pestle is rubbed with turmeric paste and a bd 
containing an image of Ganesh is brought out and worshipj 
The bnde and bridegroom bow before the god. Milk and sugar 
boiled together before the pair and offered to the gods, the pric 
places the lucky necklace on a cocoanut, and it is touched by c*rt 
persons of the company. Then the parents of the brideand bridegrc 
and the bride and bridegroom take in their hands the nine smal 
pots, the spice-pestle or varvanla, and a lighted lamp, and w&J 
five times round the booth ; at the end of the fifth round the 



I i^iioe-pestle is dropped on the ground, the bride rests her foot on it, 
^^rroom draws her foot off it. Then the couple return 
H altar and sit. The family priest kindles a sacred 
Tributes red rice, and ties a cotton thread with pieces of 
> the right hands of the bride and bridegroom. The 
»6 wUoatt'.'nd recite Sannkrit verses and lay five haiuifnls of rice*' 
>iit of the pair ; ench of the guests lays three handluls of rice in 
of the pair ; and all throw coloured rice over the pair's heads. 
pair then walk three timea round the marriage altar and go into 
fkmuie where they are seated on a country blanket and are given 
tpgnr, and plantains. When this is over the guests and the 
r*nd bridi'gTonin are feaated on rice, curry, cakos, and sweet- 
ie. A sacred lire is afterwards kindled. The k an lain » or wristlets 
[.tnken from the hands of the pair, and sugar is dropped into their 
The bride and bridegroom throw red water on each other 
Ion all present, and are then taken into the house and bathed. 
Is all the people, vrith the sprouted corn in the pots and 
^tbc* remains of the sacred fire or ho>u, go to a river, and break 
»nnt, nff(»r if to the river, throw all the things into the river. 
On their return dinner is served. After dinner 
. i^d to the Couple, and the bridegroom and hia 

CHrtT rttorn to their place. If the girl is a minor she is left with 
kcr patretit^ ; if she is grown op the pnberty ceremony is performed 
as i»ift of the marriage ceremony and she goes back with her 
kaaband to his house. After the thii-d mouth of pregnancy they 

Cofiile the woman with anything she may have a craving for, 
K^*' if she is not satisfied the child will suffer from sore 

e»r'^ 1 the fifth and seventh month her parents ask the 

l^i r house and treat her to a variety of dishes; after this 

»1' . . treated by relations and fi'iends. 

h the first sign of death they pour into the patient's mouth 
worv;- 111 which a tulsi leaf has been dipped, break a cocoanut, burn 
<e«»intili(u-, atid rub B-iudalwood paste and cowduug ashes on the brow, 
death they put betel in the mowth and tie together the 
1 1 great toes. If the family is rich a canopied chair called 
wiman 18 made readv, and if they are poor a bier or sadgi. When the 
liir'- -If. Iiuir is rea<ly the body is brought out of the house, rubbed 
ov, au«l then dusted with $hi/cthti powder to take off the 

oil lied. The head is left bare and the rest of the body is 

di h a sniivlj robe and covered with a sliroud. The brow is 

ri. I paste and oowdung ashes and the body is tied on 

Ti i with llowers. All present throw rice on it and 

he soul may remain in heaven. The son or other next of 
;i.ud walks before the body carrying a fire-pot. On reaching 
il i> ground the funeral party make ready the pile, lay the 

h ' \ bum it to a.shes. Those who accompanied the body 

b' » th(> house of mourning with the chief mourner. In 

111 " re the spirit left the body is cowdunged and 

a I on it. They bow to the lamp and go homo. 

O gather the a.shes and bones and throw them 

ini ..:—. Jd cocoanut milk roasted rice and gram are 

nfifered to the spirit of tbo dead on the spot where tho corpse was 

Chapter I 


• Mrpi 


[Bombay Oaiet 



ipter III. 


burnt, and then diatribated to any lower class people who may 
at tbe burning ground. When this is done they bathe and go hoi 
Betel is served and the guests withdraw. Friends, kinspeople, 
the ininates of the house of mourning dine together. On the fif 
day they prepare tlie dishes of which the deceased was fondest 
•*leavo them at the burning ground. Friends and kinspeople all 
offer favourite dishes fi-om the fifth to the fifteenth. On 
sixteenth, accompanied by the family priest, they go with cocoani 
rice, milk, sugar, vegetables, clarified butter, and camphor, incei 
and molasses either to the bank of a river or the edge of a grove, ai 
perform the obsequies and offer rice-balla to crows. If the crowa 
not touch the rice-balls they leave them and go away. The rolalic 
bathe and go to the chief mourner, present him with clothes, lead hi 
to the village temple, and bring him home in procession accumpani^ 
with music. The community is feasted and provisions and raoi 
are given to priests. On the seventeenth the house is cowduo|^ 
and the family priest purifies it by reading sacred verses, and the hot 
people rub themselves with oil, bathe in warm water, and dine wil 
relations on bread rice and sweetmeats. At the end of the month 
son performs the month ceremony. They also perform a ceremol 
on the death-day and some keep the corresponding lunar day in 
All Soul's Fortnight, Pol3'gamy is common, widow-marriage is 
allowed, and polyandry is unknown. They settle social disput^a 
meetings of adult caatemen under an hereditary headman, 
who refuse to obey the decision of the coancil are put out of caa^ 
The headman has authority over the whole community. They sel 
their boys and some of them send their girls to school. The girls i 
kept at school till theyare twelve, and the boys till they can re 
and write Marathi and work easy sums. They are a prosperous oU 
and seldom take to new pursuits. 

Mushtigers or Chlietris are returned as numbering 725, 
as found all over the district, especially in Bagalkot. The nat 
in common use among men are Bhimappa, Hanmayya, Lakshamdpj 
Rdmayya, Rangappa, and Timappa; and among women, Billavi 
Dydmawa, Girevva, Hanmawa, Malavva, and Rdyavva. The xai 
generally add viiishiUjer or chht'tri to their names. They have 
surnames or family-stock names, but persona known to be!" 
eame family do not intermarry. Their home tongue is ^ 
and their family gods and goddesses are Kalamma, Mart 
Vyankatraman of Tirupati, and Yallamma. As a rule they 
middle-sized, muscular, and strong, with round faces and well-cal 
features. They live in one-storeyed flat-roofed houses with walls 
stone or mud. They are great eaters and poor cooks and 
proverbially fond of sonrand hot dishes. Their staple food incluc 
Indian millet bread, pulse, and vegetables, and their special holic 
dishes include wheat cakea rolled round boiled pulse and molt 
sweet gruel or khir, and vermicelli. They use all kinds of anii 
food except beef and pork and drink country liquor audhemp-wal 
or hhitng. Their chief days for eating meat and drinking liquor 
the death-days of the famliy dead, Dasara in October, and 
tenth day of the Musalmdu Muharram. The men wear a waistclc 
or kiiee>breeches, a shouldercloth, and a headscarf ; and the woi 



ftnd a robe without passing the skirt back between the feet. 
ihcir Lair into a knot at the .back of the head and cover 
111 with one end of the robe. As a class they are sober, hard. 
V, and orderly, but dirty. Their chief and hereditary 
■ : dry and some also work as labourers and cart-drivors- 
•re auco<;s8fi]l husbandmen but poor gardeners. They eke out' 
6eld profits by the sale of dairy produce, but as a class are 
•iid debt-burdened. They rank below Marath^^ and Adibanji- 
aod above the impure classes. They work from morning to 
ing in the field with a short rest at noon, return at sunset, and 
^p soon aft^T supper. The women mind the house and 
jen in the field. Their slack time is during the hot months, 
to June. All the year round they rest on Mondays, and on 
Jyrshth or June full-moon. A family of five spends £1 4*. 
►12) A month on food. A house costs £5 to £20 (Rs.50-200) to 
and 6». to 12*. (Rs.3-6) a year to rent. A birth costs 10». 
(Rs. 5-10), a marriage £5 to £7 10s. {R3.60-75), and a death 
Rs. G-10). They worship their family gods Kdlamma^ 
i i-Vyankatesh, and Yallamma among other BraLmiinic 
iucni gods, and keep the usual Brahmanic and local Hindu fasts 
feaata. They ask Brahmans t-o officiate at their ceremonies, and 
|tf(Wr a birth or death ask Osthams to purify thom with iuhi water, 
•"" three men to attend their marriages, a Brahman, the 
r caste headman, and an Ostham. They make pilgrimages 
<'8 of their family gods and visit local fairs held in honour 
Muhammadan saints. Husbandmen keep two special 
he full-moon of Ashvin or September- October and 
mi or the dark eighth of Mdrgashirsh or Novomber- 
ler. They fast on all ekddashis or lunar elevenths, on 
' ' -mi in July- August, and on Shiv's Night or SMvnUra 
y which is kept as a fast by people of both sexes and 
of BLA agea. Their religious teacher is an Oshtam. They believe 
h» WfHho.iving and evil spirits. Early marriage, widow-marriage, 
aoil my are practised, and polyandry is unknown. On 

the ! ly after the birth of a child the goddess Shatikavva or 

> .rvAi is worshipped, a goat is sacrificed to her, and friends and 
•-■■•'■■ sro treated to a dinner. The mother's tenn of impurity 
<^ days. On the thirteenth the mother and child are 
£\1 aud purified, the house is cowdunged, and the child is 
Jod. The mother keeps her room a fortnight to twenty days, 
lliia is over, she visits the temple of the vUlage Waruti and 
■« >!' s- usual house duties. The child's hair is clipped before it 
1. the maternal uncle cutting part of it and presenting 
MiM A'ith a blanket, a pair of shoes, a whistle, and a coat. 
•IV married between fifteen and twenty-five and girls between 
It «• ' :y. At the engagement or marriage-fixing ceremony 

party : . om the boy's to the girl's. The girl is dressed in 

robe prc^etiied to her by the boy and her lap is filled with rice, 
id A cfK-'oauut, plantains, and betelnuts and leaves. Betel leaves 
tiUtA arc handed among the guests and the men from the 
)in'8 house withdraw. On the hdshtagi or betrothal the 
L-fTMni fifiother robe given by the bridegroom with ornaments 

Chapter I 




ipter in. 


and a bodice, and, before tbe bouse gods, her lap ia filled with 
and five kinds of fruit. A day or two before tbe nmrriftge the 
pleasing or dee-hiriici is performed in front of botlj bouses 
attended by frieuda and relations ami ber parents take the girl 
.the bridegroom's village. The girl's party is lodged at a bouse clc 
' to the boy's and on the same day is treated to a dinner at 
bride's. At the bride's house five married women rub tbe coti| 
with turmeric paste. In the morning with the help of the men 
married women build a booth. At noon caste- people arc feasted i 
before sunset tbe bride's kinswomen bring pots from the pott€ 
A square called surgi with an earthen pot at each corner ia mf 
ready, a thread is passed round the necks of the pots, the couj 
and their mothers are seated in the square, and they are bathed 
warm water. The thread which wm passed round the pot neckaj 
twisted into four separate cords and tied round the wrists of 
couple and their mothers. Lights are waved round them to giu 
them from the evil eye and other evil influences and they bow befc 
the bride's family gods, come out, and fall prostrate in the booth, 
the third or marriage day, the bridegroom's kinswomen ask the htm 
to accompany the bridegroom to his honaa The bride agree 
starts followed by a married man carrying an earthen pot calb 
hhum or the square earth -offering holding vermicelli, rice, and 
sugar, and a married woman with an earthen vessel filled with water j 
her head. At the bridegroom's the man is presented with a turban 
the woman with a bodice and the couple are received by the bo] 
household. Sweetmeats and water are laid before the family goc 
the hands and feet of the couple are washed with the water, ai 
they are fed vj'ith the sweetmeats along with ten married wom« 
five from each house. The marriage party visits tbe shrine of 
local Maruti and the bridegroom and bride are dressed in 
clothes and decked with ornaments. At a lucky hour they are 
to stand in the booth face to face on low stools covered with millet i 
five copper coins and separated by a curtain whose centre is marl 
with a red Jain cross or avastik which they call nand! and say it is 
goddess of good fortune. Threads are tied round the wrist of 
bride and bridegroom, and, at the lucky moment, the priest tbi 
red rice over them and fastens the lucky necklace I'oimd the brie 
neck. Betel leaves and nuts are handed t<) the guests and moi 
to the Brahmans, The hems of the couple's garrneuts are knotl 
together, and they bow to the family gods and elders. Next cot 
the Bhuma Jevaii or earth-offering feast when the couple with 
married women on each side feast on cakes, rice, and clari( 
butter brought in equal quantities from the two houses. Friends i 
relations are feasted at the bridegroom's and the couple are rabi 
with turmeric and made to splash each other with turmeric water, 
ceremony ends witli presents of clothes made by the relations of 
couple. They are then seated on a bullock, taken to Milruti, bef^ 
whom they break a cocoanut and return home. Lastly they b< 
play at hide and seek. The girl is formally handed by her part 
to the care of the bridegroom's mother. The bride's relati< 
return home and the wedding ceremonies are over. When a 
comes of age she sits apart for throe days, is bathed on the foi 



on •nme lacky day within the next fortnight a lap-filling or 

• ceremony is performed. After death the body is bathed, 

i» Wttll, and lied in a aittiug p osition to a peg fixed iu the 

li IB wrapped in a blanket, laid ou a bier, and taken by fonr 

to th« burning ground, where the pile is prej:»ared, and the body*. 

n it and. burnt. When the pile is nearly consumed, tho 

Hi walks three times round it with an earthen pot on his 

t -s three holes in the pot, throws tho pot over his 

his mouth with the back of his right hand. Gifts 

i.LUs, and the Mhdr, who is called the son of tho 

IB given something as the price of the land which was used for 

"e. On the third day the ashes of the dead are gathered and 

into water. On the fifth the chief mourner worships threo 

in the name of tho dead, and offers thoux boiled rice >>rithout 

jj to sei? whether or not it is touched by a crow. On the 

th dj»y the friends and relations are treated to a rich feast of 

inattnn and wheat cakes. A montli after the death 

aro killed and caste-people are feasted. The anniversary or 

..<l;.v- raiud-feast at the end of the year is optional. They are 

th^r by a strong caste feeling and settle social disputes 

■v^ of adult cast^emeu under the hereditary headman or 

i, whose opinion carries great weight in all caste matters. 

' o accept the headman's decision is put out of 

rules are punished by a fine which genei'ally 

the form of a caste feaj^tv Some send their boys to school, 

'■St are illiterate. As a class they are badly off. 

taillS are returned as numbering sixty-two. Ttey are found 

numbers in Badami. Hungund, and Bijapnr. They seem 

o come into the district from Telangan for trade purposes. 

in common use among men are Lakshayya, Ramnyya, 

T."i.,.vv;i^ Tirangalayya, Tirpiilayya, and Yetrdjayya ; 

It, Almelamma, Krishnamma, Mangidamma, 

i.», .>.i.iichiramma, Rangamma, Sitamma, Tulasamma, and 

i\ -4 .'/</"■ is^ added to men's names and amma to women's. 

Say havu no - -; and all are of the PArashar family stock. 

Tb4)y an) dcgra . i^fu Brahmans and wear neither the sacred 

IbrCAd nor iho ton-knot. Their family god is Vyankatraman or 

Dammir Manflr of Tirupati. They have two divisions, N^mberu 

Qntttnmit and Siitjtn Oahtanis. All Bijnpur Oshtams are Namberu 

and thvy neither cat nor marry with SAtttus. Thoy are dark, 

•tniog, midille-sized, and well-made with long thick face hair and 

a dull expression. Their home tongue is Tolugu and they speak 

Ki^nnPt^o rtbruad. Tlicy live in one-storeyed houses with earth and 

alia and thatched roofs, and their house goods iucludo 

' jla and metal or earthen vessels. Thoy employ no house 

Mrrantfl but keep cattle and pets. They are moderate eaters and 

I ...1 .1.. They are fond of sour and hot dishes, and their staple 

•s rice, millet broad, pulse, and vegetables. Before they 

' iiing nieul«, thoy bathe and mark their brow with 

r three lines, three upright lines, two side lines of 

d a central red line. They keep a Shdliyram or round black 

Chapter I 
Pop niatii 


(Boot bay Gm4U 



ipter lU. 
7a lotion. 


sfcone represouliug Vishno and an inmge of MArati in tlie bouae 
uflfer them sainlal 'jiusto, Howere, and fraukincensc, with food cool 
in tlic lioiise. VVIu-u tbev sit to their f<.M^d they sprinkle a circla] 
water rcjutul their plaie, throw five pinchfa of food to Yam the 
*f death and hia officers, sip some water in tho name of Jathi 
the fire that burns in the stomach, again swallow sis pinci 
food in honour of tho five airs that live in the body and of Hrwl 
the spiritual essence, and then eat. They eat j?o/w or cakes nill^ 
round molasses on Ni'tg-pnnchami in August and verniicv'Ui 
thevaya on Divdli in Septoinbor-Octobep and on New Yeur'a 
in March- April. The use of animal food and of liquor ia forbidd 
on pain of loss of caste. They shave the head and the fivco, 
spare the moustaclie contrary to the strict Telngu practice, 
women plait the hair into braids and tie them into a knot juai t^. 
the right ear. They neither use Howers nor false hair. Men dre*a 
a waistcluth, a shouldercloth, a coat, a shirt or han'li, a headsi.-arf, ni 
B pair of sandals. The women wear the* full Alaratba Hrahumu 
with the skirt passed back between the feet and a bodice wiib a ba 
and short sleeves. Both men and women have a store of clotl 
for special ceremonies. The ornaments worn by men are 
earrings called hfn'khalis, tho wristlets called kaihh, and the neckit 
called kaiithi. Women wear the lucky necklace, armlets 
vdA'w, and a number of rings on the fingers and toes. Aa 
they are dirty, hardworking, honest, orderly, thrifty, and liospil 
Begging was their original calling bat some have taken to hui^baoc 
and others are priests of Mushtigors and Dandingddsars. Sol 
work aa labourers and ^omo are skilful husbandmen. The wom^ 
mind the house, beg through the village when they have Icisui 
and sell whetstones and noetUes. The women in a hnsbnudtn* 
family help the men in the fii-ld and sell dairy produce. They fii 
much work in the fair st^son and little work during the rail 
months. They rest on their ancestors' death duys. They 
fairly off but have to bori*ow money for marriage and other char^ 
at sis to eighteen per cent interest. They rank with nono 
the local castes as they take food from no one, from Brdlimans 
Mhdra. There have been no recent changes in their pr.sctico 
beliefs. A family of five usually sjiends £1 to £1 lO^r. (Rs. 10- 
a month on food and £1 10j<. to £2 10*. (Rs. 15-25) a year 
olntlies. A house costs £0 to £40 (Rs. GO- 4I>0) to build, 
birth costs 1()k. to £1 10s. (Rs. 5-151, a marriage £15 to 
(Rs. 150 - 40<>), and a death £1 10«f. to £5 (Ra. 15 - 50). As a 
they are religious. Their family gods are Vyaukntranmn of Tb 

ftatiaud the village Miiiuti, and they also worship all boundary ggi 
ocal gods, and village gods. Their priest is a man of thoi 
caste calle<i Ooski Pedda whom they ask to conduct their 
ceremonies. They show no respect to local Brahmans. They ke| 
all tliudu holidays except Skrdvani piturnima and (runevli-cliatut 
in August, and Anaiit-chaturilnt^hL in September, and keep fasts svj 
as the eleventh oiA/thddh in July and of Sfinivaii in August. On 
Fridays and Saturdays niShruran or July-August they eat only oi 
a day. They make pilgrimages to Benares, Raraeshvnr, and Tiiiij 




Tcligioiia ieAcber is Bhangr^r Lok<lcli«Srya of the Vaishnav sect, 
t-hov ' ' ' ' ult in ail costo disputes. Some 

«»m »r ' tlie villa;i;e Mdnifi, whom they 

' wurslii|j V inidal puste, and frankincenso, 

[fmrk *hr' ' u ihe friptindra or three upright-^ 

at's of white mnciai jmste iinil a central hue of rodlead. 
. . .i.'».'s they enjoy the revenue from the god's hiud and 
^ mftdo to him. They act as aatrolojr^'rB to Miishtigers and 
" ■' ' ' f iu soolhsa^nng. They beheve iu witch- 
rccuursc to devrishix or god -seers wheu 

I J'iirly marrini^os and polygftmy are .illowed 
irriage is forbidden on puin of ]<'Hm of cAst©, 

••ii. On the fifth day after tho birth of a child, 

-J,. ... . Aorahippcd and tho ceremonial impurity lasts 

'. Oo the tenth the lying-in room is washed with cow- 

ar. I iho m rlitT IS givcu new clotheH to wear. On the thirteenth 

a an«l i ! 'ii>r>ft are fed on sugar roily-polios or polls and 

• meet at the house in the evening. They 

iiild and leave with a present of uftal that is 

\xi d and boiled together and eeaaooed with salt 

ii . -_ : . veen the second and the ninth month the 

IB oronped for the first time. The priest tenches the 

•■ -r or «cis5<ira and the village barber cuts it. No thread 

■pmod. Boys are married between twelve and twenty- 

• on one and twelve. At the time of the engage- 

i the boy visits the girl and presents her with a 

1 a and makes the women of her house fill her lap 

dates, betol, lemons, and cocoanut. Friends and 

le are asked, packets of sngar are handed roond, and they 

of the etjgageuient. After a time comes the hnshtatjl or 

HaI, when the girl receives a suit of clothes from her future 

in-law. A Ii ' ' for holding the marriage is fixed, the 

^^♦noe ifl cowu id whitewashed, and a booth is raised 

tt. The bri'iegr4iom visits the bride's with his friends 

iple, the couple are rubbed with turmeric paste, and all 

w 8 dinner by the father of the bride. Next day tbo 

if or dcraknrya is performed. The lucky post or 

in bn'Ught, five married women are presented with 

ma and a copper coin, and their laps are 

-. Food is otTored to the gods and to 

ihlntk and the bridegroom's party is fea.sted. 

II pots are brought from a potter's and 
'ds. A square spot marked with lines of wheat tiour 

,.. ;r<mt of the lucky post or hnlg imhhak and the pota 

I the square and surrounded by a cotton thread tlippf^l 

i\i il with turmeric powder. Both the post and the 

!i;i|>i'd with llowers and sandal-paste and food is laid 

On the third day the couple iiro bathed n.ud seatod with 

"5 nn a square ftp>l nmrkcd with wheat Bour and dressed 

A oocoatiut and betoluut marked with veniiilliun 

• -. iO the name of Vishvakshaynn or the all-pervading 


Mt • 





la ■•> . : 

1 . 1 







[Bombay Gaiset 



?ter III. 

Vishnu and his wife Lakshmi, and the couple are seated face to 
on two low stools with a curtain marked with a cross called nar, 
drawn in lines of vermilliun held between them, A square is mac 
with a pot placed at each corner and a cotton thread dipped in mi 
js passed round the pots, and then cut and twisted into two wristU 
to be fastened to the wrists of the couple. The priest and the gaesl 
touch the brows of the couple with rice marked with vermillion at 
both of them throw rice at each other. Then the ()rie8t makes tl 
bridegi'oom touch the lucky necklace or matiynlgutra and th« 
binds it about the bride's neck and puts hxlnngur or toe-rings onli< 
toes. The hems of their garments are knutted together, presents 
clothes are made to them both, and the services of the priest 
reNvarded with a gift of money. The bridegroom and bride bow to 
images of their house-gods, and, while five married women sing 8on| 
the bhuin or earth-offering is performed, and the couple eat from ti! 
dishes full of stuffed cakes and other sweetmeats. On a lucky, 
between the fourth and the sixteenth comes the«</>i<iorcloth-presei 
when the couple visit the temple of the village Mariiti. After this t| 
hhtun or earth-offering is again performed and then comes the g) 
hharaui or house-filling when the bride is taken to the bridegroom^ 
The caste-people are feasted by the bridegroom's father and an eartbf 
potful of grain is sent by the bride's men to the bridegroom. On tl 
the bridegroom's party return the grain pot to the bride's and lee 
the place for their village, and the marriage is over. 

When a gu"l comes of age she sits apart for four days. On the fif 
she is bathed, the (jnrbhudh(in or marriage consummation is perfoi 
within or oo the sixteenth day, and she goes to her husband. Wh< 
ft girl is pregnant for tlie first time, her mother presents her witl 
green bodice in the fifth or seventh month and she goes to 
mother's to be confined. When an Oshtam dies, the body is bntt 
anddressedin new clothes, five kindsof leaves are laid on the deadht 
the brow is marked with two upright lines of ashes, water with a U 
of sweet basil plant in it is dropped into the mouth, and a light ' 
set before the body. If a woman dies before husband, she is rubl 
with tnrmeric and vermillion, an honour which is not paid te 
widow's body. The body is laid on the bier and carried by four ' 
who have to bathe and mark their brows with two upright lines 
ashes, and then lift up the bier and carry it to the burning grou^ 
where a pile is prepared and the dead is placed on it and burnt, 
the fifth the ashes of the dead are gathered and thrown into wat 
Rites are performed either for the first ten days or only from 
seventh to the tenth. The bones of the dead are laid in the pit 
where the body was burnt, covered with earth, and a sweet be 
bush is plant^jd over them. A waistoloth, shouldercloth, or headsc 
is laid before the bush and worshipped, and the priest is piesent 
with a gift of money or dnkuhina. They mourn the dead ten di 
and on the twelfth friends and relations are feasted on stuffed cakj 
They do not offer food to the crows in honour of the dead 
remember him on the last day of every month and hold a ifhriu 
on his yearly death-day. In honour of a woman who dies bef<l 
her husband tljoy give food to a married woman on the bri| 




oi A* Kvin or September- October. The community is boand 

hy H strong caste feeling. Social disputes are settled at 

of euatetueu under their priest or Gosht reJda. The 

o£ the priest is hereditary and he is much respected. 

iller breaolics of caste discipline are punished with tincB. Casta 

Uttions are subject to the approval of their religious teacher 

ittgdr LokAchdrya, whose decrees are final. His office like that 

[tbo priest is hereditary. They send their children to schoolj but 

}t take to new pursuits or show any tendency to rise in wealth 


[Pa'nchals, supposed to mean Five Craftsmen, are returned as 

ktnbcnDgtil'J2. They nrc found in considerable numbers all over the 

ict. Thc>y claim descent from Vishvakarma, the framer of the 

Tlie Piinchsls all belong to one caste ; and some of them 

^token to %vearing the ling. Some of them are Kambhdrs or iron- 

rk«rs.i>lhors Uadgirs or wood-workers, others Kanchgars or brass- 

rkere. others Kalkutgirs or stone-workers, and others Ag^als or 

Id and fijlver workers. So, though they have not the monopoly of 

icrafls, for there are Jain Kasavs,and Bailgambhar, Bhui, Jingiir, 

fer, and Panchaaieali iron smiths, the PdnchaLs are an important 

TKey are scattered over the district, chiefly in towns and 

villages. These five subdivisions belong to five different 

Irtu or family-stocks, Auubhavasya, Pratnas, Sanagasya, SanAta- 

»y», and Suparnasya, the members of which eat together and 

!«nnarry, KambhArs or iron-workers belong to the Anubha- 

kslock, Badgirs or wood-workers to the Pratnas stock, Kan chgdrs 

Bs-workers to the Sanagasya stock, Kalkutgirs or stone 

!irs to the Sauatauasya stock, and Ags^S or gold and silver 

r« to the Suparuaaya stock. 

PAoch41s speak Rdinarese at home and show no trace of foreign 
n. The men's dress is the ordinary dress of the country; 
.at, as they are of good caste and wear the sacred thread 
jnerally well off, they seem never to wear knee-breeches 
rs the wnist^^loth. In appearance and dress, especially the 
Is, they resemble Brahmans in many respects. The women's 
ijfli* is the same as the Brdhman women's dress; they arrange their 
ir in the same style; and like Brahman women they add false hair 
;k it with flowers. They are neat in their dress and clean in 
(persons. They live in ordiuary one-storeyed houses with stone 
jud walls and Bat roofs. Their houses are fairly clean. They 
5d Cooks, the ftaplo diet including rice, millet, pulse, vege- 
l>U's, and if available dairy produce ; they eat no animal food and 
3ly touch liquor or other stimulants. They are even-tempered, 
irifty, 8ol>er, orderly, and fairly hospitable. Besides their five 
"itary professions somo are husbandmen, and some, moat of whom 
igsAla or goldsmiths, hold private or indm lands chiefly granted 
former governments in return for service as potdiirs or coin- 
ira. The other classes are fairly off though they are neither 
j||It off onr so neat and clean as the goldsmiths. As a class they 
)m lU'bi tliuiitrh a few of them borrow to meet marriage 

Chapter III. 


(Bombuy Oiu«( 





and other special charges. A family of fire spends £1 10*. to £2 U 
(lis. 15-25) a month. The P^chAla, especially those of P 
call themselves Pinchal Brahmans and consider themsolvi 
than ordinary Brahmans, bat ordinary Brdhmaiis look down ou tiit 
They eat no food but what is prepared by their own caateraen. Tl 
are careful to keep the leading rales of their faith, and are prone 
excitement about their social position often quarrelling with Brahma 
for superiority. Their household gods are Vishvakarma ax 
KAlamuia, but the chief object of their devotion is Vish 
whose im.'ige is in the form of a man. These gods are w. 
daily and are offered cooked food on holidays. They batLe diulj 
the devout bathing in the early morning. If they have nothing 
do with Jaugaras, they at any rate do not seem to have much ra< 
to do with Brdhmans. They will not eat from a Brahman nor froj 
any one else. Their marriages and other ceremonies are conduct 
by ijnriis or religious guides of their own caste, some of whom U^ 
at Bijapur, Gaugjipur in Muddebihjil, and elsewhere. The (j(n 
belong to two monasteries called viath-sinhhsans or religions lio^ 
thrones. One of these is at Antarvalli in the Nizam's connti 
and the other at Y6tgeri in Bijapur. The Antarvalli pout 
has for his diiiciples the goldsmiths, blacksmiths, and carpent 
and the YAtgeri pontiff claims the devotion of the coppersmit| 
and stone-cutters. All the Pdnchjlls revere the heads of bo( 
houses. Though not so learned in the sacred books as Brjlhmi 
their teachers show some acquaintance with them and have 
Bmattoriog of Sanskrit. Most of the laity know little of the 
religion. The teachers are married men and their office is hereditar 
Of late, since the establi.shment of the two religious hot 
a few Pauchals have dedicated thei*^ sons to these houa 
•whore they live studying religious books and lead a ceUbato lif 
The books which they quote as their authoi'ity for stating they »| 
Brahmans are said by Brahmans to be spurious and modei 
They worship no gods but their house-gods, they say all other 
sprang from them. In Bijapur the village guardian is alwaj 
the goddess Labshmi and Lakshmi's ministrant is always 
Badbfir or carpenter of the Pinchftl caste. They have faith 
soothsaying and admit the existence of ghosts, but profe 
not to believe in witchcraft. Their birth and boyhood c©Temoai| 
including the thread-girding are the same as those of Br^hi 
Girls are married at an early age, polygamy is allowed and 
times practised ; polyandry is unknown. Their marriage cereraonll 
last five days. Four are spent in feasting, and one on the actti^ 
wedding ceremony. No halmhus or wat,or-pot8 are used to maf, 
the corners of the atirgi or square in which the bride and brid< 
groom are bathed. Four or five boys stand round the bride at 
bridegroom with one fingor up, and the string, which is eventua" 
to be broken and tied to the wrists of the omiple, is paai. 
five times round, being hitohed each time on to the fingers of tl 
boys. The teacher ties a luck-giving necklace or mamjaUutt 
round the girl's neck, repe.ats the marriage texts, and, throwing ri< 
on the wedded pair, completes the marriage. PilnchAls burn the d« 




n tbrir fnneral cpromoniea, even to kooping a lamp barning fifteen 
on the spot wliere ihf dead breatlieti Lis lustj closely resoniblo 
in cerernouifs. PAnchtiis do not allow widow marriage, 
JTIT eat tJifah. This t^ken in connoctiou witli their wearing 
'nored thread, and refu.-*iug to eat from Brdhmans, showa 
[thejT are a sniinerior cnst6. This high relij^iotis position they 
Itain socially ; tor, though so largo a community most incliido 
poor the caste as a whole is well off atid forme a highly 
:lab]e body. 

rega'rs, or Silk-band Weavers, returned as numbering 1029, 

iportant section of the people of Guledgudd in B/ideimi and of 

1 "Hunguud and are specially common at Bagalkot. They seem 

be fouud north uf the Krishna. According to the Bagalkot 

they 1' "' from CinjarAt. Once every two or three 

fBh^-it nr ist froru near Baroda in GujarAt conies and 

s aud utalhs which have taken place in each family 

.- - . : it. They are almost the only weavers whu have no 

It leanings. The men keep the top-knot, wear the sacred 

?cr. the sweet basil plant, hold yearly memorial or mind 

ilioDour of the dead> aud aremarrit'd by BrAhmaus. None of 

•the Uny. In their homes they speak a mixtni-e of Gujarflti 

Ewid Hindnat/tui.' The names in ordinary use among men aro 

Kanthisu, Liikslimausa, Mdnikna, M/ivursa, Ri«mkrishn.'isfi. 

Si»1:ij:i; and among wotnon, Arababili, Anaudibdi, Krishnu- 

li, SarasvatibAi, and Tuljdbdi. In Western India the 

3g su i" men's names is peculiar to Qnjarfit, Their surnames 

^he names of places and of aucestor^. Families braritig a 

irolnr surname belong to a ] ' " ' ' - or branch of a 

or family-iitook. The Bli:ii j to the Kathvn 

if the Kli»»hyap tjotm ; the iJajis belmig to the Diiji briuu'b 

"Arisva gotra ; the JaluApurkars Ijelong to the Rupekutsir 

of the Gokul gotra ; tho Kalburgikars belong to the 

jva branch of the Gokul gaira ; aud the Maljis belong to 

tekAt^r branch of the Gantam gotra. They marry with 

fnraily-stock but not with the same branch of » fanily- 

'hey have no subdivisions. They live in ordinary one 

i^ed hon^c* with mud and st ine walla and flat roofs ; and havo 

Bg' in their appearance, fond, dress, or character to distiu- 

Mem from R^ingiiris. Dyeing silk in five different colours is 

be tbcir hereditary calling ; but many of them have taken to 

log, »nd in thia they have prospered. They claim to be Ksha- 

I by the name of Patvegars or silk-band tmikera 

\eaver3. They du not like to rank ihemselvea 

anT uihir cjtbte and cat no food but what is prepared by 

jtJ4 people. Their daily life differs little from that of 



ThuK TftU ma wbal is tb« nwtter wouUI be }fitjtur kdv chh' U Mo ; the fir«t two 
JUmAUiI, Uis •oconrl two rSujjiiiti, ta\A the fifth HiiitliiMtADi. Snmc of th»r 
AM 1 wtU et>m« ccKin, Av<trK mvi%i, caii h^^ltly bo lni««<i t» uiy of tbesa thr«* 

IBoTubay Gazott 



kpter in. 

other craftsmen. They work from morning till eleven and aft 
a midday resb begin work at three and work till dark, 
among Raugaris the womeu and children help the men. They tal 
thirteen holidays out of which two are in the MutalmAn raon^ 
pi MofiarTam. A family of four or five spends about £1 H 
(Rs. 15) a month. Their chief divinity is the Tuljapur Ambill 
aa they believe her to be au incarnation of their patron* 
the goddess IngUj who is eaid to have saved them from tl 
destructive axo of the Kshatriya-slaying ParashurAra, the sixt 
incarnation of Vishnu. They often have Tallamma also in the 
bouBes. They visit the shrine of Ambdbai at Tuljapur in the NIzAm 
country and that of Vithoba at Pandhai-pur in Sholdpur. Milk a; 
molasses not dressed food are daily offered to the house-deitit 
They keep almost all Hindu fasts and feasts, Shiordtra in M'U 
or January- February, the eleventh of bright A'shddh or June-Ju| 
being their chief fast days. Besides Shankarachdrya, the' pontiff 
all Smart Hindus, they have a separate 7 «ru or religions teacher, 
is a Bhit by caste, and occasionally visits his disciples and collects 
money from them. His disciples treat him with great reverence and 
ask him to dine with them. They do not worship evil spirits, but have 
faith in witchcraft. They beUeve in soothsaying, and consult astrolo- 
gers. Their ceremonies do not greatly difler from those of tho 
Raugiiris or dyers. The chief peculiarity is that their boys are girt with 
tho sacred thread between five and ten at a cost varying from £2 to 
JW (Rs.20-3()). Child marriage is the rule; widow marriage to a 
Bocond but not to third husband is allowed; polygamy is occasionally 
prat^tisoil, and polyandry is unknown. Their marriage customa 
differ slightly from those described under Rangaris, The early rites 
ani tht* siiino as those of Rangaris. At the time of marriage tho bride 
and bridegroom are made to sit facing each other on a car{)ei 
a white sheet is held between them. The priest and the l': 
shower grains of rice on tho heads of tho pair; and the whiftfl 
curtain with the cross on it is removed. The bride's fatb9| 
performs the girl-givmg or kanyaddn in which the nine Hindu 

Elanets are worshipped, and a burnt offering is made in their 
onour.^ The bride's father presents drinking vessels and platters 
as hia daughter's dowry ; and the friends and kinspeople pr* 
the bride and bridegroom with 5*'- to 2«. (Re. t^-1) in cash, 
bride and bridegi-oum are led to the bridegroom's house either on 
foot or on horseback. The vnrdt or married couple's homewatt 
procession is like that of the Rangaris. At the bridegroom's hot 
five married women with their husbands are feasted. 

They bum the dead, but liave no jivkhada or life-stone as^ 
lodging for the soul of the dead. On the way to tho burning gi-ot 
there is the usual rest and the usual change of place among t^ 

' The nine planets or navgrahaJi wo the Sun. Moon, M«ra, Mercury, Jupiter. 
H*tum. /MAw, and ff^-tM. J' y > 



baarers. At tlie burniag ground the heir as asnal carries an earthen 
wmter re»8el round the pyre and lays a quarter-anna piece near tho 
pjrct. Bulls of food are laid on tho spot where the body wiia burned, 
and on the third day the bones are gathered and thrown into water. 
On the eleventh a dinner is given to friends. They hold that 
n d»Ath in the f.'imily causes ceremonial impurity and they stop 
work for thirteen days. They give both monthly and yearly mind* 
fe«At9. They have no 7tdik or headman. Social disputes are 
Rt^ttled by the panch or caste-council. Though not so wealthy as the 
Hivlkiira and Salis they are comfortably off. Their condition rises 
or falls with the state of the weaving trade. Some of them send 
tbeir sons to Bcbool; but they attach less value to schooling than 
the Hatknrs. 

Raddis, said to moan Strong Arms, are returned as numbering 
29,055. Except in ludi, wliere they are rather rare, they are found 
nil over tlie district iu considerable numbers especially in the rural 
parts. Bigalkot, B.4,>=fev.4ili, and Muddobihal have villages almost 
lolv of Uaddis. They claim descent and take their name from one 
i!. the son of Kudvakkalgc, the only l)rother of Kurupi, the 
'A the Kurubars or .Shepherds. Raddi, a corruption of the 
.trese ratfi tho human arm, is said to have been added to Hem's 
on aeconat of his personal strength. They say that a woman 
ava R'lddi, who was a devotee of Vyankatesh of Vyankatgiri in 
h Arkot, secured for her caste tho boon of plenty from her 
farou'tto god Sbri Vyankatesh. They have a tradition that they 
tirigitiaWy camo to South BijApur from Vyankatgiri in North Arkot. 
They are divided into Chitraats, \fatn>at8, Namads, Nirmala, 
Pakn4k<i, and Pentpeiits, who neither eat together nor intermarry.* 
Of the six divi<$ion3 tho Namads and the Paknaks are aloue found 
u ronxidi-rable numbers in BijApur, and of these two sub-divisions 
P^koaks are by far the largest and hold many heredit.iry village 
hips. ^dmads are very common about Bagalkot and 
" ';idd. 'i'heN.dtnads are Brahmanical and tho other five divi.sions 
tC. They are m^irried by Jangams and in their religious and 
vanccs closely resemble PauchamsAlis. Among Ndmad 
. pergonal names iu common use among men are BdlAppa, 
kppa> Krisbndppa, and Rdraappa j and among women Bdlava, 
— t, LftkBhmavva, and Vyankavva. They have no fixed family 
r surrmmes being place and calling names. These six 
iclnde thirty-six hedags or fami!y-stock<i, of which 
Chhallvdie, Dailigallvale, DurmundalvalR, Gndgivfile, 
, Jdkvale, Jhyancrtivillo, Kadallvalo, KatharvAle, 
iiivale, Padgalv.'tle, Raddikondvjlle, Hagtivdle, 
vAle are the most important. Members of the same 
-. •. li may not interm.'irry. In appearance they differ little 
Panchamjialis. They are of middle height with well-knifc 
IBS, Bouaewhat oval faces, long nose, and a lively expression. 

Chapter 1 



[Bombay Oasette« 



Though not fair they are less dark than Knrubars or Kablige 
They are aheiilthy, gooti -looking, and long-lived class. The worn 
are like the mon only slimmer. Kauareso is their home tong'ai 
They live in largre hadly aired one-storeyed liouses with stone aut 
tflay walls and flat roofa, the air often tainted by the practicje 
keeping men and cattle under the same roof. Their house g 
include quilts and blankets, cots and boxes, and earthen and me 
vessels. Some of them keep servants and almost all own domes 
animals, four to thirty-four bullocks, one to four cows, and soro 
times one or two she-buffaloes. Tlioy are great eaters, taki 
three to four meals a day, and are fond of sharp and soar disho 
Their staple food is millet and wheat bread, huskfd millet 
boiled and eaten with whey, split pulse, and vegetables. Mi 
butter, whey^ and curds are sometimes added to the daily t 
Their holiday and wedding dishes are poiis or sugar roUy-poli 
kadbus or Eugar dumplings, rice boiled and strained, fheraija 
Termicelli, and ^nr or t^tmarind sauce. Of thrse dishes the tthcnit^ 
or vermicelli is prepared on theHiudu New Year's Day in SI arch- Ap 
and on DinUi in A'shvin or September -October, and poliK ai 
haJhus are made on any holidays. On Nag-panchvii or the Cob: 
Fifth in Shrdvan or July-Aug^ust a special dish of Italian millet fln 
and sugar is made and is called tainblt WJtw or millet balls. They 
neither eat flesh nor drink liquor. As a rule men liathe before 
eating the morning meal, and worship tlio house or village g'"<'?'= ; 
women bathe only on Mondays, Tuesdays, Fridays, and Sntur-' 
because Monday is sacred to Basavauna, Tuesday to Yaliaiu , 
Friday to Sbri Vyankte^h, and Saturday to Maniti. The men slmve 
the head except the top-knot, and the face except the eyebrow p ■ 
moustache. Ihey mark the brow with the nam or two parallel 
of sandal-paste. Instead of knee-breeches which were ftirn 
generally used, men wear a waistcloth seven and a half feet U<: 
fihouldercloth or a blanket, a jacket, and a headscarf. The wouj 
wear the hair tied in a knot at the back of the head witho 
using flowers ov false hair. They dress in a foil Mai-Atha ro 
without passing the skirt liack between the feet and a bodico with 
back and short sleeves. All married women should wear gli 
bangles and mark their brows with kunku or verujillion. Both in 
and women have rich clothes in store for holiday use, and have prvli 
or silver ornaments according to their means, the same in 
those worn by true Lingayats. As a class they are fair 
hardworking, houest, orderly, sober, even-tempered, an<l bospitabi 
but rather thriftless. Agricultuns is their hereditary calling, a 
almost all follow it, though a few have taken to trade in grain and 
moneylending. The Raddis are among the best dry-crop cultiva 
in the district ; they seldom attempt garden tillage. Most of thei 
till their own land, and others hire fields paying the owner oue-thi 
to one-half of the produce. Those who own no land live by fi 
labour which hvsts almost throughout the 3'car. Their women mi 
the house and help the men in the field. They cut off millet 
in harvest time, pick and gin cotton, weed, and scare. birds, 
begin to help from their twelfth year. Many Raddis are snbstan 
farmers, and, though most of them suffered in the 1876 famine as 



class they are fairly off and free from debt. Like other Bijdpur 
basbandmen Raddis have many field rites. The beginuing of each 
of the leadiog field processes is marked by one of these rites. The 
Imding rites are the kurgi-puja or drill-plough worship, charagg or 
lAksbmi's feasts, and the Jung or a feast in which the dihig or field 
•O&g^ is san^. The kurgi-puja or drill ploug'h worship is held on tho 
da" - *' day before sowing is begun in late May or June in the 
h' ■ of the south-west monsoon. The day for worshipping the 

I' :inning other field works is fixed either by the j^alii or 

V 111 astrologer, or, where there is no Brahman astrologer, 

tl Marnti by. In consulting Maruti Yea ia written on one piece 

o: , , . lud No on another. The two papers are rolled into small 
bfUUand thrown before the god, and a boy of three or four is told to 
pick one of the two. If the boy picks the Yes paper, tho rite is begun 
xm the proposed day. If he chooses the No paper, the rite is put off 
»r> ■ ' ' :^cle is again consulted. The drill-plough worship is held 
h. i-.e, in the front yard, or in the field which is to be sown, 

Whuii the plough is worshipped in the house or in the front yard 
Ute spot on which the plough is to be worshipped is cowdunged, a 
oocoADUt is broken, and the pieces are thrown to the right and left as 
»a oBering to the place spirits, that they may leave it and make room 
lor Lukshmi who is to be worshipped in the form of the plough. The 
filoogh ia made ready and complete in every part. It is washed in 
Iraih wnter, wr-apped in a robe or lugdr, part uf it is clad in a bodice, 
ami it is sot on the cowdunged spot. If tlie worshipper is a Brdhmani 
Hindu, be marks the plough with sandal-paste ; if he is a Lingdyat, 
fa« ruba it with ashes and throws turmeric powder, vermilliou, and 
flowers on it. Glass bangles and women's gold and silver ornaments 
Mro bang from different parts of the plough, frankincense is burnt 
before it, and sweet food is offered to it. Sometimes the old silver 
or hrna? mask or niukhvata of the village Lakshmi is fastened to 
as its face-plate. Afterwards, when the plough is taken to 
i cocoanut is broken and the pieces are thrown to the right 
: path along which the plough is taken to please the 
lift, and prevent them doing mischief to the plough, for, if 
not pleased, tho spirits will break the plough. When the 
]flaco in the field it is performed on the day on which 
11. It is done in the same way as in the house or front 
(ichshow, UH the plough is to be used soon after the 
. : e beginning to plough the field-guardian is worshipped, 
imrdinn lives in a small stone generally under a ^Itami tree 
na, which wa« set there for it when the field was first 
.nd has since been regularly smeared with redlead. A 
led over the stone, it i.s daubed with sandal-paste 
.d food is laid before it. Before the bullocks are 
yokfd lo tii'j |)lough, their heads are rubbed with cowdung-ashea 
ftnd the owner bows before them. They are given a sweet dish to 
eat and itomt; dressed food is waved about them and thrown to the 
iipirit8. The first of the charags or Lakshmi's feasts falls on the 
Bhtulrapad or A-Ugust-Septcmber no-moon which is called yelldmdti 
or tho iMwamo no-moon, from yell sesame and inmsi no-moo^ 

t *-tt 




ph»' '-■ >-i'i 

th»v an? 







fBombaj 0Af«tt6f 




Dressed food is taken to the field aad some of the dressed food i 
thrown to the four quarters of heaven and the rest is eaten by 
house-people. The next feast comes on the yfs/i*'mor Septemb* 
October full-moon which is called Stijihnnnnvi that is the eart 
/;ono full-moon. Five days bfifore the full-moon, on Dasnra or ti^ 
bright tenth, married women take a copper dish filled with mill* 
go to a jKitter's, gire him the millet, and bring from him in 
dish two cones of earth of unequal height, a'w to eight inches hi^ 
and five toejt^ht smaller earthen cones about a couple of inches hij 
The largo cone is supposed to represent the father, the slightly small 
cone the mother, and the tiny cones the children of the familj 
Besides the millet the potter is given a betelnut and a copper ct 
and all the cones are daubed with kunku or veruiillion. They are i 
in a niche in the house, rubbed with sandal-paste or ashes, and 
and flowers are put on them and dressed food is laid before them, 
the full-moon day the cones are marked with alternate stripes 
lime aud redlead and worshipped in the same way as on Vaam 
At noon all cultivators except Brabmaus take dressed food to tl 
fiehls. At the time of going to the fields they take with them four i 
the tiny cones, set them iu the middle of the field, and offer them fool 
Afterwards tome food is thrown in the middle and into the fof 
corners of the field. The food offered to spirits includes a swc 
dish and generally boiled rice mixed with curds, a favourite di| 
with almost all spirits. The people then sit down to eat. Befo^ 
eating they throw pinches of food round their dishes as an offerinf^ 
to the spirits of the place on which they sit, that the spirits may 
rot disturb them. In the evening they return, and next day the 
married women dressed in new clothes, aud singing songs aa 
they go, take the remaining cones and throw them into a river 
or pond. In cotton fields boiled rice and curds are tlirown into 
different parts of the field before the cotton-picking begins. The 
khunad charag or thrasbing-floor-Lakshmi's feast is held when the 
thrashing floor is prepared ; it does not differ from the ytUdmdsi 
eharng. When the thrashing floor is ready a post is driven into the 
ground in the centre of the floor, and the floor is eowdiinged. The 
post is rubbed with ashes or sandal -paste and frankincense is bumtj 
Defore it Some ears of gi-ain are thrashed by a wooden pestll 
and the grains are boiled whole in an earthen vessel aud ai 
offered to the post. When the place is consecrated no cue wil 
shoes on is allowed to step on the floor, though persona wit 
sandals may walk freely across it. In the evening the ears 
grain that are to be trampled are heaped round the post and fovi 
to eight bullocks are made to go round the post. As they drive tl 
bullocks they sing songs which are called damjors, and hence the rit 
is called ddugor. lu driving the bullocks they are not allowed to 
the whip. On the day after the grain bag been winnowed, a cocoom 
is broken, and pieces of it are thrown to the right. nnd to the left 
the grain heap as an offering to spirits, frankincense is bnrnt befot 
the heap, and turmeric powder and vermillion are thrown on 
heap. Most local husbandmen, sometimes even Lingtiyats anl 
Brahmans, sacrifice a goat. The Lingdyat or BrAhman does not kif 
the goat himself but pays the price of the goat, and a Mardthii 




it or some flesh-eating Hindu kills the goat before the heap of 

tiklea its blooil about the thrashing floor. If the 

Id ifl a flosh-eater he tlrcsses the flesh, offers it to the 

|be«p, ihroivs it to the spirits, and eats it with his family and friends. 

Beforo mi^iisariiig the gi-aia, the grain heap, the mea.sure-bf.aket,r. 

aod the broom are worshipped in the following manner. On the 

)i the heap is set a small cone of bnllock-dung which was 

»po'J bv bullocka as they left the thrashing iloor ; and on the 

r of the bullock's tails are stuck as a top-knot. 

p, the basket, and the broom, frankincense is burnt, 

id inxir lemons and ten plantains are laid. A cocounut is broken 

ul its pieces are thrown to the left and to the riglit. Aa a rule 

I the new grain is measured either in the first part of the day or in 

t piiirt of the night, never after midday or midnight. When 

tod is brought under tillage, the day on which the clearing 

is fixed eithor by the Urahraan astrologer or joshi or by 

lk> tillage Maruti. Before beginning to clear the field the 

'niT bri*nks a cocoanut and throws the pieces about the field as an 

[offering t) the place spirits. When tho field is cleared and made fit 

for ploughing the hun/i or plough is worshipped n^ has been described 

wil' ■' ,ie difference that it is worshipped either in the house or 

h< ^ and never in the field. When the plough haa been 

wofTiJiij.pv.i a stone is picked in tbo field, washed with fresh water, 

BTDtfared with vcrmillion paste, and set under a tree, generally a sliami 

Hiino<ai Roma^ as tho field guardian or ksfielrapdl. 

Tr ' - ' ^h clnssed by Brdhmans among Sliiidrds, rank with 

ji,. .ft high position, and will not eat from the hands of 

vs. lu iho wet months (June-November), which is theii busy 

■the men go to their fields in the early niomingand return at 

Bit or eleven. e»t their dinner, and after a short rest go to work, and 

' '••mplight. In the hot months, they do not go regularly to 

nu<l when they go they do not start till after the morning 
iftcr serving food to men eat their food and go to work 
the men and making ready their supper. A family 
in 1 10«. to £2 \0s. (Rs. 15-25) a month on food and 

9. • ..-osta £4 to £20 (Rs. 40 - 200) to build, and 1«. to 4*. 

J-2) a month to rent. Their house goods and furniture are 
»■ f * 1" to £10 (Ra, 2-5-1 110). A servant's yearly pay with 
ng is £2 to £:i (Rs. 20-30). A birth costs £1 to 
l*.j ,U-. I -^11 . a boy's marriage £12 10*. to £40 (Rs. 125-400) and 
lopwardii, a mrVa marriage £5 to £20 (Rs. 50-200), and a death IQa. 
|to£l 10«. {lU. 5-15). 

p.. 5.3. --p „ religious people, thoir family deity is Shri Vyankatesh, 
y are t<peeiully devoted and to whom on Friday every 
iiy i.l:i IS t,\nlbit» or sugar dumplings and a mixture of rice and 
»alsti? HMiI/-d and Rtraiued and called khkhdi, and the dams or 
Mrv th«' god are a'-ked to a feast on Fridays and holidays. 

\'vaijkate8h, YuUaninin. and Milruti are also worshipped 
ipine. They belong to the Shri Vaishnav sect, which 
iii.i..i Ml the twelfth century by RdTnAnujacharya, a native 
Permatar noar Madras. He studied at Conjevaram, and 

Ohapter I] 

(Bombay Oazetta 


Upter II L 

travelled over the greater part of Southern India. He perfected 
system and composed his religious works in the island of Serii 
patam, at the meeting of the Kaveri and the Kolerun. Pre 
Seringapatara he was driven by king Kerikal Choi, who was 
•uncompromising Shaiv, and who required Ramd.uuiacharya and 
other Brahmans to subscribe a declaration of faith in Shi v. Frc 
Seringaptam he fled to iMaisur, and in 1117 convei 
Viahnuvardhan Balldl the king from the Jain faith K^mdnujachdr 
18 said to have treated the Jains with great severity. He establish! 
his throne at Mulekot, which is still occupied by the tjuru known 
the ParkalsvAmi. Twelve years after the death of the CI 
king Rdjraanuj returned to iSeringapatara and tbere ended 
days. Ramanuj asserted that Vishnu was Brahm^ that he had 
before all worlds, and was the cause and creator of all thin£ 
Though like him he raaintjiined that Vishnu and the nnivei 
were one, in opposition to iSliankardch^rya he denied that tl 
deity was void of form or quality, and regarded hira as endows 
with all good qualities and with a twofold form, the suprei 
spirit pan7idtma or cause, and the gross spirit or effect tl 
is the universe or matter. The doctrine is therefore called 
v{.shishthddvait that is unity with attributes, Raddis rosj 
Brdhmnns and call local Brdhmans to officiate at their cercmoni^ 
Their special holidays are Jloli in Phahjun or February -March, t| 
Hindu New Year's Day in Chaltra or March -April, NdgpaurhmC • 
the Cobra's Fifth in Shrd van or July -August, Oaneshchaturthi 
Bliddrapad or August-September, Dasara and Dindli in Ashvin 
September -October, and the full-moons of Ashddh or Juae-Ju| 
Anhvln or September- October, Kdrtik or October -November, 
MdrgshirDh or November- December. On the full moon of Anf' 
or Juno- July small earthen bullocks are washed with sandal-i 
grains of rice and flowers are thrown over them, frankincense 
burnt before them, and they are offered cooked food. Thi 
special fast days are Shicrdlra which is known as Maha Shiifrdi 
in dark Afjjr//* or January- Februniy ; the lunar elevenths of be 
Ashddh or June- July and yufr^ifc or October- November ; and 
dark eighth of ShrdtHin or July -August known as Oukufaahlat 
On Ooknlnshtnmi they fast the whole day. In the ovLMiing tbi 
nmko an earthen image of Krishna, mark it with sandal past 
throw grains of rice and flowers over it, lay fruit before it, 
it in a crndle, and sing songs. Afterwards they eat a light rer 
They briicve in soothsaying, astrology, lucky and unlucky daj 
nnd wilcheriift. Their gn-at spirit-scaring god is Maruti ; wh^ 
ft person is ]X)8ses8ed by a spirit he or she is seated before 
god and ashes from the censer aro rubbed on the siafforei 

Manuvd Raddis claim to keep and some of the well-to-do keep, nine 
of tlu' hixti'on Brilhiniinic gansldrs or sacraments. As soon as a child 
is Ikhu, the inidwifo cuts it^ navel cord with a knife and bathos both 
thi' mother and child in warm water. If the family is rich 
father of the child performs WiQJdlhmn or birth ceremony. Befoj 
th« child'5 nnvel cord is cut the child's father bathes and sits 


'^'•- Th, 


"°"^' i^ap of™-:**' Priest 


i> -- 

„ 7 ^aopati tr " ** ^ow s^., i ^^ <^e Jv.'r. • 1 

•.•-o'e/oat ° VL""" ""-"lo v.""?' "•» mW»v ""> '» 




iBombay Oac«tt 


ipter III. 

br>y on a third low stool in front of tbem. The Bnlhman priest w^ 
ships a betelout in the name of (ianpati in the satnc whj as in 
jdtKartn or birth-ceremony. The father takes the child on his 
and the barber cuts the boy's hair with a pair of scis3org, leavij 
•the top-knot. After tlie boy has been shaved, the boy and his fatl 
are again rubbed with scented oil and bathed in hot water 
dressed in new clothes. Thoy then with the mother sit on thi 
low stools, and some married woman of the family waves a lar 
before them. The Brdhman priest is given undressed food enou£ 
for a meal and moficy, aud the barber undressed food enonj^h for , 
meal and l^d. (1 a.). On this day some sweet dish is prepared 
dinner. Raddis allow and practise child and widow marriac 
polygamy is allowed but is not common, and polyandry is unknov 
When the parents of the boy and girl have agreed to mat 
them, the boy's father goes to the girl's house with a robe, 
bodioecloth, and a silver neck ornamont or some gold and silvij 
ornrtments if he is rich. After the boy's father has come, tl 
girl's father calls his friends and kinsmen and a Brdtiman to hi 
house to be present at his girl's hnshtagi or betrothal. The boyj 
father places a coconnut and seven pounds and a half of sugar bi'fof 
the girl's house gods. The girl is brought before the boy's fatht 
who gives her the robe, bodieecloth, and ornaments he has brougl 
marks her brow with vorjuilliou tills her lap with two-thirds of, 
ponn 1 of dry dates, two-thirds of a pound of betelnnts, 100 bet 
leaves, one-si.Kth of a pound of turmaric roots, and five plantaioj 
and puts a little sugar into her mouth. The girl's father rises at 
taking betel in his hand says to the boy's father ' My daughter 
betrothed to your son,' 'and ties the betel to the skirt of the father 
shouldercloth. The boy's father then rises, says to the girl's fatb^ 
* My son is betrothed to your daughter,' and ties the betel to the si 
of the girl's father's shouldercloth. Sugar aud betel are served 
the guests and Brahman priests and undressed food and money 
the Brahman priests alone. The girl's father treats the boy's fath< 
and his reluious to sugar rolly-polies. After some days the girl^ 
father with one or two kinspeople goes to see the boy, and is feaste 
by the boy's father. When they have gone, the boy's father 
to his Brdhmau priest and asks him to fix a lucky day for the weddinj 
When the priest has fi.ved the day, the boy's father sends a messaj 
to the girl's parents and asks kinspeople, friends, and castemeo 
the marriage. Marriage booths are built in front of both hous 
and a bahnle or marriage altar is built in the girl's booth. On 
lucky day two or three days before the wedding the fathers of th( 
boy and girl worship Ganpati with the help of a Brahnmn priest 
their own houses in the satne way as is don© in the ji'itlcarm or birtl 
ceremony, give money and undressed food to the Brahman priest, ani 
feast their kinspotipln. Next day uta lucky hour, the boy is rubbe 
with turmeric j^viwder and oil, and is seated with his father moth< 
and two married kinswomen in a square or aurffi with a water 
pot at oaclj oornor and a thread passed several times round the noolcl 
of the jars. Tlu'^e jr%rs nro filled with water, turmeric powder, aW 
Vermillion, and thu persons seated in the square are bathed in be 
water bj married women. When the pouring of hot water is ovej 




le porsoaa in the square are told to beud (lown^ and a tiimhan or 
or copper dish is held over them with its bottom up. Ou the 
_ m is placed n gold nosering and water is poured on the ring. 
The Uireaa passed roand the jars ia unwound and tied to a post of 
marringe booth. Afterwards married women go to the girP^ 
in procession accompanied with mtigic. They carry turmeric 
jr, Vermillion, turmeric pastOj a white robe or pdlal, and a bodied 
girl ; and a cocoanut, rice, and betelnuts to fill the girl's lap. 
the women come to the girl's house, the girl's mother or some 
mnrried woman rubs her with the turmeric paste and the girl 
Uied in the same way as the boy was bathed. On the night 
the wedding day the boy and hia party go to a temple and 
jr they are seated they are joined by the girl's father and a band 
friends and kinspeople. When the men and women of the 
irtiea meet they throw abxr or scented powder on one another. 
^rl's father washes the boy's fuet, marks hia brow with sandal 
}, and presents him with a dressi. Afterwards the boy is led on 
in procession with music. On the wedding day a hour or 
iforo the time fixed for the wedding the girl's sister takea 
lioelli or shecaya cooked in milk with molasses, and gives the 
,to the boy to eat. After he has eaten the dish the boy is given 
blcet of betel leaves and nut to chew, is dressed in a new suit of 
1 w led on horseback in state to the girl's. After ho 
jirl is brought in her marriage dress, and the boy and 
''tlie girl are made to stand facing each other separated by a cHrtain 
tha central turmeric cross. BrAhman priests hand the guests red 
s, read the marriage service, and at the e^d of each verse throw 
lee on the pair, the gnesta joining the priests in throwing the 
At the end of the service the curtain is dmwn on one side, 
boy with his two hands throws rice on the girl's hes 
ms tiie lucky necklace round her neck, and the wedded pair^ 
taken to bow before the house gods. The priests are given 
idressdd food and money, and the guests are dismissed with betel, 
the evening the girl's father gives a dinner to his caste-people ; 
^D the feast the pair eat out of the same dish. After the feast 
rido and bridegroom are led on a horse in state to bow before* 
iti. Men walk in front of the horse and women 
singing marriage songs. Among the women walk 
Iters of the bride and bridegroom with a lamp in a platter, 
the lamps before the god, and the ministrant breaks a cocoanut 
It of bim. From the temple the procession goes to the brida- 
l's. At the bridegroom's the pair sit on two low stools side by 

id with the help of the Brahman priest worship Ganpati who 

tepresented by a betelnut placed on a small heap of rice ou a low 

The Brdhman priest blesses the pair, takes money and betel, 

ea homo. The girl is made to sit ou the laps of the chief of 

>y'« kinamcu and kinswomen, and is duly handed to the boy'a 

with the request that the girl may be treated aa one of her 

lildren. The boy's father asks the leading members of the 

^^party to a feast, and after the feast they take the girl to her 

-. Next day the girl's father asks the boy, his father. 

(Bombay Gazetted! 




and leading kluspeople to bis house, feeds tbem on sweofc dishes, aa| 
presents tbem with clothes. This feast ends the nmrriage ceW 
monies and the g'uests withdraw. When a widow wishes to marr 
she tells her parents or some elderly relation who settles wit 
tlie intended husband. When everything is settled a IBrabtne 
astrolog'er fixes a Infky day for the marrirtge. On the di 
the bridegroom with some of bis kinspeople go to the woman^ 
house. The bride and bridegroom are rubbed with oil and batb« 
in hot water. The bridegroom gives the bride robes, bodicecloth^ 
and ornniuents, and lays a coconnut and rice in her lap. Both 
them drop wreaths of flowers round each others necks ; and 
elderly kiosman of either pnrty knots together the hems of the! 
garment«L The bride, in the presence of all. addressing the bride 
groom declares that she has become his wife, and pnts her band ' 
his. The bridegroom fastens the Incky necklace or mangalsnti 
round her ueck and marks her br<}W with kunku or vennillion j 
both of them bow to all present. A caste feast is given at 
Bometimes money and uncooked food are presented to tho Brjihmji 
family priest. Divorce is allowed and practised. When a Rad< 
girl comes of age, she is held andean for four days and ia seat 
apart. On the fifth day or on a lucky day within the first sixteen daj 
the girl and her husband are bathed together in hot water. 
Bit side by side on two low stools and worship Ganpati in tho 
way as is done in tho jiitkitnn or birth -ceremony. The Br4hi 
priest who helps at the worship blesses the couple, takes money at 
uncooked pi-uvisions, and goes home. The husband rubs turraei 
powder on his ?rife's hapds, marks her brow with vermillion, laj 
a cocoaiuit, betolnnts, dry dates, and rice in her lap, and pla 
m packet of betel leaves in her hand. The wife rubs sandal pa8| 
on tho husband's body, throws a wreath of flowers round his nee 
pota a packet of betel leaves in his hand, and bows before hij 
with joinetl hands. Near kiuspeople are asked to dinner and wh< 
th«*y come they present the pair with clothes. Married wom« 
wave lamps before them and the ceremony ends with a feast, 
the eightit month of her pregnancy the gimant or hair-parting tal 
place. The husband ami wife are bathed in hot water and Ganpa 
is worshi^peil as in the_;<i/jl-o>'m or birih-coreraony. The husbail 
fill* the wile's lap and she applies satidal -paste to his boily, pnts 
flower nreath round his neck, and gives him a packet of botel"^ 
NMrM. Marriod women lay rice, a cocoanut, betelnuts, and dry 
d«Ws in the pregnant woman's lap, and wave a lamp before her. 
Tfc» BrAhman priest is given money and undressed provisions and 
the casto-uconio n ftMwt of sugar and pnlse rolly-polies. Raddis 
burn the doavi. If the dead is a man he is bathed, dressed in his 
daily clothes, and placet! iti n sitting position. If a woman she ia 
l«th«Ml. >• M » robe and Knlice, and placed in a sitting posi- 

tion ; auw has diyd leaving a husband her brow is marked 

with kutiku or vermillion and her head is covered with a net of 
How^rn. When tho chief mourner has bathed and prepared t^ 
Ar» which ia to bo carried to the burning place to set fire to tfl 
pyw. th» corpM* ia Uid on the bier and redpowder or yuUH nwm 




losves are thrown on tUe corpse. At the buruin^; place the 

I dbiel mourner buries l|<£. (I J «*.) on the spot where the body is 

tube barttt, and other luourDers bnild (he pyre, strip the clotht's off 

tlwbody, and lay it ou the pyrix Thecliiof aud other mourners lay 

4wn« graas on the body, the chief mourner sets fire to the pyre, aud. 

■n of t^e party clap their hands, and siiy the dead has gone to the* 

i...#t., vr T,...v ..T, When the body is oonsutiied all bathe and return 

;*3 bouae where the chief mourner dtsmiases them 

tv r [If hope th.'it thoy may not sg^in have to come to hia 

lt> rry a cirpse- In the evening millet is boiled with split 

jii rul the four body-bearera are feasted. On the 

iLi iind uuburut bones are gathered and thrown into 

water. Oo the sixth, ninth, or eleventh the clothes and ornaments 

. f ft... ■?..,.,] are washed, and laid before the honse-pods along with 

• of boiled rice and sugar rully-polies. Within the first 

■ '■ i-s or silver plate is made with a rndely embossed figure, 

1 ■'■■.-■A the house gods in the name of the dead, aud is 

1. Erery month for twelve months on the lunar day 

ling to the death-day cooked food is offered to the ghost. 

ir«» bound together by a strong caste feeling and social dis- 

jre inquired into and settled at meetings of the old and 

'e%l members of the ca«te. Though they are not fond of 

•enaing their boy.s to school and take to no new pursuits, Namad 

lUdilU ore an intelligent, well-to-do class, who are likely to take 

■i^T*atag« of opftDiDgs to which the intruductiou of railways may 

gire rise. 

Atouug Paknak Raddlsthe men's names in common use are Bas- 

^'"Uappa, Malk&ppa, and Shaukarappa ; and the womeuV 

, I'drvalevva, nud Shankaravva, They differ little from 

ICaddis in f i-ch, food, or dress. Like Ndmad Kaddis 

rlry is tht'ir ly calling, and they have the same beliefs 

'• ■ 've the saiue held rites. Shiv is their great god and 

10 February is their great fast day. As they are Lingdyats 

liiey profcr cowdung-aahes to sandal-paste, and in their field rites 

• iv^ -'-''^'-t. of wor.ship first with ashes aud then by sprinkling 

[lowder. Though they are old converts to Lingayatism 

' imch supporters of Jangains, they have not left off all 

f ! tier customs. To a stranger their marriage ceremonies 

frum of Ndmad ICoddis. Though they are married 

1 by Jangams they show as much honour to Brdhmans 

iM tiwy dhow to Jangams. Like trne Lingiyats rich Raddis carry 

lii*'*'- '' 1 in n canopied chair or vimiin, bury them, close the grave 

wr I'sUb, and wash the feet of the beadle or malhpati on the 

o. Like N^ukad Raddis they carry food to the grave, 
I ml spirits, and worship them as house gods. Like 
' : litiddis seldom send tlieir boys to school and 

-. They are an intelligent well-to-do class 
ilh fair proHpecia. 

T^^'r^its, returned lut numbering 441 i. are found in small uumberB 

^n* r>Tid lurgt! villages. They are locally called Surat- 

to be the offspring of Kwhatriya fathers and 

, or Dhan gar mothers. Their ancestors formerly 

U V 





• R4 






^pter III. 

lived in Upper India, and came to BijApur in search 
employment. Most of them were soldiers and were engaged in tl 
service of local chiefs. Some of them won estates and rent-" 
lands and settled in the district. The names in common aso umoi 
men are Bhirasing, Lakshmansing, Madiinsing, Mohansi 
Prati-psing, Kdmsing, Rdjasing, and Vijayasing, the last sjl 
ehuj being a corruption of the Sanskrit sink a lion. The name 
common use among women are Durgdbai, Gangd.bdi, Gunjdb^ 
and Lakshmibdi. They say they have twenty surnames, but tbej 
know only ten, Bishne, Chandele, Chavan, Dikhit, Ghairvdr 
Nenvdr, Pavar, Rajbanse, Sengar^ and Tavar. Persons bearing ihi 
same surname do not int«^rman'y. They have no divisions anf 
no gotras or family-stocks distinct from their surnames. 
Rajput is knowQ by his military air and proud look. They at 
larger, better-featured, stronger, and fairer than Mardthd<j. The 
are above the middle height, with well developed mnscles ai 
strong frames. The expression of the face is lively, the nose is lon| 
and straight, the cheek- bnnes either high or low, the hnir geuerallj 
lank. Their home tongue is Hindustdui ; but they also ppealc 
incorrect Mardthi and Kdnarese. In Kdnarese, they generally as 
aspirate consonants for iinaspirate, as khaiigi for katigi a piece 
wood, and fhoU for ioU a beam. They live in ordinary one-storey« 
houses with brick and mud walls and terraced roofs, Thel 
houses are clean and the furniture is clean and neatly arrangeiS 
Those who are landholders, traders, and proprietors employ servant 
and they are fond of pets, keeping dogs, deer, and pHrrota. The 
have also cows, bullocks, she-buffaloes, and horser. Their state 
middling and they are faMy otT. They are modemte eaters and go*: 
cooks. Their staple food includes unleavened cakes of wheat flour, 
clarified butter, sugar, rice, split pulse, and brinjals hhendea anj 
other vegetables seasoned with heated oil or clarified butter, mustarif 
seed, cumin-seed, and assafcetida. They eat rice with a curry 
whey seasoned with heated clarified butler, assafcetida, cumin-see 
and the leaves of the kndh'unmh Btirgera koenig^. Sometimes tl 
whey curry is made by cooling a red-hot stone in it. Some use nn'll 
bread and a preparation of millet grit. They are also fond 
amhaUvaran , a liquid mixture of split pulse, tamarind juice, molasse 
and spicos. Their holiday dishes are kJdr or rice boiled with su(^ 
and milk, puris or wheat-tlour cakes fried in clarified butter, airf 
heaaiv or gram-flour balls. On Ndci-panchmi in Shrdvan or July- 
August aud on Uaneith-chatuHfiiiTi Bhadrapad or August-September, 
they prepare hidhus or sugar-dumplings, and offer them to Ndg and 
Ganeah, They are extremely particular about the purity of their 
food. No one but a Rajput may touch it and no Rajput may I ' 
it without bathing or may even enter the kitchen in over 
dress. Every morning their women bathe, put on newly w 
untouched clothes, cowdung the kitchen, aud begin to cook t i 
too«l. If when cooking a woman is touched by any one who is 
siniilnrly drcsHod, i»he bathes and puts on fresh clothes before goat 
on witli hor cooking. A woman, while cooking, should not step oj 
k-dungi-d square near tlie hearth. If she steps out of tf 

.f .. 

^re she must bathe again. Men bathe daily, and worship the 

gods, and offer them cooked foodj before they sit to the 

They give caste feasts at marriage, puberty, 

'.lies. Ou Daaara in September they worship a 

: ge of Tulja-Bhavani, and with the swoixlsHcrihce. 

in front of the goddess and feast on it. They eat tho* 

the goat hare and deer; but %vill not touch domestic fowls 

They never openly eat onions. It is coat, and not religious 

ptBS, that prevents them using animal food daily. Except 

go*it "hecp hare and deer, they hold all animals either unclean 

and do not eat their flesh. They formerly drunk no 

t ,^ liquor, but of late some of them have begun to drink. 

It of them stnoke hemp-flowers or gdiija, drink hemp-water or 

mg,»Dd eat opium, and almost all chew or smoke tobacco. Some 

beso narcotics are especially used when animal food is eaten. 

( nso of narcotics is said to bo increasing. Both men and women 

L^od of sfood clothes, and show taste and care in their dress. 

lBr< Topknot and « full moostache and whiskers, and some 

PIRi ' let a razor touch the head. Men wear a flat round 

pan set juantily on the head, a jacket, a tight-fitting longcloth 

it with very long sli'eves gathered in puckers from tho wrist to 

I elbow, a waistcloth seven and a half feet long or tight breeches 

obing below tho knees, and elegant shoes. They have special 

r">hr«rd»*red waist and shoulderclotha, chintz jackets, and silk coats 

I" ■'?. C>n festive occasions a fancy walking stick and a 

t in'f complete ft Rjijput gentleman's dress. Their women 

[the hair in a knot by a woollen thread without decorating it 

per with false hair or flowers, and dress in a robe and a bodice of 

Icn^nt colours ; some of them pass the skirt of tho robe between 

I f«*t and tuck it into the waist behind in the ordinary Mardtha 

hioD, and all completely cover the head with the upper end of 

I robe. Ont of doors they wrap a white sheet or a shawl round 

( body. Most of them have separate holiday robes including silk- 

creil robes and brocade-bordered bodices. Most of the articles 

sale and female dress are made in the district, chiefly at Ilkal, 

kot. BcUlAmi, Guledgudd, and Maroddpur; others come from 

iiahttpur in Belgaum, and from Hunurand Jamkhandi 

Their ornumenls di£fer little from those worn by 

As a class they are orderly, hot-tempered, clean, and 

lavish and fond of show. They are not quick to take 

but in revenge they are staunch and anwearying. War 

their hereditary calling and even in these days of peace most 

ilieai are trained in feats of arms. Formerly they followed 

» ■ but arms and always carried weapons. Since the 

( of rule, their employment as fighters has 

1 iL-y have been disarmed. When tho district passed to 

any left their homes and wandered in search of military 

I lit taking service with tho different princes and chiefs. 

' mttin«'d at home, and took to mttre peaceful ways of life, 

and trade. A few are land -proprietors, and a few 

■ i-ry contractors. Those who trade deal chiefly 

I and those who live by agriculture are over- 




Lpter III 


holders, tllliug their lanJs through scrvauts or through teoat 
who pay them half the crop. A few are Governmeut clerks. 
Rajput who chooses trade as his calling hegins as a' dork 
Balearnan in a trader's office on a monthly p»y of 1 0$. ti:) 1 2«. ( Rs. 6 -J 
.and sometimes without any salary. The women do the whole of U 
'housework, hut do not help the meu ia the field or in the ahc 
Though prosperous ae a class, some are in debt on accouut of the 
extravagance especially in marringes. A few have credit wH 
nioneyleuders and are able to borrow on personal security ; othc 
liave to mortgage land or to pnwu ornaments before they can fat 
money. They call tbemsolves and are called Rajputs. They rai 
themsi'lves below BrAhmans and Kshatriyds only, and eat only fro^ 
Brilhmans and Kshatriyas. Except Brilhmaus, Kshatriyds, Sonir 
and Liiigayata, almost all castes eat food prepared by Rajputs. M( 
women and children rise early. TLe men go to work, the childi 
to school, and the women busy themselves in the house. At elev^ 
men and children return home, and, aft«r bathing and worshippit 
the house-gods, the men eat their first meal along with ih< 
children. After dinner men rest for a time or take a nap, then 
back to business, and stay at wurk till evening. Except aoc 
of the Government ferry contractors who find work only duril 
the monsoon, all are fairly busy throughout the year. On holida^ 
and other festive occasions they close their sliops and rest. Tl 
average monthly charges of a middle-class Rajput family va 
from £1 10«. to £2 (R.s. 15-20). A rich man's house costs nes 
£100 (Rs. icon) to build, a middle-class man's over £5(J (Rs. 500), at 
a poor man's over £10 (Rs. 100). The value of a rich man's hou^ 
goods is over £50 (Rs*. 50()), of a middle-class man's over £5 
(Rb. 200), and of a pour man's over £7 10«. (R.s, 75). A servant 
monthly pay varies from Gh. to 8s. (Rs. 3-i.) without board, and froj 
8«. to4«. (Rs, 14-2) with board. Thoir special marriage and oth( 
expenses are like those of Lingayats, except that the marriage of 
Rajput's daughter costs half as much again as a son's marriaj" 
The Rajput hua a strong tendency to spend more than his iucon; 
They are religious and their family-deity is Bal6ji or Vyankatesb 
Giri m Madras. Their house priests are Kanoj Vaishnav Brahma 
whose brows are marked with the irlpundra or three upright liu< 
Bide hnes of white gopichandan or sacred white earth and a 
central line. They honour their priests and call them to couda* 
their mamages. They used to treat local Br^hmans with sew 
courtesy, but smce they have settled in the district, they have be^a 
to make small presents tc, any local Brahmans who may be pmsei 
at their ceremonies They keep all Hindu holidays and son 
Hindu fasts, especially the 6A:arfrMA,> or lunar elevenths of 
or July. August and of Kdrtik or November- December, at 
hhxvratra in Jebruary. On the first day of the NavrdUa or fir 

Zl!''TR'if'^'"" ""i!" ?'^^^' ^^'"^^ ^^^^ ^« ^«*'"'"' they set tl 

image of Baldj. on a holy spot, and round the image place lam 

fed either with oil or clarified butter, and keep the\n burnT/ 

during nine days. On the tenth or Damra, which'' the" Rai nutl' Z 

l^^thr*/t{'"-.'^ >'^'-' '^'''' ^---vauts' wash their hf 
lead them to the village or town gate. In the middle of thl 




or bntcber, who is gonemlly a village watchman of the 

or ^ ' off a goat's head with one stroke 

rord a: :1 with itB brow. The body of tho 

Ertr&vcil a". t liurr-e.-, aud taken homo to bo distributed 

Jic villjiL •litncTi. Tho grooius thcti load the horses to* 

'mftsters' hoasos, where the mistress of the house breaks a' 

wi in front of tho horse, washes its forehoofs with cocoaunt 

r, marks ite brow with knnhn or vermillion, and waves a 

aboat its bead. At dinner time the horae i.s also fed with 

dishea. In the evening coinos the boundary crossing 

^timallanffhan. They choose a leading T^ajpiit to conduct 

•OTship aini with mosic and a band of men and a BrAhaian 

Ip they go to some shtuni or Mimosa saraa tree outside of 

villiige boundary. A weapon is placed at the root of the 

Kftnd tho tree and the weapon are worshipped. The leading 

t branch of tlie tree, and its leaves are distributed 

and relations as pieces of gold. They believe in 

CbcnJL lAitd soothsaying; but are not much given to the practise 


birth ceremonies differ little from Maratha birth ceremonies. 
marriage engagement the girl's father and his relations 
the bojps hoaae and present tho boy with a bellmetal dish 
with rice, a shela or rich shoulderdoth, a cocoanut, and a 
or more according to their means. The boy^s father gives 
fnther a turban, and feeds him and his relations on 
•ii.>ltes. In the beginning of the marriage ceremony a near 
rn of the bride goes to the bank of a river or to the edge 
a lake, and wrir>hip»« the earth by pouring a little water on 
danbing it with sandrtUpast«, and throwing flowers and rice 
'ot it After worshipping the earth he spreads his waistcloth on the 
!k ! ,><e.ns the earth with a stroke of a pickaxe, lays on the cloth 
;rth aA is loosened, and carries it to the marriage booth, 
twit-iuui under the name of man<lap-dfivat>i or the marriage-booth 
l^a is Bet on the earth and is worshipped. A near kinsman of 
bridegroom does the Sdme in his marriage booth. Before 
ia liitx^wn on the heads of the bride aTid bridegroom, the 
legroom walks seven times roand a stake on which a wooden or 
^.H, bin] is ptirched. While the bridegroom is walking round tho 
p- ride's father asks the guests whether they know of any 

%c\ VI I he bridegroom's which has stained his character and 
dagrail(i<l liim. If the guests say they do not know of any unworthy 
ooodu- ■ t of the bridegroom, grains of rice are thrown 

on tk'j .^head. Tho rice-throwing is supposed to confirm 

Uio mamogo and make it binding till death. 

T1i«jr tnarry their girls at an early age. Formerly widow 
nairiage waa forbidden, but they have lately begun to allow their 
widowa to marry. There are no admitted traces of polyandry, 
hot polvimmr ia allowed and practised. A person who has been 
■la' from his kinspeople and friends for four or five 

yaara, ... - - return is not allowed to sit in the same row with 
tbem to take hia food with them unless he prodnces certificates 


IBombay Qatett< 



lapter III- 





from respectable people of the place where he lived stat 
that he has not cateu with the people of any caste liut his o\ 
The other Ilajpiit cerornoniea do not differ from Mar&t 
ceremonies. They generally burn the dead, and conduct 
; funeral ceremonies in the same way as MarathAa. Perhaps fr 
the .small numbers in which they are found there is little cat 
nnion among Bijapur Rajputs. Social dispntfls are settled 
meetings of the castemen and the decisions are circulated or repor 
by a poor man of the caste, who is paid by the community. Soi 
times these decisions are made known to the caste by means of bat 
or proclamation. They send their children to school ; and W« 
their boys at school till they gain a good knowledge of readii 
writings and arithmetic, and their girls till the age of ten. Beaic 
their school lessons boys from the age of five are taught gymnaa 
exercises and from the age of ten or twelve are trained in the 
of the sword and spear. When, according to Rajput notions 
boy's mental and physical training is finished he takes to tt 
husbandry, or Government service according to his own or 
parents' tastes. They are a steady pushing class and are held' 

Ha'vals, returned as numbering 130, are found in sm] 
numbers all over the district except in Sindgi and Muddebih^-l. Tfc 
are like MarAthAs. They live in small terrace-roofed houses 
mud walls. They keep cows, goats, and fowls, and are temper 
in their habits. Their common food is millet-bread pulse 
Tegetables, and they eat flesh and drink liquor. The men dress] 
a waistcloth, shirt, coab, and headscarf ; and the women in a shol 
sleeved and backed bodice and a full robe whose upper end they dr 
over the head and whose skirt they wear like a petticoat withoi 
passing the end back between the feet. They are hardworking, sober," 
and thrifty, but dirty. Some of them own lands which they cultivat 
some are messengers, some weavers, and some beggars. The woi 
help the men in tneir work and their children miud the cattle. Tl 
sell milk, butter, and curds, and add to their earnings. They woral 
the ordinary Brdhman gcds and have the greatest respect 
Mahddev. 'They employ Brahmans to perforin their birth, deal 
marriage, and puberty ceremonies, and believe in soothsaying. Th« 
customs do not differ from Kunbi customs. They bury their d« 
and allow widow man'iage. Breaches of social rules are punish^ 
by the caste. Some send their boys to school, and as a class tl 
are fairly prosperous. 

Shetiya'rs are returned as numbering thirty-six, and as found 
Bdgalkot alone. They are said to have come as traders with a Madi 
army, probably some of the troops under Sir Thomas Munro 
1817. The names in common use among men are An i ' 
Qovindrdj. MurgeyAshetti, NarAyansvami, Punsvitmi, and 
shetti ; and among women, Anamma, Chinamma, KarpAytitti 
KAshamma, and Lakshamma Their surnames are place 
calling names which are of no account in marringe. Thr Bii 
Shetiyitrs are not known to have any divisions ; but 
include several gofrat or family -stocks, somo of which ar« 



KaUnmadya. Maludya, Mudipalludya, Pitlanidhtyama- 
^ " ' ^ ' ■ >lii. Poraons bolongiug to t!io satno 

' intermarry, TLey do not differ ia 
ifeei, or beaniig iVum the ilndliyitrs and speak Arvi or 
uome. Most of ihcm understand and speak Tflag^u and. 
»nd a few anderstivud QindustAni. They live in ordinary' 
<h\ houses, with flat roofs and mad and laterito walls, 
» to £100 (RalOO- 1000) to build- The houses nro fairly 
•tain furniture and house goods worth £2 to £10 
They are moderate eaters, the staple diet being rice 
-».?, and vegetables. They are not good cooks and have few 
= hes. They have no rule that they should bathe daily 
TceatiujL^ the first meal, and both men and women batho only twice 
■^- \ few bathe daily and they alone daily worship the house 
pwise the gods are worshipped on holidays only. Unlike 
" 1 V " HI'S rarely offor cooked food to their 
, fish, and hares, the flesh of other 
Hir uiicloan or sacred. They have no objec- 
I daily, but on account of its costliness it is 
i cmly ou holidays. They drink liquor and are fond of smoking 
T herap-flower. The men shave the head except the top- 
d the face except the moustache. The women arrange the 
r in a knot at the back of the head or twist it in a single 
^liich is wonnd into a ball. They sometimes though i*arely 
hair !ioir heads with flowers. Both men and 

dress h n, the yearly clothes charges being 10*. 

10«. CRs.o.2&) fora man and \6a. to £2 10«. (Rs.8-25) for a 
imn. Their omanients are like those of Lingdyats and are worth 
to £10 (Rs. G-lOO) and upwards for men, and 8s. to £10 
. 4-10O) and upwards for women. They are an orderly class 
no marked chnmcteristic. Their chief calling is trade, most of 
n Wing «■•! fs and moneylenders. A few who are too 

to trade « ; 'wn account, soiwe in their castemeu's shops. 

men help the men. Some of them trade on liorrowed capital 
-* have funds of their own. They arc fairly off, though 
have borrowed to meet trade losses or special expenses 
Men women and children work from morning to 
' the usual niidilay rest. Their busy time is during 
1(1 the marriage season. They rank themselves 
id eat no food that is not prepared by their caste- 
mns. They are Rnthmanical Hindus, their famUy 
nnkntesh. MAruti, Basavauna, Panchamma of Arelur 
i, and Angalamma. They are specially devoted to 
iiri in North Arkot, whose shrino they occasionally 
thrm ftLst on the lunar elevenths of every Hindu 
V ill B'ebrnary- March. Their chief holidays 
■ y and Dicdli in September -Ocitober. They 
hmaug and call them to officiate at their marriage and 
■'"'•' They have a married hereditary Brdhman reli- 
" who lives in the Madras Presidency and never 
ill- titlj is JnyanshivAchrlri. They believe in 
fjii.:', . t , huve no faith in witchcraft. Unlike other 

Chapter I] 

[Bombay Oawttewr. 


ipt«r III. 

iuhnbitaiits of the district, tliey do not batlie the mother or the child 
as soon as it is born, but wipe them with cloths. The mother anq 
chiKi are bathed in warm water after the fourth day, and the m ot™ 
18 fed on rice boiled and strained and Avheat bread with or wilhof 
,cUmlie«l butter. The goddess SatvAi is worsliippod on the fifth 
'the eleventh day and the midwife is paid (Sd. to 4.*. (Rs. J -2). 
the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth^ or Ufteenth day the family pri< 
offers a burnt offering and the child is cradled and named. The prie 
is given a pair of waistclotha. A poor woman keeps her room for nil 
days, a middle-class woman for thirteen duya, and a rich wonu 
for fifteen days. The birf li rites cost £1 (Rs. 1 0} for a poor woman, 
(Ra. 20) for a middle-class woman, and £2 lOn. to i.5 (Rs, 25-50) 
a rich woman. The child's hair is first cut in the fourth, sixth, 
twelfth mouth. A. luck of hair is first cut by a goldsmith with a pair i 
Bcissorsand then the whole head is shaved by a barber ; the child 
bathed anddresscd in new clothes ; and the lobes of his ears are pierc* 
Boys are girt with the sacred thread in their third, fifth, eighth, 
tenth year. Among Khetiyars thread -girding is not attended wi^ 
any pomp and it i.s sometimes performed as part of the marrisi 
ceremony. It is also incomplete as the thread of tnunj grass is 
tied round the boy's waist. From his fourth or fifth year a bl 
begins to wear a loincloth hung from the waist-thread. Girls ai 
boys are married at an early age, and widow-marriage is forbidde! 
The cost of marrying a boy is £20 to £100 (Rs. 200-1000) and' 
upwards, and of marrying a girl £2 to £10 (Ra. 20-100). 'llie ofF« 
of marriage comes from the boy's parents. When the girl's fath| 
agrees to give his daughter in marriage, the boy's father goes 
the girl's house to perform the betrotlml or hdshtngi. Ho bringaj 
robe worth 8s. to £1 \0s. (Rs. 8- 1 a), a bodiceclotii worth 2*. to 
(Rs. 1-2), a quarter to a hundredweight of sugar, seren to fourtei 
pounds of botelnuts, two thousand betel leaves, five to eleven cocoa- 
nut.s, fifty to a hundred plantains, five halves of cocoa-kernel, three- 
quarters of a pound of turmeric root, three-quarters of a pound o^ 
dry dates, and ornaments according to his means. When the guc 
are come the family priest blesses the girl and tells the bo] 
father to give her the robe. When the girl has put on the robe^ i 
boy's father fills her lap \vith five of the things brought by him, j 
the priest, naming the faniily-stocks and the fathers of the boy 
girl, declares that the girl is betrothed to the boy. Sugar and be^ 
are served and the guests withdraw. The boy's father is feasted on 
rice, fHtlU or sugar rolly-poliea, and tamarind curry or snr. On a \\ic\ 
day after sometime the marriage takes place. The boy is gencr 
taken to the girl's village. When the boy's party come t-o 
girl's village they are lodged in a separate house. On the third 
before the marriage both the boy and the girl are rubbed 
turmeric paste. On the day Ijefoi'e the marriage, the clothes wl 
are to be worn on the marriage day are laid before the house-^ 
On the marriage day the girl's father with his friends and relatic 
brings her and a tray containing cocoanuts, plantain.?, betel lea< 
flowers, turmeric powder, and vermillion, in procession to the boj 
lodging The officiating priest tells the bride and bridegroom 
pat on the marriage dress and sit on two low stools facing the 

The priest makes a burat offeriug before thein, uud when all have 
toachcd u dish iu which the luck-giving uecklace is kept the boy ia 
told Im fasten it round the girl's neck. The kankana or thread 
wr. ' :ich with a turmeric root tied to it, ait* bound round the 

wi le bride and bridegroom, and the hems of their garments 

UT r, and, without holding any cloth between them,* 

gr., Iropped on their heuds. I'hey are then made to 

go roaod the burnt offering. Aft-er this the hems of their garments 
are aoticd, and two small patcheu of gold leaf arc fastened to their 
foreheads. In the evening a burnt offering is made and the thread 
pr: ' ' r tanA-rtTW are unfastened- At night the bndugroom takes 
ll. » bow to the house-gods and her mother hands the bride 

to h«Ji* mothor-in-law. The bride goes to the bridegroom's, stays 
foor days, and returns to her father's. Polygamy is allowed and 
M oocaaionally practised ; polyandry is unknown. When a girl comes 
vf agu bho is held to bo unclean and is made to sit apart for tive, 
seven, or niuu days. Sho is then bathed and sent to live with her 
bunband. In the suventh month of her preguaucy her muther (U'eseuts 
her with a gi'eeu bodice. Shetiyars i)uru their dead, unhiss they 
jiTO very poor when they bury them. Liko Briihmaus thoy carry the 
dwwi *m tt bior and liko them they burn them with conaecruted fire. 
When the body is consumed the pei-sous attending the fimerul bathe, 
and ouch taking a haudfid of grass returns to the house of the 
deceased. Attho house they bow to the lamp which has been set on 

ihr ' :Jiged spot whore the deceased breathed his last, throw the 

g'. o it, and retiu'n homo. On the third day the son or chief 

mourner goes to the burning ground with his relations, removes the 
li»bea and unburut bones, aud sprinkles the spot with a quart of milk. 
The men who go with him join biin in siu'iukliug the milk. On the 
sixteenth the son or chief mourner goes with his priest outside of the 
vtll*gt>, wor!<hips the nine Hindu planets, makes a burnt offering, aud 
f- rice-balls to the departed soul. One of the balls is offered to 
•W8. WTien a crow has pocked the ball the chief mouruer 
b.. - home, and with friends and relations sits to a feast. 

Oai .euth day the women of the house sweep the house, 

vra»b it with cowdung, bathe, and anoint thoir hair with oil. The 
pn^nf i>i:ri!',, s the family by givng them the panchgavyn or five cow- 
gi :ig the men change their sacred threads, and a feast is 

ffiic II i-j iM r I- niid relations. Liko Brahmans they keep nil memorial 
foacto. A : 1 1 . iiL' niste feeling binds them together as a community, 
Tl' s are inquired into and settled by a caste cuuncil 

b- Jitury chuudhari. Most of them send tlwjir boys 

• f 1 their girls to school. They keep their boys at school 

ti, icon. They suffered severely during the lfS70 famine. 

Tiicj ore not a pushing or rising class aud do not take to new 

Chapter T 

. 8uii.ri];2 


»nspi8, »<r Tailors, are returned as numberingSOl'Saudns found 

u all largo villages and towns. Thoy are of two 

-lathi Sliimpisaud Kauareso Shimpis, The Manithi 

I the Namdev division. The Kfinantso »Sliimpis arc 

I lift','G givAU np sewing and taken to dyeing threa<l red 

( .'Ktuii, Five or six houses of Mniiitha ShiiU])i6 are 

ibay (hu'.etteej 



ipter III. 

found in Bijdpur, a few in Ilkal Indi B^geviidi and Muddol 
aud a great many in Bdgalkot and Tdlikot. The names in cot 
use among men are Anna^ B^bdji, Bapu, Bhima, Narsiug, N^rul 
Omk&ri, Rdma, Santrim, and Dm^ji ; and among women AmMb^ 
K^hib^i, Kdgubai, Narsubdi, S&lubdi, Tuljabdi, aud Tamnnttbi 
fTheir surnames are place-names, Bilankar, Mirajkar, Nilekar. OmkAi 
Pukalkar^ and Radekar, and are of no im]X)rtance in matcliiuakiu^ 
Among their gotrds or family-st<jckB are Atma Rishi, Piuipal Rial 
aud Shring Rishi; members of the same family-stock ou tl 
father's side cannot intermarry. They are divided into Rangai 
or Dyers and Shimpis or Taihjrs who eat together and iut'Ormarr 
They mark their brows witli sandal-powder like Sondra or goli 
smiths aud SntArs or carpenters. As a class they are middle-sis 
strongly built, and robust. The skin is brown, the nose acjuilii 
and long^ the lips thin, aud the cheeks gaunt. The expressic 
is quick, occasionally somewhat iierce. They speak Marathi indc 
and a badly pronouncod and iucorrect Kdnarese or Hiudust^J 
out of doors. In their Mardtlii they use some curious words as 
for phar much, and dod for dvdd naughty. Most of them live 
clean ono-storeyed houses with walls of stone and flat roofs. Excaj 
a few copper and brass drinking pots and dining plates, their vea 
are of earth, aud ai*e clean and neatly kept. They have little houl 
furniture. Many of them keep douiestic animals, but only the ri( 
have servants. Their staple food is bread, split pulse, vegetabU 
aud relishes representing to each man a daily cost of Ihd. (1 a. 
They largely use onions and garlic with their daily food at 
are fond of sour aud pungent articles. Their holiday dishes 
poliH or sugar ruUy-polios, rice, and rich vegetables. They 
the flesh of the goat, deer, hare, and fowls. They are excessive^ 
fond of flesh and would eat it every day if they could ofiot 
it. They kill a goat iu honour of Tulja-Bhavani on Dasara 
September -October, offer its dressed flesh to the goddess, bc 
feast on it. They bathe in cold or warm water before eating. Th< 
put ou fjx'shly washed clothes, and wash the hovise-gods with 
water and worship them with sandal powder, flowers, and hcl leave 
They burn frankincense before the gods and take a little of the iiiceni 
ash, mark their brows with it, aud piit a little in their mouth, ud 
offer the gods cooked food. Some of them bathe in a river or pon< 
and on their way home worship Mtlruti by pouring a potful of wat 
on the god, bowing low before the god, and marking his hn 
with rodlead paste from tlio body of the god, and on reachii 
home worship n basil plant and sip as holy water a little of the wal 
from the root of the plant. They generally mai-k their browai 
a largo round spot of .sandal-powder. They drink spirits' 
fermented palm-juice almost daily and always when they cat fl( 
On Damra they drink to excess. Some of them also use hemj 
water or hhdng, smoke hemp or gi^nja, and eat opium. A consideral 
number of them are excessively foud of stimulants aud narcotic 
Men shave the head except the top-knot and the face except tl 
eyebrows and moustache. They wear a wai^tcloth, a jacket, a lieaii 
scarf, a pair of shoes, and a shoulderoloth about ten feet long whi< 
they throw loosely about the body. The men spend Ss, to £ 1 l( 





thSQ i 

a year on dress. 

Their usual ornaments are earrings^ 
hains, and riugia. A rich Shiuipi's ornaments 


lO (Rs. 100) and a midUle-cl^isH Shimpi'smore 
*.i ^H«. 00), The rich have apeciul holiday clothes and t ho 
wnah their every-day clothes. Wrimeu tie the hair in a knot 
J a woollen coni round it ; and girls deck the hair with flowers' 

" • — ^ '■ it it iu braids before they come of age. They wear 

tlj ithi Ijodice with a Imck and short sleeves. They 

*<• lia robe but without passing the skirt between the 

f' 111 cover the head with one of the ends of the robe, 

ot 'hfttded. The price of silk -bordered bodicecloths 

V ^ ' /. to U.'?. (Rs.|-8) and plaiu bodicecloths vary from 

1 -4 <M.). A few buy new clothes for holiday use, but 

.1,.,.-,. „i.»jr the robes and bodicecloths which were given them 

At morrin^o and other eeremoniea. They seldom use any but 

\on cloth. The women spend lO**. to £1 10*. 

ar on dress. Their ornaments are like those worn by 

A rich woman's stock is worth over £i50 (Rs. 500), a 

;^s woman's over XI (Rs. 100), and a poor woman's over 

- JO). I'hey wear silver girdles or k-ainbarpaiids before but 

«ftor Lhcy have had a child ; and girls wear .silver ankle-chains 

y come of age. Shimpia are clean, hardworking, patient, 

U- " 'd. They are extravagiuit and showy and have a 

f'" 'Tupulous dealing. The ^Mardthi proverb says^ 

*i ive no dealings with the gold-smith, the tailor, the village 

e!i .• T.iiiL'^iiyat trader." ITiey are tailors and dyers. To sew 

loth coat a tailor takes three days and charges 

, .M .■^l:l.oIld-cla88 broadcloth coat takes two days to sew 



(Rs. 3) ; and a third-cUiss broadcloth coat takes one 

•'.>(. (Rs. li). A cotton cloth coat takes a day to sew 

lo the style of cloth costs Is.Gd. (12 as,), Is. {8ii«.), 

According to the kind of coat the sewing of a coarse 

and coata 


iclt' .: costs 6J. to Irf. (4-8a<f.). The women sew bodices 

I obarging 1 ^d. to ChI. (1 -4 n*.) for the sewing of each. A good tailor 

nuikeM £1 10^. to £2 (Rs. lo-*20) a month, a middling tailor £1 to 

XI U. (R». 10-12), and a poor tailor 1^, to 16s. (Rs. 7-8). Of 

lire said to have suffered from the competition 

Dyeing or Rangari Shimpia colour turbaus, 

,»ud «b;i ' print chintz. In making dyes they chiefly 

iluLion u! <*r powder, soda or plantain-tree ashes, and 

ilitco. Suda or plantain ashes are used in the proportion of 

tntl of soda to eight pounds of safflower, a quantity which 

.1) juice of 100 lemons. The safflower powder is first 

uthod vessel with two gallons of water. The 

id used in making different colours. To the 

V half a pound of soda ashes is added and tho 

^ iiucil with water. This solution mixed with u 

[tho first utraining gives a red colour. To dyo red, a white 

- Sail 

' M>rtt'" ruflf t ' S^ndr, SMmpi, Kulkarnt, Apa, ydnckitunffat nato n bdpn.' 

[Bombay Oaz«tt 


ipter III. 

turban ie coloured with a solution of tunuonc powder, aud 
steeped in the red colour and wrung dry. If the tint is dull> it| 
brightened by dipping the turban in lomon-juice mixed with wat^ 
To dye dark-purplo, the cloth ia first dyed with indigo and is tl 
^steeped in red. To dye light pink the cloth is steeped in red w^i 
•leninn-iuice aud a quart of water; and to dye pink the quantity 
the rod solution is increased. To dye orange tlie turban or cloth ia 
dyed with a solution of turmeric powder and ia then steeped in m 
weak solution of red. To dye dark red the cloth is steeped in a 
Bohition of indigo and then in red. In dyeing yellow the turban is 
kept half an hour in turmeric and soda. It ia wrung, soaked in 
lemon-juice, and again steeped in turmeric and soda. If less turuierio 
powder is used the colour becomes paler. Green ia produced by « 
mixture of indigo and turmeric with lemon-juice. For dyeing m 
turban red or green they charge 2/«. to '1*. (Rs, 1 - 2), which loavee 
them a profit of Gd. to Is. Qd. (4-12 as.). The charge for dyeing 
orange yellow varies from Od. to 23. (He. i-l). Like a tailor a good 
dyer makes £1 10*. to £2 (Re. 15-20) a month, a middling dyer £1 
to £1 4*. (Rfl. 10-12), and a p<ior dyer I6g, (Rs. 7-8). Theit 
women clean aud reel silk and sometimes make Gd. to 2». (Re. { - l)fl 
day. Some lend money at twenty-four per cent a year on persooH 
security and twelve per cent if an article is pawned ; some deal in 
silk and some rent lauds to tenants receiving one-half to one-third 
the produce ; some take service with traders and merchants. Dyoii 
ia not a prosperous calling. Most Marwdris, Muaalmdns, an 
Mardthas dye their own turbans with safflower, and the compeLitj< 
from foreign dyes tends constantly to become more severe. Beside 
since the famine^ the bulk of the people have taken to wearing whij 
headscarves instead of coloured turbans, Shimpis and Rangiris ra* 
with Marathiifl with whom they eat. They also eat with Patveg^ 
or silk-band makers. They eat from the hands of BrahmanSj Gujafl 
Vdnis, Lingayata, and Rajputs ; bat these castes do not eat from tuoi 
Men women and children work all day long. Their work i.s brisk during^ 
the dry season, but dull during the south-west rains. They rest on fcHJ 
leading Hindu holidays. The monthly charges of a family of fonrfl 
five members vary from IGa. to £1 (Rs, 8-10). A rich Hlnmpi's house 
costs £20 (Rs. 200) to builds a middlo-clasa Shimpi's about £] 
(Rs. 100), and a poor Shimpi's about £5 (Rs. SO). The house goc 
in a rich Shimpi's house are worth £8 to £10 (Ra. 80-100), in a middii 
class family £4 to £5 (Rs. 40-60), and in a poor family .£2 to £2 10*. 
(Rs. 20-2.5). Birth chtirgos are about £3 (Rs. 30) in a rich family, 
about£2 (Rs. 20) in a middle-class family, and about £1 (Rs. 10) in 
poor family. On the mari-iago of a son or daughter a rich nil 
spends £15 to £20 (Rs. 150-200), a middle-class man £8 to £| 
(Rs. 80-100), and a poor man £3 to £4 (Rs.30-40). The death 
grown member of a rich family costs about £3 (lis. 30), of a midc 
class family about £2 10s. (Rs. 2-5), and of a poor family £1 10*. 
£2 (Rs.15-20). They are religious. They honour Brdhmaua 
call thorn to their marriages, a girl's coming of age, funerals, and rnii 
rites. Their family-deities arc Jotiba of Kolhapur, Khaudobn 
Jojuri in Poona, Tulja-Bhaviini of Tuljapur in the Nizdm's count 

Their chief objects of worship are Vithoha atid Ijis wife 
They make pilgrimages to the ahrines of their family 
to Vithoba at Pandharpur and in the north 
11 every bright eleventh and many un the two 
light eleventh of A'fhnilh in July and on the' 
i ./.- in November. Shimpis consider I'andhar- 
W holy because it was a favourite resort of the Shimpi 
pu>^ ..u... o.iint Nnmdev who lived about A.n. 1290. All are careful 
lo Cm! on the bright elevenths of Anhudh in Juno- July and Edrtik 
in ^^ ' I -November. Some fast till evening on Shrnran or July- 
Ai udajTs. They have two j/itnts or religious teachers; one 

ifi Dhamanga<jn in Sholdpur and is called Bodhalebava, 
lier who lives at Tuljjipur in tlie Nizam's country and is 
Kfiuphutebiiva. Bi>th visit their disciples every year and 
J any children who have grown old enough to understand the 
The disciples raise a subscription, each working member of 
caste «ubscnbing not less than 10s. (Ks. 5) and handing £10 to 
(Kn. 100-200) to the teacher. The teacJiev initiates both boys 
girJB and even gets disciples from new families. They worshiji 
And local deities. Their house images are of brass and 
and some of stone. They believe in witchcraft and soothsay- 
".d they consult those who are acquainted with these arts. At 
rt h of a child the child and motlier are bathed in warm water 
iuin i.iid on a cot. The mother is fed on dry cocoa-kernel, molasses. 
Mid j?arlii: with clarified butter, and some are given three-quartere 
of ! of clarified butter to drink. During the first five days 

tit' ' is fed with rice and clarified butter; and garlic rind is 

biiml under her bed iu a chafing dish. On the fifth day she is fed 
with rico and wheat Hour cooked with clarified butter and sugar. In 
the evening the midwife worships the goddess Jivati and as among 
Lit ' ' carries away the lamp under cover. On the tenth the 
* 1 e ifl plastered and the child's and the mother's clothes are 

V. . I ( »n the twelftli or thirteenth they hold a feast in which rice 
. .\,.< v[ /. J', and vegetables are served. In the evening the child 
i» Uud iu a cradle and named by several female relations ; the firet 
QAinc civi 11 is; always taken, the other names are used as pet names. 
Ai a engagement the boy's father gives the girl a robe 

worth ^^ , n-. i) and a bodice worth la. (S as.) After the boy's father 
baa made those presents betel is handed round. In the betrothal 
' tiy the l»oy and girl are made to sit on a blanket 
iit of the hou8e gods. The boy's father marks the 
with redpowder and gives her a robe, a bodice, eight 
Bi!"-ar, eight pciunds of botelnuts, and twenty-eiglit 
Guests are given 2f. 6d. (Rs.l^) and small pieces 
1.1 iiiixed with molasses. The girl's father treats the 
tis relations to a feast of vermicelli, sugar, and clarified 
I ngent or sour. An astrologer chooses a 
A few days before the day fixed the 
ir the boy and hi.s rolatious. After the boy and 
J to the girl's village, the boy's party takes 
turmprie |)»iwd6r Wid oil to the girra house, oud the girl'-s party 

Chapter I 

TBombay Oai 



ipter III. 
1 Shim PIS. • 

takes the tiniiieric and oil to the boy's house. At their own boi 
the boy and the girl are rubbed •nrith turmeric powder, bathed, 
seated in squai-ea or nurgis with a wat^r-pot at each corner ant 
thread passed seven times round the neck of each jar. When 
^boy or the girl cornea out of the square a person stands at each coi 
'of the square, and they lift the thread and make the buy or girl j 
under it. Women throw rice and wave lamps before thenx to gui 
the pair against unfriendly iufluenco or the effects of the evil 
The second or third day after the turmeric-rubbing, the brid] 
father sends for the bridegroom and his relations. When they cor 
the bride and bridegroom are dressed in their jnarriage clotl 
and stand in front of two lamps behind which a C3'lindrical cnp 
■panchpdlra is placed. The Brjlhman priest holds between tboi 
white cloth, with a central turmeric cross, repeats verses, and ale 
with the guests throws grains of rice on the heads of the pair, 
priest recites sacred verses and the bridegroom ties the lucky-thj 
or manffalsulra round the bride's neck. The bride's father tr 
the bridegroom's father and his relations to a feast. Next d.iy 
bridegroom's father and his relations lead the bride and bridegn 
to worship MAruti. Some one of the party breaks a cocoai 
before the god, marks the brows of the married pair with sac 
ashes, and gives the bridegroom a piece of cocoa-kernel, who catcl 
it in his robe as a gift from the deity. Pix)m the temple the proc«s 
goes to the bridegroom's, where the bride and the bridegroom f^ 
each other, the bride putting five morsels into the bridegrooi 
mouth and he putting five mor.sels into her mouth. After this 
the time of betel-chewing the bridegroom holds a roll of betel lea^ 
in his teeth, and the brido tries to bite off the end of the roll. Tl 
the bridegroom sits on a blanket and the bride rubs sandal -powj 
on his hands and neck and gives him a roll of betel leaves. " 
bridegroom in turn marks the bride's brow with red. The brii 
groom's father gives a feast and next day the bride's father give 
caste feast and lets the bridegroom's party go. When a girl cornel 
age, she is made to sit for four days in a gaily dressed frame or inaki 
and on the sixteenth her lap is filled with rice, betel nuts, V>etel leai 
and a cocoanut, and a caste-feast is held. In the seventh month of ' 
pregnancy a Brahman priest attends and the hair-i)arting or nhimi 
and lap-filling are performed. Shimpi girls are sometimes marr 
in infancy, as young as nine months. A widow may marry one© 
if the second husband dies she must remain a widow for the resti 
her life. Polygamy is allowed and practised ; polyandry is unknot 
Shimpis burn their dead, and hohl the mourning family impi 
for ten days. A DrAhman priest attends, and on the tenth 
they lay ten balls of rice on the ajwt where the body was but 
The mourners stand at a distance and watch the ci-o'ya. If tho ore 
do not come tho mourners touch the balls with holy grass shai 
into the form of a crow, and go home, and in company with ot 
castemen oat unleavened wheat cakes, rice, and varan a dish > 
pulso. On each of the next two days they give a caste feaat 
sugar and clarifietl butter to the dinner served on the tenth 
They hold no mind-feasts during the All Souls Fortnight or tm 
taynpahh in dark Bhiidrnpad or Angnst- September. Inst( 




It in October-NoretuLcr a wai&tclotb 13 laid oat for the father 
id ft bodice for the mothei- and food is offered. 

The feeling of caste is fairly strong among Shimpia. Social 
}i;»pute» are settled by a caate council whose decisions are enforced 
L^ fine or loaa of c«ste. Most Sbimpis send their boys to school to* 
IVltm K^imrese readino^, writing, and antlimetic ; a few send their 

^ \ take to no new pursuits and in Hpite 
irtably off. 

SuryavaDBhi Lads, that is South Gujardtis uf the San race, 

I abo allied Kh^tiks or Butchers, are returned as uumberiug 1013 and 

M foQod all over the district. The names in ordinary use among 

[■80 are Bamanoa, Bhimdppa, Hirdji, Malkfippa, R^jeba, Subhfina, 

rVynnkanna, and Yalhippn; aud among women Akkavva^ Ammavva, 

.», Godamma, Holevvn, Milnkavra, and Nagawa, Their 

idet surnames are Bil^^ikar, Bujurukar, Chendukil, Dharm- 

Govindkar, Parbhukar, and RAjapuri. Persons bearing 

lo-t Slime surname do not intermarry as thoy are supposed to bo 

lUie destceodants of a common ancestor. Khd,tik8 are divided into 

I Saryavanshi LfUIs aud Sultani Kb4tiks, vcho neither eat together 

■or interniarry. In appearance they resemble the other middle-class 

mstee of the district. They arc of middle height with strong 

&rmly-knit frames. Most are dark and a few are brown with a 

coraewlint heavy expression of face. At home they apeak JMarithi, 

ithey know Kdnareae and Hindustdni. They live in ordinary 

with stone and mud walls and flat roofs. They keep their 

neat and are clean in their dress and persons. Their few 

goods are kept clean and fresh and are laid out with care. 

(Jboee who are husbandmen own cattle, and a few have half- 

poDiee. A house costs £5 to £10 (Ks. 50-100) to build, and 

J*, to i,\ 4#. (Rs. 3 - 12) a year to hire. They are neither great 

nor good cooks. They are fond of sour, pungent, and sweet 

Their every-day food is bread, and either split pulse or 

regeiablo sance, the two sauces being alternately used. To their 

[ro^hir meal a dish of rice is occasionally added as a change 

»d a dainty. Their every-day food costs them 3cJ. (2 as.) a head. 

[Tliefir bolidiy dishes are rice, polls or sugar roUy-polies, sdr a 

aaoco either of mango or tamarind, and vermicelli which is always 

l^crred on the Hindu New Year's Day in March-April. They 

Lfic« a goat to Bhavani on Mdmamni in Ashvin or September- 

iberj and feast on its flesh. Besides goat, the animals they eat 

[deer, hare, doves, domestic fowls, and fish. They would use 

food daily if they could afford it. They drink liquor on any 

}f ««pecially on holidays but always in moderation. Some of 

'tliem drink hemp-water or hhnnij, smoke hemp-flowers or gdnja^ 

I And oat opium. The men shave the head except the top-knot, and 

[abavo iho chin. Their dress is plain and generally white. It 

waistdoth seven and a half feet long or a pair of short 

, ahouldercloth, a jacket, a coat, a headscarf or a turban, 

pair of shoes. A man's dress costs him 8». to ]()5. (Ra.4-8) a 

■•.ami thnr ornaments, which include earrings, wristlets, twisted 

' waiatcl s'tr rings, vary in value from £2 to £4 (Rs. 20-40). 

ISomeoi .....u comb their hair and tie it in a knot ; othorfl tie 



[Bombay Gazette 



Ipter III. 



it in a loose roll without combing it. They dress in a robe and 
bodice, passing the upper end of the robe over the head ; but unlik? 
other Muvdtha women letting the skirt fall to the feet hke a petti- 
coat. Their favourite colours are red and black. A womaa!l~ 
dress costs her 10«. to 1G». (Rs. 5-8) a year. Besides the luol 
thread or wan^a /sM<ro, which is worth 2». (Re. I), the weil-to- 
wear earrings, noserings, necklaces, armlets, and wristlets, togethi 
worth £2 1U«. to £5 (Rs. 25-50). Only rich and well-to-do Khdtil 
have spare clothes for holiday wear ; the rest wear their freshlj 
washed every-day clothes. Their clothes are of local haad-wov< 
cloth ; and their ornaments arc made by local goldsmiths of tl 
P6nchAl caste. As a class they are clean, orderly, fairly hospitably 
and thrifty. Most of them are mutton butchers, and a few at 
excise contractors and landowners, who employ servants to till the 
fields. They buy goats of Dhangars or shepherds, kill them, and se 
the mutton at 2^rf. to 3rf. (1^-2 a».) a pound. Their daily prof 
varies from 6d. to \s. (4-8 as.) They borrow money to meet marrii 
expenses and sometimes to cover trade losses. They have 
credit and can borrow at six to eighteen per cent interest. Thej 
themselves Suryavanshi Lads, bat others call thetn KhAtiks. Th^ 
rank below Knrnbars and take food from their hands. Vadars at 
Lamdns eat food cooked by KhAtiks ; but Khtltiks do not eat foe 
cooked by them. They work from morning till evening. Sot 
close their shops on Shivrdtra in January -February and on 
ikadashis or lunar elevenths. Their women mind the house, bi 
do not work as butchers or sell in their shops. 7'beir childr€ 
sometimes help them in their work. Khatiks are not a religious els 
Their family deities are Durgawa, Dyamavva,, M^ruti, Shidrfij 
and Yallavva; and they go on pilgrimage to MAruti's shrine 
Tulshigeri, to Yallavva at Parasgad, and to Shidraya in Bijdpc 
Before worshipping these deities, a Khdtik bathes, and putting 
a newly washed waistcloth, worships them with water, sandal-past 
tlowers, cocoanuts, betelniits, sugar, molasses, dry dates, camphoj 
and frankincense, and on holidays with an offering of dres.sed fo( 
Their images are in the shiipe of human beings, the ling, or! 
monkey. Though they worship these deities, the object of th« 
special devotion is the Sun, whom as Suryavanshis or of the sui 
stock, they claim as their first ancestor. The day sacred to their 
house- gods is the Hindu New Year's Day in Ohaiira or March - 
April. They keep many Hindu holidays ; but only a few fast ooj 
Shivratra in March -April and on ekadashin or lunar eleventfajH 
On Gaiieah-chaturtld or Ganpati's Fourth in August -Sept«mbil§ 
an earthen Ganpati is brought from the market, set in the honae^ 
worshipped, and presented with fried hadbus or sugar dumplins 
In Aahpin or September-October, during the Navrdira, that 
the nine nights before Dcutara, a festival is held in honour 
Bbavini. They respect BrAhmans and call them to officiate 
marriages. They have great faith in soothsaying and never beg,, 
an undertaking without consulting an astrologer. They say thi 
have not much faith in witchcraft, though they believe in ghosta^ 
and in spirit-poasession. Among Khatiks, a woman's confinement 
lasts from a fortnight to six weeks. During the first fifteen daja 

AoiiAfing dish is kept ondcr the bedstead, and the mother is giveu 
QolajBses, dry cocoa-kernel, dry ginger, pepper, gum, aud dry dates 
pounded together aad mixed with clarified butter. She is fed on 
adnja or wheat-flour boiled with sugar and clarified butter. After 
the first fortnight till the end of her lying-in her daily food 
V ' vheat-bread nnd vermicelli. Unlike most castes in th« 
d.- i elderly woman of the family worships the goddess Satvdi 

or Mother Sixth on the fifth day after a birth and gives the 
midvnfe enough dressed food for a meal. If the family is rioh» 
{riends aud kinspeople are asked to a meal in which mutton is 
served. On the thirteenth day the child is named and cradled by 
toarried women, who are given a mixture of five different grains to 
eat. The hair of the child, whether it is a boy or a girl, is cut for 
the first time in the third or sixth month without much ceremony. 
If they can afford it they marry their girls in childhood, but they 
do not hold themselves bonnd to marry their girls before they come 
of age. They marry their girls from a mouth to nineteen years old, 
spending £2 10«. to £10 (Rs. 25-100). Aboy's marriage costs more, as 
£3 to £12 10«. (Rs. 60-125) have to be given in ornaments to the girl. 
When a Rirl'n father agrees to give his daughter in marriage, the 
foiy's father lays two cocoanata, one and a quarter pounds of dry 
cocoa-kernel, and seven or ten poumls of sugar before the girl's 
Itooae-gods, and in the presence of caste-people declares that the 
4ftaght€r of 80 and so is engaged to his son. Sngar and betel are 
aerrod to the caste-people and they withdraw. The boy's father is 
feanled on rice, sugar, and clarified butter. On a lucky day the 
bdthia^i or betrothal is performed in which the girl is sometimes 
token to the boy's house and the boy is sometimes taken to the girl's 
bonse. The boy's father gives twenty-eight ]X)unds of sugar, seven 
poondA of dry cocoa-keruel, one and a quarter pounds of poppy-seed, 
one and a quarter pounds of betelnuts, 200 betel leaves, and four 
bo' ' 'hstothe girl's father, and a silver necklace, silver bangles, 
an to the girl. He makes the girl sit before the house gods 

and ilUa her lap with five betelnuts, five dry dates, five halves of dry 
oocoa-kemela, five plantains, and ten pounds (5 «her.s) of rice. If the 
boj in present the girl's father gives him ashela or rich shonldercloth 
and a tarbnn. Sugar and betel are served and the guests withdraw. 
As it ifl a rule that new relations should not bo fed on sour or sharp 
dbi "' boy's father and his party are feasted on rice, sugar, 
an i 1 bntt*>r. After a short time the boy's father asks the 

•r he is ready to give his datighter in marriage 
tn astrologer to find out a lucky day to hold 
kkui wedding. The Brahman fixes on a day and writes the day 
nnd the names of the bride and bridegroom on two pieces of 
papor, and gives the boy's father the slip on which the boy's 

~ ■■ — ritteu and the girl's father the slip on which the girl's 

itt«n. At the time of marriage these slips of paper are 

cloth and are tied round the necks of the bridegroom 

On this occasion the boy's fivthor gives the girl 

white hodicocloths aud three and a half pounds of rice. 

days before the marriage day the bridegroom is rubbed 

tarmoric paste and bathed in a surgl or square with a 








drinking pot at each corner and a cotton thread wound round 
necka of the pots. On the same day the dsvkdrya or god-pleasing | 
held, and the bridegroom and his party start for the girl's village, 
the village he is met by the bride's father and relations, who le 
him to a house which has been made ready for him and his party. 
Ithe marriage day the bride and bridej^oora are bathed in differ* 
squares at their own houses and dressed in new clothes, the bride 
clothes being a white robe and a white bodice. The bridegrool 
is seated on a horse and led to the briJe's in procession wit 
music. At the bride's, he is led into the marriage booth, where 
stands in a basket, containing millet and a rope, facing the bi 
who stands on a grindstone. A cotton wristlet made of the thx 
that was tied round the four water-vessels is wound round the bride 
left wrist and another round the bridegroom's right wrist 
curtain marked with a cross in the centre is hold between thei 
and the priest recites the eight luck-giving verses and when the vera 
are ended throws grains of rice over the couple; the guests join 
throwing the rice. Then betel is served and the guests go. N< 
day the bride and bridegroom are bathed in the same square ad 
dressed in new clothes. In the evening the vardt or married coupll 
homeward procession starts from the bride's for the bridegrooi 
On the way it halts at the temple of the village-god, where 
bride and bridegroom bow, and break a cocoanut before the gc 
In this procession the pair are seated on a bullock, the bride sitti 
in front of the bridegroom. At the bridegroom's Uer moti 
hands the bride to her mother-in-law, and the bridegroom's fat 
gives 2*. (Re. I) to the bride's party. On the third day the bridfi 
father gives a caste feast, pre.sents suits of clothes to the brie' 
groom's father and mother, and gives 2^. (Re. 1) as a money present 
to his casto-people. Ou the fourth day the bridegroom's fatl 
gives a caste feast and makes similar presents to the father at 
mother of the bride, and a money gift to the casto-people doul 
that given by the bride's father. The present of money is 8p« 
on liquor ; and on the 6fth day the bridegroom with his pat 
returns to his house. They allow and practise polygamy, but fori: 
widow marriage. They are not particular about the coreraoi 
impurity caused by a girl's coming of age ; some observe it and soi 
disregard it. The girl is made to sit by herself for the first five da 
and is bathed every day and rubbed with turmeric paste. On the sij 
she is bathed from to foot, and on the first lucky day she gc 
to her husband. In the fifth or seventh month of her pregnancy, T 
mother makes her a present of a green bodice. Khatiks who " 
among the Maruthas generally burn their dead; in Bijdpur unt 
Ling^yat influence most of them bury. The funeral party bat ^ 
after burying the dead bod}', and return to the house of monrning" 
with some blades of durva grass which they throw into a drinking 
pot full of water which is placed on the spot where the spirit partac 
from the body. On the third day the mourners place parched 
and gram, dry dates, dry cocoa-kernel, molasses, cooked rice, 
small wheaten cakes on the stone slab which is laid over 
grave. To these things the persons who accompanied the fuuc 
"■^-^ a few drops of milk, each dropping a little in turn. All 


I at a distance till crows come and eat what has been 
crows Jo not come, they pray to the departed and 
promise to curry out all his \viahes. If, even after this promise, 
eroiTB will not come the food is given to a cow. The shoulders of 
iho foar body-carriers are rubbed with curds and washed to remove 
tiie ancleanness caused by bearing the bier, and food enough for a' 

»1 i*? «prved to them all in a single platter. If they cannot eat 
ih- what is left is given to a cow. Thoir dinner includes 

CO-. : J, cakea of wheat flour, clarified butter, and split pulse 

loe. Id the evening a feast is given of which mutton forms a 

Srt, and to which caste-people are asked one from each family. 
1 tbo eleventh day a silver imago of the dead is made and is 
worshipped along with other ancestral images kept in the houae- 
ihr'iae on a blanket stretched under a tree on the bank of a river. 
To thtf new image according to the sex of tho dead a man's or woman's 
dross is ofiFered. All who join in this ceremony are asked to a feast. 
8omo of them perform tho mind-rite on the bright third of Vdiahdkh 
Or April-May which is known as the Undying Third. They spend 
16«. to £1 10*j. (Rs. 8-15) on a death. They form a united 
oommonity and are bound together by a strong caste feeling. Social 
dispntAM are inquired into and settled at a meeting of respectable 
If f tho caste ; and their decisions are enforced by putting 

r out of caste. Only a few of them send their boys to 
acliouli and fewer still take to new pursuits. They are a fairly 
ipcrons but not a pushing or a rising community. 

ra'klars are returned as numbering 132 and as found in 

kmi, BAgalkot, and Huugund. Tho names in comraou use among 

I are Bhtmt&ppa, Bharama^'ya, GurAppa, HanamAppa, Lakshrf,ppa, 

f£ppa, Tim4.ppa, and Vyaukappa ; and among women, BAlavva, 

tTva. Hanmav^a, Lakshmavva, Satyavva, Vyankavva, and 

Their surnames are Kancbinavvanpujari or ministrant 

11 and Hanunmatpuj;lri or Hanumant's ministrant 

of their family-stocks are Beramaldr, Jalldrvaru, 

llavaru, Niigganuriyavru, and Potguliyavru. Marriage is barred 

tsainonrMs of stock, not by sameness of surname. Their family 

■OS are Urummantdev or M^ruti and Kanchinavva of Katogiri 

fWldiUni. They have no subdivisions and rank with local 

DhautrarH or shepherds. They are dark, strong, middle-sized, and 

: ' »k a corrupt K/marese both at home and abroad. 

-ioreyed houses with earth or stone walls and 

jbed n^ofst. Their house goods include low stools and earth 

nvfnl vessels. Among thorn landholders engage servants to 

ir fiehls and all own cattle Bn<l pets. They are bad cooks 

ite paters, and are fond of sour and hot dishes. Their 

includes Indian millet bread, pulse, and vegetables. 

it.Ue twice a week before they tako their morning meals and 

ihnir family deities. In worshipping thoir family deities 

t two earthen jars or mogiU on a raised altar or kata and 

■u-h of the jars with a puokered robe which is tied by 

d the neck of the jar. In the neck is set a female bust 

vri "i bnwB. They offer these goddesses flowers, Vermillion, and 

burn fninkinccnjo before them, and wave light^i about thorn. 

Chapter II 

•Scry A VA Nil 




iptflr III. 

The worshippers of Mdruti have to bathe and worship the image 
the god daily with sandal-paste and flowers. On New Year's Y 
or IJgddi in April and on Divdli in October they eat vermic 
boiled in cocoa-milk mixed with molasses, and on Ndg-panchami 
^ August cakes stuffed with molasses called kMiolds. Ext 
•shrine ministrants or pujdris, who as a rule abstain from flesh 
liquor, they eat flesh and drink liquor and hemp-water or hhdng\ 
smoke hemp-flowera or gdnja. The men shave the head except 
topknot and the face except the moustache and eyebrows. The woi 
comb their hair with neatness and care and tie it into a knot at 
back of the head, but wear neither false hair nor flowers. The 
dress in a waistclothj shouldercloth, headscarf or rutndl, shirt 
hayidi, coat, and a pair of shoes or sandals : the women dress 
a coloured robe hangings like a petticoat from the waist to 
ankles, and a bodice with a back and short sleeves. Only the 
have a store of fine clothes for holiday wear ; others wear their usi 
clothes washing them first with great care. The ornaments wc 
by men are the earrings called bhikbdlis, the wristlets called kadi 
and the girdle culled kittilora ; those worn by women are 
necklaces called tikis, the wristlets called gots, and the arml< 
called faA*jV. As a class they are honest, hardworking, orderjj 
thrifty, and hospitabla They hve as temple-rainistrants or pujw 
and as husbandmen. JThey either till their own land or hire 
land of others. They are not skilful husbandmen aud some wc 
as labourers, The women mind the house and help in the fiel 
As a class they are poor and of tou run in debt if their crops fail frc 
want of rain. They rest every Monday and on the Jyesldh or Ji 
full-moon. A family of five spends 14«. to £1 A». (Rs. 7- 12) a moni 
A house costs £10 to £30 (Rs.lOO-SOO) to build aud the hot 
goods are worth £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30), The yearly clothing char 
vary from £1 to £2 (R.s. 10-20) a birth costs 4*. to 8«. (Rs.2-4),'' 
boy's marriage £5 to £10 (Rs, 50-100), a girl's marriage 10*«. to £1 1( 
(Rs, 5- 15), and a death U. to £ 1 4*. (Rs. 2-12). Their family gods i 
Kanchinawa, a pot dressed in a robe aud with a female iui:- 
in its neck, and MAruti the monkey-god. Their priest is a i ;| 

who officiates at their marriage ceremony only. To ail oti 
ceremonies thoy call a representative of their religious teacher 
KuHimanicha of their own caste whom they highly respect, 
nevergoon pilgrimage to holy places. They keep theusual Hinduholj 
days and fasts except Ganesh-chaturthi or Ganpati's Fourth in 
ember and Shimga or Holi in March. They are careful to bat 
Tuesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays the days of their god M;irut^ 
worship his image with sandal -paste, flowers, and food. They belie 
in soothsaying, but profess to have no faith in witchcraft or in evil spirit 
Early marriage, polygamy, and widow-marriage are allowed, bn 
girls often remain unmarried even after they come of age ; polyandl 
is unknown. On the fifth day after the birth of a child an ime 
of Satvdi is worshipped with an offering of khichadi, that is rice 
pulse boiled in water and mixed with clarified butter molasses mt 
cocoa- scrapings. The mother is given a mixture of cocoanut, g'mi 
black pepper, and pimpali or long pepper, all pounded together \ 
mixed with molasses. Fire is kept under her cot and she is fed 



flieat-floar boiled in clariSed butter and mixed with molaeees. The 
lild ia named and cradled on the thirteenth day and in theeerenth 
kobtb, when it is Goatod in its uncle's lap and its head i.s shaved. 
Is soon as both parents agree to the marriage terms the boj's father 
to iho girl's house a present of five dry dates, five betel leaves . 
I fir© nat*, and four pounds of sugar with a pair of armlets or 
' ; lays them before the image of her family god in the house; 
her before the god, and puts sugar in her mouth. Her lap 
II' ^ — *'• rice and cocoanuts, the guests are feasted on vermicelli, 
:goment is completed. Next cornea the betrothal or 
ju Utt a lucky day the boy*a father with a party of friends 
ita tbe girKs, taking a robe, two pieces of bodicecloth, 4*. (Rs. 2) 
"" " ten to twenty pounds of sugar, two pounds of betelnuts, 
inds of dry date, and 100 betel leaves, and hands them to her 
its. The girl is droased in the robo, seated before the family 
igoa, and sugar is again put in her mouth. The guests are told 
M the boy and girl are betrothed, betel is served, and they with- 
Irmw. After the guests leave the bridegroom's party are feasted on 
ffBrm icglli and on the next day anotherdinner of stuffed cakes in given. 
ly (lay is fixed for the marriage and the house is washed with 
lung and lime. The bride's party take the bride with thorn aud 
to the bridegroom's. The couple are rubbed with turmeric and 
thed. Next day the god-pleasing is performed, the lucky 
»C culled kandar gambh or marriage porch post is brought, and a 
Dth 19 raised iu froLt of the bridegroom's house. On the same day 
womenof the bridi^groom's house bring six small earthen })otsor 
»M from the potter's who is paid in uncooked provisions, betel 
10 and nuts, and ten coppers. The pots are laid before the family 
J*. The couple are bathed, and with their mothers are seated on 
or 9urffi made by setting four of the six earthen pots one at 
ler. A thread is wound round a betel leaf, and, under the 
"of piinJcnukan or leaf-wristlet, is tied round the wrist of each 
pair and friends and relations are feasted. On the third 
M couple are again bathed in the square and dressed in new 
I, tile bride wearing a white robe and bodice. The bridc- 
Vfa'a brow ia decked with a marriage coronet or bdnhitig literally 
}wbom, and the bride's head with a network of flowers. They 
iilo to stand in the booth face to face with a curtain bearing a 
or nandi marked with lines of vermillion between them. 
BtAode on a stone slab and the girl on a heap of millet in a 
llboo bosket. Thread wristlets wound round pieces of tnrmeric root 
! tied to the wrists of each of the couple and lucky verses are repeat- 
by a BrAhman priest. Then all present in turn press lucky rice 
ir browii! ana betel leaves and nuts are handed round. Five 
women sit with the couple in a line before the family gods to 
tho bhuma or earth's rood ceremony, and eat from twodishea 
t99, TOnnicelli, and sweetmeats, and sing songs. Presents of 
jiTo given and received by tho bride's and bridegroom's 
The couple aro seated on a bull and tttken to the temple of 
., where they present a coconnut to tho god and bow to him, 
nr return, the oride's parents formally make over the girl to the 
>f the bridegroom's mother and leave the bridegroom's house 

Chapter ] 


[Bombay G&xetteer, 



ber III. 



^ith the bride for their own village. On a lucky day after seven 
eight months the girl returns to her husband's and finally goes 
live with him "when she comes of age. "When she comes of 

•case she 


or she may not sit apart for three days. In at 

bathed on the fifth and sent to the temple 
Except that her mother gives her a green robe 
is performed on a girl's first pregnancy. Wheul 
Ydklar dies the body is placed in a sitting position and 
made fast with strings passed round a peg fixed in the wal 
If the dead is a man he is dressed in a waistcloth, a shoulder- 
cloth, and turban ; and if a woman in a robe and bodice. A woman 
who dies before her husband has her head wreathed with flowers or 
is crowned with a cup full of water. These honours are not paid 
to a widow. The body is laid on a blanket or some rough cloth 
and taken to the burial ground. They either burn or bury their 
dead. When a person is buried they fill the g^avo with eartli 
set a stone over it. Their priest or atjyanavvur comes and sc :■ 
bel leaves and pours water over the stone. He also gives each of the 
mourners some bel leaves and they strew them on the grave shouting 
Hay, Uar, that is Shiv, Shi v. All bathe and return to the house 
of the dead. The spot where the dead breathed his last 19 
c^wdunged and a copper vessel full of water is set on it. They lay 
durva grass and leaves on the pot and go home. On the third day 
they leave two stuffed cakes and rice with an earthen vessel full of 
water on the grave and wait to see if a crow will touch them. If 
no crow comes to eat they set the food before a cow. All married 
dead are honoured by a caste-feaat called dinka.rya on the fifth or 
eleventh day after death. Either at the end of a monthor of ayear 
after the death a waistcloth and turban or a robe and bodice arft 
laid on the spot where the dead breathed his last, and the members 
of the family are treated to a dinner of stuffed cakes orhinolatt. No 
anniversary feast is kept. They form a united body bound together 
by a strong caste feeling. Social disputes are settled at caste 
meetings subject to the approval of the Vyankauna of Meligiri 
in Mudhol who is their religious head and whose orders are 
obeyed on pain of loss of casto. His office is hereditary and his 
power over the men of the caste is unlimited. They do not 
their children to school nor do they take to new pursuits. <-' 
whole they are a stationary class. 

Wandering Brdhmanical Hindus include seventeen divisions wHB 
a strength of 26,552 or ^G? per cent of the Hindu population. Th? 

details are 

Bijdpur Wandering BrdhTTUinical Hindus, 1831. 




Budbudkera or Davrii. 







Hole Mau« 

Mkle*. FottKl«t. Total 










lUlM. fcsiitlai. Ti 








Advichinchers, also called Chlgri Betkars or Ph^se- 
pdnlluB, are returQC'd as numbering 112, and a.s found in small 
nambore ivll over the district. It is odd that Gujarat should havo 
CTi ■ "■ ' iiree tribes which next to the Gbante Chors are 
tii '■ in the clistrict. The Lamfins are settling down. 

MA boti&al fMriiietrs and the professional bullock stealers the Bhats' 
fortunately only occasionally visit the collectorate, but the Phanee- 
11 > a in tlie district and so far show no sign of improvement. 

V 1 in common use among men are Lingappa^ Rdmfippa, 

II Sidram, and Shivdppa ; and among women Basawn, 

I: '" \ va, Lingavv, Nilavva, and Rudravva. They are 

m iioscd of Dliangars, Kabligers, and Rajputs, who 

i: i(T nor intermarry. The Dhangars are divided 

it,: or cotton wristlet wearers and Unikankans or 

woollen nrriatlet wearers who eat together and intermarry. The 

R~ -•■•■• ^ n-p their clan distinctions^ and forbid marriage amoiig 

ill • same clan. As Mh.'irs are sometimes found as part 

ot a fdmh or band, so Bedars occasionally accompany 

the 1 -rdhis. Thoy are made to live at a little distjinco 

(rom ll»e build, and the others do not marry with them. Their 

laiieauirt- is a dialect of Gujardti, though all speak Kj^narese 

|i tnd generally Iliudust/mi as well. They have a pecnliar 

which in a court of justice turns to a whine. They are 

-: rac« though the true colour of the skin seldom pierces 

t 1 if dirt. They are perhaps the wildest-looking people 

jr , their bodies tiltliy, their tangled locks covered with a 

( <>l ilirty rag, a tattered brown cloth thrown over the 

and a loincloth hung from a waist-string. The women 

i dirty and dingy |>3tticoat and a loose bodice. Their only oma- 

uj.iiifl are bead necklaces, glas s bead bangles, and a few brass orna- 

nenis. The uomber of PhAnseiKlrdhis, which happily is generally 

mull, are recruit-cd when the crops ripen, by bands from the Nizdm's 

fxxiutry. They live in the fields, generally without huts, and with 

Bwrvly a screeu to keep off the wind. Thoy havo no hoase goods 

or Mther property. Millet broad and bruised chillies are their daily 

, and flesh is a most important article of food. They deny that 

it pork or beef, but are at times charged with stealing and 

< '.va. They are eKceaaivoly fond of liquor and narcotics. 

ji , i; :i' ' • of working but live by robbing the standing 

cr [•- I I's stand in such awe of them that they secure 

Ihi ir •; 'mIu il b^' hubiuittiug to a regular system of blackmail. If 

Ihi) r^'fiin.-il [n lot the cars be taken, they would run a good chance 

ol iomng the whtJe crop when it was gathered into the thrashing 

fln«ir. Advichiurhors think nothing of walking off in broad day- 

li|flit with Ciittle or anything else they may see about. When the 

police make a raid on them they are alleged occasionally to kill 

anmf* orj)hfm child and a<^rui*p the constables of murdering it. 

T" .' doer is a blind and pastime. 

*J' -nd beg. They are Brdlhmanical 

11 r great gods are Yallama, Tuljd-Bhav4ni, and 

^^ -...i^ .., r. .:use images are kept tied in cloth and are 

a year on Mfirvavmi in Aithvin or Scptcmber- 



Wa n ueh 

o«t once 

(Bomliaj Oatett 








October and worsbipped with an offering of milk. T bey keep no 
or feasts and neve r make pil grimapea. T tn^y believe m witchcratt m 
8 o<:ithaaying ^ They say they formerly tested thoir'woraen's chastil 
by a yearly ordeal. Every year after Divdli in Ashvln or Septeuil 
.October they visited a holy plEice and held a caste feast. When tl 
'feast was over all the women dressed in new clothes and each dipf 
her finger in boiling oil. If the oil did her finger no harm she 
declared chaste. They have no child-birth ceremonies ; but the b< 
I of the child whether male or female is shaved on the fifth dr 
iFrom that day till the child has cut all its teeth the head is shaved i 
'regular intervals and never after. Girls are married at any age 
thure is no rule that girls should be married before they come of aj 
I Widow marriage and polygamy are allowed and pmctised, an«l polya 
I dry is unknown. On the marriage day the bride and bridegroom 
decked with chapleta of plpal leaves, a taasel of thread hanging o\ 
each temple. The skirts of the bride's and bridegoora's robes 
knotted together seven times, the guests throw rod rice over 
pair's hcjjvils and the marriage is complete. If they can get fuel 
burn their dead j if not they bury them. The body is curried i 
the grave by three men one holding the head, a second the feet^ 
a third the waist. On the third day a little molasses and a lit 
clariBed butter are laid on the grave. This is their only fune 
rite and they have no mind-feasts. Social disputes are inquired 
and settled at a meeting of the old men of the caste. 

Bha ts are returned as numbering thirty-two, and as found in Ii 
Bijiipur, HAJdmi, and Hungfund. They are wandering lx>ggar3 
foretell the future. They look and speak like Kunbis ; they hi 
no houses, and live in temples and rest-houses. Some own jxynii _ 
cows, fowls, and dogs. Their ordinary food is Indian millet pulso 
and vegetables, but they eat fish and flesh except beef and jx)rk 
drink liquor. They keep all local holidays, worship the ordii 
village gods especially Mdruti, and carry with them the imaj 
of Sidhoba and MAyilnini. Bhdts believe in soothijaying, witchcrs 
and lucky and unlucky days. Their customs do not differ fr 
Kunbi customs. Their priests who oflSciate at their ceremot 
are Brahmans, and their broaches of caste discipline are enquii 
into and disposed of by their guru or teacher. They do not 
their boys to school or take to now pursuits. As a class tl 
condition is steady. 

Budbudkers, or Drummers, also called Davris, are retame 
as numboriug 193, and as found in small numbers all over 
district. The name is taken from their little hour-glass sbui: 
drum or bmlbudki. It is the name of a pi-ofession rather than 
caste and includes several distinct classes of Hindus and MnsalmAr 
The chief class of Budbudkers are closely allied to the Gomlhalia. 
They claim to be MarAtluls, and speak Martithi at home. Th 
hardly wanderers as they have fi.xed head-quarters from . .. 
they make begging tours to neighbouring viUagos. Th«>y 
found at TAlikut where they have been long settled, lliey hold 
post of village astrologers or Joshis at Mungoli and at scvcnil ol 
largo villages. Thoy fi-ocly marry with the Maritha Grnidl 
from whom they differ only iu pmfessiou. Their language 



hliow that tliey aro imtuiffrauts from tho Mardtlia country ; but 
thtfy came so lou^ ngo thab they have lost all tiTiditiou of the time 
ttaa the canse of oomiug. Their chief kultt or clauB are G^ykavad 
Povir an«l Shinde. The names in common use among men aro 
Bdhiji, Billoba, K<ishirdm, Parshurdm, Subhdna, and 8antu; and, 
Ikm&ng women Bdyja, Gangavva, KdsbibAi, Tuljavvn, and TnlsaVMii.' 
Mmny motx lake ^"i after their namos and a fuw add rdv ; and 
bit or ortvt in added to wumeit's uameB. Like Mamthda they are 
iHridcd into Btflrmtlishus and Akarmdsli^s» who eat tcigether but do 
not intermarry. In appearance they do not differ from local Marsttha 
ibU. Ais sotno Jangams under a vow allow their hair to grow, 
n« s«u}io Kilikets never cut the hair of their heads, so some 
: ')w benrds in honour of a Musalman saint culled Yem»ina 
Ki of theui are wild-looking. Though in no way held 

impara they generally live ontside of the village in small thatched 
lioases with stone walls. Like most people of the district their 
staple food is millet, split pulse, and vegetables. They season 
t)u5ir food like MarJtthds, and like Marathiis they use animal 
fcK»«l »T»d liqnor when they can afford thoux. They are not bound 
I. and they worship their house gods only on holidays. 

(^ ^ • all of thorn bathe and worship tho village M^truti. 

"i it'u dn«s like Kuubi women; and at homo or in the fiobl 

1 the usual coat and waistcloth. A Badbudker got up for 

- tour is a quaint figure. He is diseased in a largo dirty 
with red cloth twined over it, a long white coat, a pair 
tloons, a red and white striped shouldcrcloth, and a 
Inihih beads. In one band is a staff and in the other 
ig hour-glass drum. A knotted cord is fastened to 
drato and when tho drum is shaken the knot strikes against tho 
brane of the ^Irum and mukea a tinkling sound. In a bag by 
bit sido ib his Chintamani^ a collection of pictures on small pieces of 
Cft' " I. Those pictures are used as guides or omens. A traveller 
»'.:. 11 a journey, or a trader anxious to know how his bust 

ireitUu^ will turn out, takes a pin which is tied to tho ChintAmani, 
puhea it among tho pictures, and tho Budbudker opening at that 
pirlaro tolls the iuqaircr whether tho result will bo gof>d or bad. 
.-. rli.-y are goodnaturcd patient and thrifty, but dirty, cuu- 
!i to drink. Their chief occupation is forbune-telUag, 
a' uj lie-tellers they sometimes hold Gr^ra Joshi or village 

a. ^' re ut- free kinds. As they are generally unable to retul, 

Us tortunes they do not go much by almaimcks and books, 

b by the face, tho lines on the hand, and especially by 

of night birds. Their favonrito instructor is the 
J ...J... >. spotted owlet, Carino brahnia, from whom they are 
aJkid I'ingla Joshis. They go to tho owlet's haunts in the 
ttiHy morning to hoar what the birds have to say. They know to 
irltnf rl»»»M of tlioir cn.stotners the owlet's remarks refer by the place 
tb I • porch. The remarks of an owlet from a /»a^/tM/. 

to s, from a n/v/j tree to traders, from a tamarind to 

hantcrw, Irom n nmngo«» to gar<len<'rs, from a jtipul to Brdhmana, 
(nim a gnava In fniit'CrerH, from a village wall to watchmen. As the 
jgwlet iootbaayers IJud that people pay best when in boat huraourj 



• Wani 


[Bombay Oazettee 



pter III. 


Ea.vdkhgiu. ' 



the owlet, whatever its perch, 18 generally found to foretell little bi 
good. The owlet soothsayers teach their boys this art as soon 
the boys are able to understand human nature. They are a poor 
class whoso marriage expenses and dninkcnness often plunge them 
jn debt. They rank themselves with Mar«ithA.s, but MarAthiis will 
'not eat with them because they take alms from Mhiirs and M^u^ 
and receive cooked food from persons with whom Marttthds du n< 
eat. The men and the children bog all day long ; the women, beside 
minding the house, work as day-labourers. During the dry son 
the result of their begging is satisfactory, and, in the harvest tiw 
they store a good doal c»f corn on which they live during the rail 
season. A family of five spends 6». to Ss. (Rs. 3-4) a month on foe 
and drc-ss. Their house goods are worth £1 to £0 (Rs. 10-50). 
boy's wedding costs £1 10,!<. to £.5 (Rs. 15-50), a girl's £1 to 
(Ra. 1 0-20), and a death Ss. to 10«. (Ra. 4-5). Mardtha Budbudkera' 
chieSy worship Yallama, Mdniti, and Ambabdi. If a family j| 
troubled by sickness they believe the sickness is sent by soc 
angry ancosti-al ghost, and to please the ghost they set its imo' 
the house gods and worship it. They keep twelve Hindu 
and fast only on Skrdvan or July- August Moudays. During Hhr 
they take dressed food from no one aud eat only one meal a 
Their teacher lives at Chitgupa in the Nizam's country aud is 
Shidoba. He visits his disciples every year, who treat him to 
feast, raise a sum of money for his benefit, and present him wU 
it. He presides at caste meetings assembled to settle social dispuU 
and disposes of c.ises. They worship villago god.«i, but h.*ive no fail 
in witchcraft. Their customs differ little from Mariitha eustor 
Most of their marriages are conducted by Brdhmaus, but some 
performed without the help of any priest. At their marriages U 
waterpots are set down, one for the bride the other for the brie 
groom, with five copper coins and five botelnuts in each, and a atrij 
13 wound round their necks. When a Bnthraan is present at 
■wedding ho ties a piece of turmeric root into each string, and bia( 
one on the husband's wrist and one on the wife's. He also ti 
the viangalsutra or lucky thread round the girl's neck. They bn^ 
their dead. On the third day a goat is killed and desh and br 
are taken to the grave. There is also a yearly mind-feast on 
death day. Almost none have any book learning and do not" 
towards teaching their children. They are a blameless peo| 
honest and free from crime ; thoy show no signs of quitting the 
begging life. 

Dandigda sars are returned OS nnrabering 338 and as foul 
only in Bdgalkot. The names in common use among men 
Bhirndds, Hanamdils, Lakshmantlds, Sanjivdils, and Udandadds ; ai 
among women GirovNTi, Kankavva, Nyamavva, Rindavva, 
Tulsavva. The men take the word diis or slave aud the women tl 
word avva or mother after their names. They have no .surname 
They have several family stocks or gotrds, the chief of which 
Avolvaru, Badnipattiyavru, Chadyfiuavru, Chhepardavru, Chincha 
varu, CfodkalvanJ, Gopiliyavru. Kudlavaru, MailAnavru. 
Yennalvaru. Persons belonging to the same ftiraily stock do 
intcrmoiry. Kiiuarosc is their homo tongue, but most of Uifl 



uaderstand Mar^thi* and Ilimliistdui. They are dark of m iddle 
k- ,v,. '■" ' ^ ■♦h.jnusnnlar frame. Most of them live in poor one- 
s with invid walla and thatched roofa. They buvo 
ULUc luriii ooking and storing vessels which tire mostly 

of earth. lecomfoilablo looking clean and well swept, 

most of them with a Irorit yard in which is a basil plant. The floors 
mn eowdcmgefl once a week and the front of the house is painted with 
red ochre. Their staple food is millet, split pulse, and vegetables. 
They eat fisU and tiesh except beef and pork, drink country 
liquor, and smoko (jdnja or hemp flowers. They oat flesh at funeral 
mnd tneinorial feasts and on Msirnavmi the day boforo Dasaru in 
Sept*imf.H?r.O<jt<ibor, when they offer a goat to their house gods, 
pt B.-».^vis or Kasbis, as the courtezans of this caste are called, 
Tout pprsons who bathe daily, they bathe and worship their 
only on Fridays. The men mark the brow with three 
linus a red between two white. They keep the top-knot 
and mooBtachej and dress in a short waistcloth, a shouldercloth, 
M. boadscarf, and a jacket. The women wear the hair in a back 
knot, and dress iu a ftill Mardtha robe without passing the 
ikirt back between the feet, and a bodice with a back and short 
aleevea. The Kasbis, who are nofit and showy in their dress, deck 
ikdr bends with false hair and flowers. Both men and women ha^e 
*Cew ornaments and the woll-to-do have special clothes for holiday 
aaa. As a class they are orderly, goodnatured, clean, and thrifty. 
They are hereditary beggars, but some are husbandmen, othora 
field- labonrers, and a few weavers of coarse cotton cloth. Some 
own n cow or two, selling their milk only to their caste peo))le as uo 
Jiifli cla*s Hindu will buy milk from them. Some are hereditary 
temple servants and own indm or rent-free lauds. They 
-"... |. the temple yard, but are not allowed to pass within the door, 
Th»>.Ho who beg are ctilled Gopjtlpattiddsars. They bog from door 
>*ing their alms in a narrow-mouthed bamboo basket 
y their side. As they stand before a house begging 
they pw;itc« a song in praise of the god Vishnu and at the end call out 
VyankatraTnan Gnvinda or simply Govinda. The temple servants 
ami beggars go with a basket into the fields at harvest time and 
begf ears of corn from the husbandmen. Besides the produce of 
kheir mot- free land, they get the dressed food which is offered to 
Ibo village M.truti. As a class they are free from debt. They 
rank above Lamdua and Vadara, The daily life of the husbandmen 
weavers does not differ from that of other husbandmen and 
-ors. Temple servants sweep the temple yard and return home 
f !»• the dressed food offered to the god. Beggars bog 

frviiij uiiJi iiiug to noon except on lunar elevenths and on Qohulashtami 
in Jaly-Aoeust. Those who weave stop their work like other 
weavers (►n iI»Jl in M:i.rch and on Dn^ara aud Divdli in September- 
OotoU^r. Tlipy arc Bnihmanical Hindus aud are careful to keep the 
Dtain r iieir religion. They respect Brtihmans, but do not call 

ibi'ui .ale at any of their ceremonies. Their priests aro the 

TC[ tives of their Kattimani or headman who is a married man 

wl it»m otisto. Vyankate»h and Yallauima are their house 

dr I they are specially devoted to Vyaukatosh. They make 

Chapter ] 


[Bombay Oaxettcer, 

kptcr III. 



pilgrimages to neighbouring shrines and sometimes to Vyankatgiri 
in North Arkot where they remain at the foot of the bill as t.hey 
are not allowed to go to the temple. Except Oaneshrhaturthi in 
August -September, they keep most Brdhnianic Hindu holidays, 
^'ht'ii* special fast days are the lunar elevenths of Anhadh or Juno- 
tTuly and of Kddik or October- November, and Qokula^htami in 
Shrdvan or July-August. They have strong faith in soothsaying 
aud witchcraft. Daudigdasar women are brought to bed ^vith tJio 
help of a midwife of their o^vn caste. After delivery the midwifo 
cuts the child's navel cord, washes the mother and child, and lay 
them on a cot. The mother is given dry cocoa-kernel, dry ginger, 
dry dates, and molasses, and for four days is fed on boiled wheat - 
flour and clarified butter. The mother is held unclean for fruu" 
days. On the morning of the fifth the midwife worships the guddes 
Satvdi, and the father of the child or some one of the family kills 
goat before the goddess. The head of the goat is laid before t 
goddess and is eaten next day, and the flesh is dressed and serv 
at .1 feast to friends and kinspoople. On the morning of the 
thirteenth the mother goes to worship the village Miiruti, and, iu 
the evening, the child is cradled and named. The child's hair 
first clipped in the third, fifth, or seventh month by its matern 
uncle who gives it a cap or a jacket. Girls are married at any ag© 
there is no rule that girls should be married before they come (>| 
ago. Widow marriage and polygamy are alltjwed and practised, an 
polyandry is unknown. When a marriage engagement is conclud 
the lioy's father lays before the girl's house-gods three and half pounti 
of sugar, five pieces of cocoa-kernel, and is. to 8«. (Rs. 2-4) iu cas 
and bows before them. He comes into the room where castorao 
are mot to witness the ceremony, says that Girewa the daugh 
of Bhimdas of the Avalvaru family is engaged to his son Udandad 
of the Kudlavarn family, and gives a copper coin to one of tlie casi 
beggars who calls aloud Govind. The girl's father asks the buy's fath 
to a feast. At a betrothal the girl sits before her father's house gm 
and the boy's father presents her with a robe, two bodicecloth 
and an ear ornament. The girl is dressed in the new robe an 
brought to the room whore the guests are seated, and a marri 
woman lays in her lap a cocoanut, five dry dates, five beteluu 
two lemons, five plantains, and a handful of rico. Betel is sorv 
and the guests withdraw. The girl's father treats the boy'i 
father to a feast of polls or sugar roily-polios and boiled gnu 
pulse. The boy's father fixes the marriage day with the help of 
Jiniliman priest and sends word to the girl's father. Two oi 
three days before the day fixed the girl's father with a party 
friends goes to the boy's village and is lodged in a separate boa 
On the day they arrive they are feasted at the boy's. In the ovoum; 
the boy and girl are rubbed with turmeric paste at their own housoi 
Next day five married men from each party bring a sapling and ki 
it before the house as haiuLif yamhk or the marriage booth-jKjh) an 
Bot up the booth. When they have raised the booth a marrioi 
woman waves a lamp about their faces. In the evening mairii 
women of both parties go to a iiotter's, givo him fourU^en iwiim 
of millet and '3ld. {2\tnf.), and bring thirty-two largo and s 



parihcn rossols. On retarning from the poller's honso, they 
Imtfie the boy mid Lis mother and the girl and hor mother. Two 
pieces of throiid firo tied to the wrists of the hoy and girl and 
two other pieces of thread each with a betclnut to the wrists of their 
mothers. Married women wave the lamp and grains of rice about 
the boy, the girl, and their mothers, and tJirow the rice as an' 
offering to spirits. The boy and girl are taken to bow to their 
honso gods and to the seniors of their families. Next day the boy'a 
father sends for the girl, her parents, and her kinspeople, and they 
bring with them shcvaija or vermicelli in a bamboo basket. The boy 
tonches tho basket, and the basket is taken into the house where five 
married women from the boy'a party and live from the girl's party 
unt the vermicelli. The boy goes on a bullock in state to worship 
the village Maruti. Before he returns the girl is dressed in a white 
Kibe and a bodice. At the time of marriage the bridegroom stands 
facing the bride who is standing on a low stool, in a basket 
onntaining millet and f<?. {^a,). Round the couple stand four 
aiAtried women with thoir second fingers raised, and a cotton thread 
moistened with milk and clarified butter is passed five times round, 
anil etich time is hitched on to the fingers of the married women. 
'Vhis thread with five strands is cut into two pieces. One piece with 
a lilt of turmeric root ia tied to the bridegroom's right wrist, and 
tV with a bit of tnrmeric root to the bride's left. A curtain 

V. atral turmeric cross is held between them, and the Oshtam 

priint recites marriage verses and drops grains of rice on the couple. 
Alter the marriage is over two bhums or earth offerings are made. 
One is called the bride's hhum and the other the bridegroom's bhum. 
Ench offering consists of twenty-five polls or sugar roily -polies, 
thrf!« pi>unds of rice boiled and strained, and three quartera of 
a f clarified butter. The dish is shared by the bride and 

i'\ led women of her party if it is made in her name, and 

by lii' ridegroom and five women of his party if it is made in 
hii liUi'ie. Each of the women who eat the bhuni is given 
(^ a.). Afterwards the bride and bridegroom play at odds 

f with turmeric roots, and throw redpowdor on each other. 

'uing the brido and bridegroom, seated on a bullock, go to 
ship the village Maruti. When they return a married woman 
warc:i a lump and rice about them and throws the rice away. As 
thej enter the house a married kinswoman of the bridegroom 
h^^^l3 ^t his feet and does not allow him to go until he promises 
• o his danghtcr to her son in marriage. The bride and bride- 
{^ii'utii go and sit tn the left and to the right of the bridegroom's 
mollier. They change places five times and each time the sur- 
iiitn cry ont jFIiifJuir Kaihhdr, that is Is the flower heavy 

lifJivy. Aiter this the bride's mother hands her over 

smother. As among Holias, when a Dandigddsar 

Lighters and no son, he keeps one of his ilaughtors 

yho lives as a prostitute and is called Basvi or Kasbi. 

inheirit her father's property. If a Kasbi has all 

no sons she also keeps one of her daughters unmarried. 

' "DO ceremony when a girl comes of age, but hold 
i five days during thoir monthly sickness. They 






;. S 


' ■^••1 







[Bomtay Qazefteer, 


ipter III. 




burn their dead, and liold the family impure for ten days. After 
death the hody is washed and laid on its back, and frankincense 
burnt in front of it Wlien the Oshtara prieet comes he drops 
little basil leaf water into the mouth of the corpse and gives a sip 
the water to each of the four men who are to bear the corpse. Tl 
heir walks in front of the bier carrying an earthen fire-pot. After 
the body is burnt the mourners and others who go with them to tl 
burning ground bathe and return to the house of mourning, Ti 
heir dismisses them with the hope that they may not again have 
come to his house to carry a corpse. Ou the fifth day the hei| 
gathers the ashes and uuburnt bones and throws them into watei 
Ho cowdungs the spot whore the body was burnt^ and the prie 
worships it with sandal paste, grains of rice, and flowers. A go« 
is killed, some of its flesh is cooked, laid on the spot where tl 
body was burnt, and given to all men who are present. 
priest 18 presented with undrosscd food and money, and castemeif 
are fed in the evening. Ou the eleventh day a goat is killed^ 
its dressed flesh is laid ou the spot where the dead breathed hi~ 
last, and in the evening caste people are fed. On a lucky ds 
within the first month an imago in the name of the deceased 
worshipped and caste people are fed on •polin or sugar rolly-polie 
They are hound together by a strong caste feeling, and theij 
social disputes are inquired into and settled at meetings of tl 
caste elders under the Kattimanui or headman or his ropresentati\ 
A few send their boys to school and take to now pursuits. Th< 
ahow no signs of bettering their condition. 

Da'sars, or Slaves, are returned as numbering 733 and as fom 
scattered all over the district in small numbers. They are said 
have been recruited from Kabligers or fishermen, but Kablig€ 
do not eat fi-om their hands. They are said to have come frol 
Telangaua bogging and to have settled in Bijilpur. The names 
common use among men are Adveppa, Bdlnppa,Bhim^ppa, Hanmdp]: 
and Honsunuri ; and among women BAli, Bhimi, Girji, Gt 
Hanraanti, Rdmi, Shivlingi, Yamni, and Yeli. They have twenty-t^ 
Buruames Bingiyavru, Chinmavru, Chintd,kalvaru> Dasru, Gantalvai 
Goralvaru, Guralvaru, Haumasaniyavru, Intiyavru, Jatbeniya\ 
Kamalvaru, Kaknurvaru, Kanchakamvara, Maddebinvar 
Lfalkanbinvaru, Mardthiyavru, Nerliyavru, Puliyavm, Shirmavr 
Tiumavru, Uddarn, and Ulliyavru. Persons bearing the 
surname may not intermarry. They are divided into Tirmal D^ 
and Gaud Dasars who eat together but do not intermarry. Tl 
cause of the split is that TirmaldAsars allow their women to car 
on prostitution and take part iu plays and dances ; while t| 
Gaud Dasars in acting give the women's parts to boys and have 
unmarried women. They differ little from Kabligers except in beii 
wilder and more active. Teluga is said to bo their homo tongi 
but they speak Kdnarese with more or less ease out-of-dooi 
They seem to prefer living under temporary shades outside ti 
village like Ghisddis or wanderiug tinkers. They have ve 
little furniture, though they sometimes own domestic animf 
Their ordinary food is millet, split pulse, and vcget^ables. Th< 




beef and tame and 
wheTi they get it cheap. They eat opinra, drink 
smoke hotnp flowers. They kill goata in honour 

I moderate eaters, aiid poor cooks, their holiday dishes being polis 
BDgnr rolly-ptilies, kir4lhus or sugar dumplings, and shevai/a or 
Tertni^'elli. They eat meat except beef and tame and wild pork, 
I , ami 

■III !i vaint of Yamnur in Dharwar and of llassau and 
.'»niig the Moharram. The men generally dress iu white, 
•j ■ liirried women in dull colours. The men keep the top-knot, 
■ the chin, and dress in a waistcloth, shouldercloth, coat, 
iieadiicarf. The women dress in the robe without passing 
skirt back between the feet, and in a bodice with short sleeves 
• bock. Both men and women wear ornaments mostly of silver 
rarely of gold. The women who dance and carry on 
procftitutton are careftil of their appearance, wearing clean clothes, 
nad decking their heads with false hair and gold ornaments. The 
I 85. to t\ lOjf. (Rs.4-15) a year on their dress, and £1 to 
: 1. 10-25) on their ornaments; the women spend 10s. to £2 
j-2oj on their yearly clothes, and '3d. to £10 (Rs. ^-100) on 
ornaments. Their hereditary calling is dancing and begging. 
They are paid 69. to £3 (Rs. 3-30) lor each play they perfonn, 
aocurding to the merit of the play. They never work either 
Ubourers or as husbandmen, those who own land let out 
ir 6elds to husbandmen. Their married women do not 
idor with their husbands but remain at home, and raiud the 
low'^e. They prepare a specific for sore eyes. The kernels 
five or six marking-nuts are mixed with salt, ground to fino 
powder, heated, and put into the eye for three days daring which the 
pstioDt mast eat nothing but winter millet, clarified butter, and varan 
that is lioJliHl tur pulse seasoned with turmeric and salt. The 
fa performance are divided among the company ; and the 
r prostitution are private property. They are poor but 
not \n want, and as, except small dealings among themselyes, they 
BO credit, they are free from debt. Their busy season is frouj 
ch to Jane. They are Br^hmanical Hindus and are married by 
IS. MAruti is their chief divinity, though they worship 
^gods and occasionally visit their shrines. Most attend the 
fair held in honour of the p>r or Musalmau saint of Yamnur. ', / 
'.unlay is sacred to Mdruti it is the Dflsars' chief holy 
iky; ail b«the and worship the house-image of Milruti. Though 
thov ftlwnvs bow to the village Maruti, they never worship 
h'v ■/ith their own hands. The Hindu New Year's Day in, SilrfjHinclnni in July -August, and Dasra &nd Dirdli 
in Scpt<'mber-Octf>bor are their leading holidays. Unlike other local 
Hf keep GuneshchatxirtJii in July-August or (S/jtmr/a 

10 V fast on any day. They have a religious guide 

fof the •J'ciitain caste, who lives on the freewill offerings of hia 
d.\,-; a is a murricd man, and his office is hereditary. They admiti 
lOO of ghosts, but pretend ignorance of sorcerers and 
''• ry say that people who die with unfulfilled wishes 
. and trouble the members of their families as well as 
ru.y kuow only one way of driving out ghosts, and that 
UwpatwutBitiuftter^ of M/iruti. As soon as a child 


(Bombay Oaxetl 



ipter III. 

_ 4 


is born it ib washed and the mother is bathed, and both are 1| 
on A blanket and warmed by heated pads of raga. llie moti 

is fed on thick-boiled millet 
after which she begins to 
jher house work, In the 
SatvAi and with her five 
ninth the child is named 

Uonr nnd water for the first five di 
move about the house and look at 
evening of the fifth day the goddf 
small stones are worshipped. On 
and cradled in an oblong piece 
cloth hung fi'om four strings fastened from its four corners, 
boy's or girl's hair is cut for the first time before he or shel 
two years old. When a father wishes to cut his child's hair 
the first time, he takes the child to a Mdruti's temple and places ] 
on the lap of the ministrant of the god, who cuts the first lock 
hair and then the whole head is shaved by the child's father or 
its maternal uncle. The ministrant is given undressed provisi 
enough for a meal. At the age of ten, at a cost of 10«. (Rs. 
boys pass through a ceremony which is called the munj. The boj 
bathed in a square formed by four drinking pota ot tdmby a. 9 placec 
its four corners with a thread passed five times round the necks of I 
pots; a lamp is waved about his face, and his head is shaveti by a barl 
who is given one of the clothes which the boy was wearing. The jntji 
or ministrant of a Mnruti'a temple is given 1^ n, (Ijd.). From 
day the boy is shaved by a barber, as there is a oaato rule tl 
unless a boy has undergone the munj ceremony, he should not 
Hhave<l by a barber but by one of his relations. The viunj gener 
ouds with a feast. Child nian-iage is the rule, and widow marrit 
is allowed and practised ; polygamy is allowed but seldom practise 
for boys are always at a discount, and find great difficulty in getti| 
a wife. The scarcity of girls is partly duo to their carrying 
prostitution. Proposals for marriage come from the boy's pareal 
They have an engagement ceremony, but unlike most local Hinc' 
they have no betrothal or hdshlivji. In the engagement ceremony 
castemen are called and in their presence the boy's father promii 
to give £1 12*. (Rs. 16) to the girl. The marriage takes place 
the boy's and when the day fixed draws near the girl and her paret 
and relations come to the boy's village and put up in a house provic 
by the boy's father. On tlio day they come to the boy's village 
give a caste dinner, and on the same day the boy's father also gii 
a caste dinner. In these fcastsS, if one casteraan goes to the britlc 
two go to the bridegroom's. Only two dishes are served mutt 
and boiled rice. In the evening the boy and girl are rubbed wi 
turmeric paste, and bits of string with pieces of tunneric roots 
tied to their wrists. Next day they are bathed in two aurgis 
squares and dressed in rich clothes. The boy's father gives 
girl a robe and bodice, and her father gives the boy a waia 
cloth, shoulderdoth, and turban. Similar presents are made by 
relations lo the boy and girl, .Tlni Hnlhman priest makes the bay 
and girl sit astride on a horizontal mumi or wooden pestle with nn 
iron knob at one end, and ties the hems of Iheir garments to^: 
into a knot. He tells the bridegroom to touch the miui^aUut, 
luck-giving necklace, which he ties to tlio nock of the bride and for 
a^»yior square* round them. The priest drops rice on the 
the guests follow the priest's example, and the pair are wedc 




is serred and the gaests withdraw. Like other Telugu poople 
thejr do not hold a curUiin between tho brido and bridogroom. After 
dinner the married pair go ou a bullock or on foot to worship the 
fiiUge Maruti. On the third day the girl and her relations are 
trr."*^ » ,.t.f] return to their homo. When a girl comes of age she . 
;lean for four days and bathed on the fifth day. To purify 
Jittle gold powder is heated and laid on her tongue as if to 
iU After this the girl and her husband are taken to worship 
tfap Tillage Maruti; and on the first lucky day begin to live together 
M man and wife. No ceremonies are performed during a woman's 
pregnancy. They burn the dead and consider the family impure 
for three days. After death butter is rnbbed on the head, and the 
body ia washed and placed sitting against a wall and dressed in a full 
»i' " ' V If i]^Q dead is a man, the Kattirnani or caste head, 
cr l.insmen, marks its brow with the /aiHt or three upright 

Knes &ud pats a packet of betel leaves into its mouth; if the dead is 
tt woman whoso husband is alive, she is dressed in tho usual robe 
•ad bodice and her brow is marked with vermillion ; a widow's brow 
b not marked with vermillion. When the body is dressed and placed 
against the wull the persons who have come to join the funeral, burn 
tnc©n«' it, and sing a song in praise of Vishnu. They then 

eatrjr i .to the burning place in a blanket or worn cloth. The 

hetr carries fire in front of the body, and when the body is nearly 
t>onsijmed, the party bathe and every one of them throws into water 
molasses brought from the deceased's house and given to them 
heir. Moauwhile the house is cowdunged, and a lamp is placed 
" spot where the persou diud. When all return, the heir 
s] r on them out of a drinking pot, they sing a song in 

pr iiu, and the heir dismisses them with the hope that they 

•ver have to come again to his house to carry a body. In the 
ij the four corpse-bearers are asked by the heir to dine with 
I'i are fed on two pounds of rice. On retui'ning to their houses 
fcUL- uearers bathe and are pure. On the third day tho unburnt bones 
Uwi Ashes aro gathered and a square mound is built over them on 
Ike 8J> • tho body was burnt. A goat is killed, its flesh ia 

inKHf! ; deceased's house, and the relations of the deceased 

ti head of the caste take some of the flesh .and cooked rice 
bnrniog place, lay them ou the newly made tomb, and 
that is left, 'i'hey return home, leaving the rest of the 
t<^-<.-^i Irehind theiu, and on their return are treated to a feast of 
niatti)a and cookvd rice. During the first year on any convenient 
day the heir kills a gout in honour of his house-gods, and a brass 
image n-f-rt-scuting the dead is added to the number of the gods. 
The.cast«'-po()j)le are asked to a dinner, and the heir is freed from all 
iojpnrlf i.^ and is allowed to mark his brow with the ndm or three 
Oj es which he has not applied since the death. They have 

ft bi-aunj:iti Called Kattimani who with the help of a guru or teacher 
iaqairea into and settles social disputes. They do not seud their 
a to Bchuol, or «how »igua,of being anxious to improve their 

>0»nba'ri8, or TunibUfr.H, are returned as numbering 190, and 
i" ■^Miall numbers except in Muddebihal, They are said 


[Bombay Gazetteer. 





to have come from Gujarat and the Mardtha coantry, and are divide 

into Gujardt Kolhdtis, Dakshni Kolhdtis, and Are Kolhdtia wl 
neither cat together nor iutermany. All of them, except Gujar 
Kolh&tis who claim Rajput descent and bear Rajput names, clail 

I Maratha descent and bear Maratha surnames, as Bhorje, GingF 
Jadhav, Jiimblc, Kale, Mnsle, and Y^dav. Persons bearing tl 
same surname may not intermarry. The names in common u( 
among men are Aba, Appa, Bupu, Dada, and Hanmanta; and amoi 
women Bayja, Bali, Gangi, Kfishi, and Koyna. They are tall strong 
and dark, and look like Marathils. The women are like the mei 
except that they are rather slimmer. The Are and Dakshni Kolh^t 
speak Manithi, and the Gujartit Kolhdtis speak Ldd at hoi 
which is probably a South Gujarat dialect, and all of them sj 
Kduarese abroad. Like other wandering tribes they livo in huts 
twig matting in the outskirts of villages and towns. The sides 
back of the hut are closed by three mats, the front is ope 
and the top is covered by a fourth mat. Every family has t^ 
hnts, one for cooking the other for sleeping and sitting. Th< 
house goods include a few patched quilts and blankets, a few earth^ 
vessels, and one or two metal drinking pots and dining plat< 
They rear goats and hens, and keep asses to carry their huts 
house goods* from place to place. They are great eaters and pc 
cooks, being fond of sharp and sour dishes. Their every-day food! 
millet bread and a chatni or relish of bruised chillies^onions, garl 

' and wild herbs. They eat fish and flesh, except beef and pork, dri 
country liquor, and smoke gdnja or herap-flowers. Every year 
Dasara in September- October they offer a goat to the goddt 
Yallamma, and af teroffering the animal eat its flesh. They bathe oi 
once a week cither on a Tuesday or a Friday, and when they bathe, th«^_ 
worship their house gods. The men either keep or shave the tof)knot 
and wear the moustache. They dress in a short waistcloth, a jacket, 
shouldercloth, and a headscarf. The women wear the hair in a 
knot, and dress iu a full Mardtharobe passing the skirt back betw( 
the feet, and a bodice with a back and short sleeves. Most of 
clothes are given them in pi-osents. Both men and women havel 
few brass and silver ornaments. Except prostitutes, men and 
women are dirty in their dress. As a class they are orderly and 
goodnatured, but dirty and g^ven to drink. Are Kolhatis perform 
their feats on a single upright pole ; their women take no part in 
the performance, remain at home, and mind the house. Dakshni 
Kolhdtis make and sell combs by day, and perform as tumblers at 
night, earning 4^. to lOs. (R8.2-5) in a single performance. Their 
women take part in the performance, but do not practise poatitu- 
tion. Gujardt Kolhdtis are mostly rope-dancers. The appliances 
of a rope dance are a drum, a flute, a leather strap^ and five polaji 
fifteen to twenty feet long. They make two stands each of ttfl 
poles crossed on each other and place them at a distance of twet^ 
feet. One end of the strap is tied to the top of one of the stands, and 
the strap is carried to the other stand where it is hitched on the top 
and the remaining part is left hanging to the ground. A man 
woman puts on shoes and climbs on to the stand by the 1 
part of the strap. He throws down his shoes and walks on tl 




fnjm OTIC end to the other, balancing the body with a polo hold 
. in the hands. He lays a platter on the strap, bends down 
„.^ ^ :. .-.t is in the platter, draws his feet over his head, and in this 
ilion moves the platter from one end of the strap to the other. 
-' rm many other feats both on the strap and on the ground- 
to £1 (Rs. 2-10) a day. Some of the women are dedicated* 
to td practise prostitution. Boys and girls are trained 

U> 1 the age of five and are good tumblers by eleven. 

T'l less by their tumbling than they used to make and as a 

d-^-. ..j,dly off. They perform on any day especially on holi- 
days when they have a chance of gathering a large crowd. Thoy 
like to rank with Marftthas, but Marathaa do not own them and 
haTO no connection with thorn. Other people place them next 
ftbove the impure classes. A family of five spends 8a. to 12s. 
(Ra. 4-6) a mouth on food. A boy's marriage costs £5 to £10 
(Ra. 50- 100), a girl's marriage £1 to £5 (lis. 10-50), and a death 2«. 
to 10*. (Rs. 1-5). The Dombari.s' family-deities are Khandoba of 
P4l in Sdtara, Tulja-Bhavani of TuljApur in the Nizdm's country, 
and YalJamma of Parasgad in Bel gaum. They sometimes visit the 
shriROM of these deities. They respect Brahraans and call them to 
O-' leir marriages. They keep most Hindu feasts, but no 

U.: f believe in soothsaying, witchcraft, and lucky and unlucky 

daj.s. 'iheir girls are married between ten and twelve; widow 
marriage is forbidden, polygamy is allowed and practised, and 
polyandry is tmknown. Their marriage and death rites differ little 
xrom those of MarAthas. Theii" social disputes are inquired into 
and »»ettled at caste meetings. They do not send their children 
to Rchool. and take to no new pursuits. They show no sign of 
bettering their condition. 

— Ghisa'dis, or Tinkers, are returned as numbering forty and as 
fuond in small numbers in Bagalkot, Bfigevudi, Bijdpur, and 
Muddebihul. They seem to take their name from ghUne to rub, 
probably because they used to sharpen and polish arms. Their story 
18 thnt the founder of the class got his name because ho threw a 
pr !.?r and rubbed him on the ground till he died. 

Ti; Mion use among men are Blbaji, Chaudu, Khandu, 

Lakshman, MalhAri and Tuljaram ; and among women Dhondubdi, 
Japl-nTi , ; Jayabai, Kashibd.i, Kusabiti, Rakhmdbai, and SatubAi. Their 
Cf ■ surnames are Chavhau, Jhende, Khetri, Padvalkar, Pavdr,l 

S ' 111 Ifir, and Survoshi ; persons bearing the same surname 

ai •, I il to int«>rmarry. Their family deities are Tulja-Bbavani, 

K , and Yn" f Pa rasga d^ They look like Musal mans, 

Lii .ollow me- _j^ ha customs, and wear the sacrt-d thread. 

ThdT are of middle height, dark, wild-looking, strong, and muscular. 
Their home speech is a broken Gujarati with a Marwari accent and 
S largo Nprinkling of local words. Thoy also understand Mardthi, 
^oareAe, and tlindustdai. Aa thoy are always on the move, 
rmroly build even huts, and live in temporary sheds on the skirts of 
vitlagcK. They stay uudor ashed so long as they find work. When 
work grfvws s«•n^«^c they break up the shed, pack their things, 
and move to some other village in search of work. Each family has 
At l6M( cue aas to cai-ry ita house goodis. They have littlo furuituro, 

*» '•^•'**-'" 


[Bombay Oazetteer, 



ipter III. 

fANDKREaa. * 


except eartLen cooking vessels and a few brass drinking pots and 
dining plates, together worth 10s. to £1 10<f. (Rs. 5-15). Some of 
them own goats, bullocks, and sometimoa cows, and many rear fowls. 
Thoy are moderate eaters and poor cooks; their staple food is millet 
Jjread, split pnlae, and vegetables, costing 2^d. (1 ^ as.) a head a day. 
xheir holiday dishes are rice, poUs or sugar roily -polies, wheat cakes, 
and mutton. They sacrifice goats on Mdrnavmi in September- 
October during the Moharram, and sometimes on Holi in March- 
April. They are not boond to perform any rites before eating. Botl 
men and women bathe on Sundays and Tuesdays once or twice in 
fortnight, and worship the house-gotls on those days. They drini 
y liquor, some of them to excess, and hemp-water, smoke hemp-flowergj 
and occasionally eat opium. The men shave the head excef 
the top-knot, and wear the moustache and whi.skers and somfl 
wear the beard. They are shabby in their dress, the mei 
wearing the waistcloth or short breeches, the jacket, the coat, tl 
shouldercloth, the headscarf or the turban, and shoes or sandals 
costing 8s. to 16«. (Ra. 4-8) a year. Only the well-to-do have a stocl 
of clothes for holiday use. Their ornaments are earrings, wristlets 
/ and twisted waistchains, worth £1 12s. to £3 (Rs. 16-30). Their 
women tie the hair in a back knot or plait it in a braid which 
wound into an open circle like the circle at the back of a Brithmai 
woman^s head. They dress in a bodice and robe, passing one en^ 
of the robe over the head, and liaviug the other end elaboratelj_ 
puckered and tucked into the band in front. Their dresa costs 10*. 
to £1 (R.*3. 5-10) a year, and their ornaments, which include ringa^j 
ecklaces, armlets, and wristlets, are worth £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30)^ 
he only ornament of the poor is the luck-giving necklace wortl^ 
*. (Re. 1). The noso-ring is worn by maidens and not by married 
omon. Only well-to-do women buy new clothes for holidays j the 
poorer women wear the robes and bodices they received when thej 
were married. They are dirty, thriftles.^, and quarrelsome. They an 
^travelling tinkers and blacksmitb.s, making and mending tield-tool 
and earning about Is. (8 a«.) a day. They also make ladles, pokora 
tongs, chains, nails, hinges, blades for cutting and scraping vege 
tables, stirrups, and currycombs. They buy iron bars at 4*. to 6t 
(Rs. 2-3) the quarter, and sell the made articles at \0«. (R3.5) thi 
qnartor. For making a hoe thoy charge Is. (8 as.), for an axe 4|( 
(3 as.), and for a blade used for cutting and scraping vegtitables 
3d. (2 (18.). They either make these articles to order or keep them 
I ready made. Their women and childi'eu help by blowing the bellow^f 
laud hawking the ladles and tonga in the streets. Their trade is oi^^ 
the decline, as the markets are always overstocked with English 
cutlery and hardware. They boirow large sums to meet maiTis_ 
expenses, and are always more or less in debt. Thoy have credit witi 
moneylenders and borrow money at a half to one and a half per ceni 
monthly interest. They rank below Dhangara from whose banc* " 
they eat, and above Vadars, and LamAns, who do not object to 
irom them. They stop their work five days for Holi in Febrnanr^ 
jMarch, one day for Ndgpancliami in July-August, and two days uA 
Wasara and one day for Divdli in Sept-ember-October. During tl 
'first five days after a birth, thoy say because the mother requires 



hut, the father does no work. At the end of the five days the 
' IS to move about the house and help hiui. During a 
i'ork is stopped for fifteen days ; and after a death till 
jeral rites are over. They are not purticuhir in i-eligioua 
ittcrs, worshi pping Mosalm itn saints and kt^eping some MusalmaU' 
^lida yg. They respect Brahman s and call them to conduct their* 
and death ceremonies. They go on pilgT-image to Tuljtlpur 
tho Nizam's country, Jejari in Poena, and Parosgad in Belgaum. 
thera visit Yarannr in Dharwar to pay their respects to 
i, the Musalm^n saint of the place. They keep many of the 
holidays especially Divdii in September-October and Iloli in 
■March ; thf>y_arft imlityprpnt tn fasts. They have faith in 
)thsayiugand witchcraft, and pkce implicit confidence in the words 
lan astrologer. A Ghisildi spends £1 to £2 {Rs. 10-20) on 
tb of a child and daring his wife's confinement. After birth 
cord 13 cut and the child and mother bathed, and the 
fe lays them on a mat covered with a blanket ; a few have of 
. to use a cot. The mother is given dry cocoa-kernel, nim 
ched gram, hardened molasses, dry dates, dry ginger, and 
pepper pounded and mixed with clarified bntter ; and is fed un boiled 
flour and clarified butter for the first four days. On the 
of the fifth the goddess SatvAi is worshipped and a goat is 
1. The head of the sacrificed goat iaJaid before the goddess, 
ieeh is served to friends and relations in the evening. Next 
day ihc hea<l of the goat js roasted and eaten. On the seventh day 
the mother goes to the bank of a river to worship water with five 
six Hiarriod wuuien. On the bank she places five stones, marks 
itn with Vermillion, burns frankincense before them, and offers 
five kinds of grains boiled whole and strained, and a little 
ified butter. Before returning, the midwife fills a drinking vessel 
thi' river water and brings it home. When the women and 
nter the house, they rub their feet against a dog. The 
f the child in a wide-mouthed bag, name it, and lull it 
bv singiug a lullaby. The child's father gives them 6d. to 
ivs. \-o). During the first five weeks the mother puts on no 
bangles, and touches neither bread nor water with her hands 
are unclean. As among Kh^tiks and Gavlis the hair of a male j 
le child is first cut by the maternal uncle, gifts are inter- 
Tnged, and friends and relations are feasted. Baby-girls are 
}tinius married by tying the marriage coronet to tho cradle. 
10 sumo time they have no rule that girls should bo married i/ 
they come of ago. Their women sometimes remain unmai-ricd' 
they are thirty. Widows may marry as often as they like ; 
>lyganiy is allowed and practised, and polyandry is unknown. A 
f'sjliumiige coats £10 to £20 (Rs. 100-200), i\a tho boy's father 
a li&ir all tho marringo expenses. At the betrothal^ the boy'a 
places l-v, to £2 (lis. 2-2U) before tho assembled castemen, 
ibutes sugar and betel leaves and nuts. Tho castemen spend 
inn4<v uu liquor and wheat, which they divide equally among 
,'iving twopoundaof wheat extra to thebridegroom's party 
i<. ■ 11/ iM'ido's party. On tho marriage day the boy's father with 
— on hiirHohiHk goes to the girl's village, whore he is lodged 




•"^ "" 

fBomljay Gattttecr 



ipter in. 



in a house on the right sitle of the gii-l's house. He makes over to 
the girl's mother all the clothes that are to be given to the girl. Tl 
bridegroom is rubbed with turmeric paste, and the bride with sue 
o£ the paste as is over. Ou the same day the wrists of the brii 
.and bridegroom are encircled with yellow thread wristlets. TI 
'bride's futher asks the bridegroom and his relations to a meal. Nest-" 
day the bridcgi-oom's father gives a return feast to the bride's party 
and to other caste-people. In the evening the bride and bride- 
groom are bathed in a eurgi or square, and fresh hankans or wristlets, 
each having a betelnutj are tied round their right wrists. They aro 
made to stand facing each other ou a blanket with a curtain between 
them, and are married by a Brahman priest with the same details 
as at a MarAtha marriage. In the evening marriage guests are fed 
at the expense of the bridegroom's father. On the third day the 
bride's father kills two goats in the marriage booth, dresses their 
flesh, and serves it at a caste-feast. On the fourth day the newly 
married couple are asked to dinner by their friends and relations. 
In the evening of the fifth day the varat or return proce8si< 
starts from the bride's to the bridegroom's halting by the way 
the temple of the village god. In this procession the bride ai 
bridegroom, with a network of flowers and a tinsel chaplot on the 
heads, are seated on a horse, and a sheet is held as a canopy over tl 
heads of the married couple, and over the heads of women who wi ' 
behind the horse carrying lamps in their hands. The bride reroail 
at the biidegroom's and returns to her father's next day. Ou the' 
seventh day the bridegroom's father kills two to four goats and 
gives a caste feast. In this feast liquor is always served, any su^ 
which either of the families may have presented to the caste beii 
spent on liquor. With this feast the marriage festivities end. 
a rule, all marriages are preceded by a gondhal dance. Whou 
girl comes of age she is held unclean for five days. On tl 
sixth day she is bathed and joins her husband. Her pregnane) 
is marked by no ceremony ; but she must be brought to bed ioj 
her husband's house. A Ghisadi must not die in his waistclotl 
A dying man is stripped of his waistcloth and is made to put 
short breeches, which aro taken off after death. After death boll 
men and women are bathed and dressed only in n loincTothT T! 
body is laid on its back on the bier and the bier is borne by four mc 
who wear nothing imt short breeches. After the body is burnt tl 
funeral party bathe, return to the house of mourning, sit a whiU 
smoke tobacco, and go homo. For two days the mourners do not' 
cook their food in the house, but are called, to dine and sup 
their friends and relations. On the third day the ashes and bon< 
are gathered and thrown into water ; and an offering of khicfui 
that is rice and split pulse boiled togother and butter, is placed 
the spot where the body was burnt. If a crow touches tlio oflferii 
the deceased person is supposed to have left no wishes uoli 
filled. If crows refuse to eat the offering it is given to mt 
The shoulders of the bier-bearers are rubbed with milk and ch 
butter. The ceremonial impurity lasts ten days. On the elevcnj 
the chief mourner shaves his face except the eyebrows, and, 
company with n priest, offers balls of rice to the soul of the d( 




Ob the twelfth a goat is killed aud eaten in a caste feast. From 
thiH day the mourners are free to eat anything seasoned with sugar 
or mola&aes. But before a marriage or other lucky ceremony is 
ormed in the house, the dead person must be gathered to his 
iRthers b}' having his image added to the number of the house 
A woman ought to die in her husband's honse. Their 
I disputes are settled by some of the elders of the caste, whose 
ions are enforced on pain of excommunication. They do not 
their children to school, or show auy signs of rising from their 
t position. Bhondvis, who were put out of caste by Ghisadis 
breaking some caste rule, wander about selling earthen dolls 
and Ather play-things. They eat from GhisAdis, but Ghis^disdooot 
ea« with them. They do not differ from Gbisadia in appearance, 
ciutom!), or religion. 

Gondhli8,orGondbal-dancers, areretnrnedas numbering 537 and 
M found in small numbers all over the district. They seem to have 
come from the Deccan. They are dark, strong, and of middle height, 
with high noses and thin lips. Their home tongue is Marithi, and 
ti' V- goddess is Tulja-Bhavdni in whose honour they fast on 

»Il lys and Fridays. They are orderly but lazy, most of 

them making a living by dancing the gondhal aud a few by tilling 
land. Their only great ceremonies are putting the shell necklace 
rosod the neck of a novice who is the son of a Gondhli, and 
narriaf^. The shell necklace is put on at a meeting of the castemen, 
and girls are generally married before they come of age. The 
marriage ceremony lasts throe days. Polygamy is allowed, widow 
tnarnage is forbidden, and polyandry is unknown. They are 
IS worshipping all Hindu gods particularly Keddrling and 
iihiir^ni whose images they keep in their houses. They 
local holidays. They perform the Satv6i ceremony on the 
lay after a' birth, name and cradle their children on the 
;ith, and pierce the lobes of their ears when they are twelve 
old. The marriage ceremony consists of rubbing the bride 
bridegroom with turmeric pa.ste, worshipping Ked6,rling 
•ad Tnlja-Bh,iv4ni, repeating verses, and throwing rice on the 
beada of llie boy and girl. They bury their dead, offer them cooked 
rice oo the third day, and feed caato people on the thirteenth. They 
bound together by a strong caste feeling, and settle social 
tea at caste meetings. They do not send their boys to school, 
tako to now pursuits, and are poor. 

Ooca'vls, literally Gottviimis or Passion-lords, are returned aa 
ona>b«ring 39'1. and as found chiefly in Bij&pur. In other parts of 
Ibo district their number is small. Though recruited from 
fclm."at nl! capites, all profess to be KshutriyAs. They rub ashes on 
1, do not pare their nails, and wear the liair dishevelled 
•ries coiled round the head. They wander about begging 
-T places of pilgrimage. They sometimes carry GaugcH 
' ar in Madura and bathe the R/imoshvar livg 
iter Some arc married and settled as husbana- 
I ilress in ochre- coloured robes and a bodice 
Nhort sleeves, and the men iu the drcps of the 



* Wandkrj 


[Bombay Gazetteer, 



kpter III. 




ordinary district cultivator. They worship both Shiv aud Vishnu, 
and carry their images with them. They do not send their children 
to school and they take to no new pursuita. They are badly off" 
and ahow no signs of improving. 

r H!oleda.'8a>rSt or Holia devotees, are returned as numbering 405 
and as found chiefly in BAddmi. They are the aona of Holia women 
who live by begging. These Holia women carry the goddess 
Murgavva in a basket, which has several brass knobs fixed at equal 
distances on its rim and is wrapped all round with a higde or robe. 
They are unman-iod aud live by prostitution, and their sons the Hole- 
d^sars live by begging and marry women of the Holedisar caste. In 
other respects they do not differ from Holies with whom they eat, bnfc 
Holiaa do not marry with thom. 

Jogers are returned as numbering 120. They are a small 
community who are chiefly found in Bdgalkot, in Mutalgiri near 
Bild^mi, iu Indi, and in Bulbutti and Vudvurgi in Muddebih^l. Is 
Bulbatti they hold vai-an or rent-free land. Their home speech ' 
Mardthij but all tradition of how when or why they came from t 
north seems to have died. The names in common use amo 
men are Bhandarin^th^ Dh^rvddinathj DevjinAth, PhangnAth, ai 
Shetiniith j aud among women BhimAi, Phirgai, Shatv^i, and TukAi. 
Men add ndlh or lord to their names and women di or mothe^ 
There have ten kuU or clans, Bdbni, Bhanddri, Chunadi, Hing majJ 
Karakdari, KAsAr^ Madarkar, Parbalkar, Sdli, and Vatkar. T^| 
RIadarkaris tho Patil, the Babni the Kulkarni, the Sdli the Des^| 
and tho Bhauddri the man who collects the members and is tn^ 
general servant of the caste council. As among Kilikets, repre- 
sentatives from every clan most attend all marriages. Each 
these clans belongs to a separate pantli or order out of 
twelve panth^ said to have been founded by the twelve disciples 
Gorakhndth. The twelve orders are Ai, Bardkh, Dliau, GangnAl 
Gopichand, Kamulga, Kanthar, Kapil, Xateshi, Pagal, Pav, a^ 
Shrisatnfithbrahm. All the orders eat together and intermarry, 
marriage iu the same order is not allowed. 

They are like Mardtha Gondhlis, but dirtier aud not so 
fed. They wear the sacred thread and never wear the ling. 
men keep the top-knot and generally let the whiskers grow, 
hair of the head is short. Though poor and dirty, they hi 
nothing of the ropulsiveness of the Fakir or of the wildness of 
Plidnsepardhi. Though pure they generally live outside villages h^ 
small thatched stone houses, like the houses of Gondhlis and 
Budbudkers. They are moderate eaters and poor cooks, the staple 
food being millet, pulse, and vegetables. They do not know ms 
dishes. They keep only one holiday, Mdrjutvmi the day bef 
Daaara in September-October when they ofifor goat's flesh and wh< 
cakes to Jotiba. They eat fish, fowl9,hare, deer, and goats. They 
liquor and take hemp and opium especially on holidays. Men drei^ 
in the headscarf, waistcloth, jacket, and shouldercloth ; and wonMO 
in the robe and short-sleeved bodice with a back. They wander 
ihroai^fa the district selling combs and needles and beggii^ 
••peguUly 9lotU from tho dt Tote«« of Jotiba. The Ratuagiri Joti) 

eir great god, and they are his chief disciples. A Joger when 
Beta out on a round of visits pats on a waistcloth, an ordinary 
CMt, a necklace or nmni, and a Baffron-colonred turban. In liis 
ears are a pair of plain silvrer earrings called mndrds; and he 
carries with him the iron trident of Jotiba called triahul and the; 
two balvee of a gourd or bhopla called pdtnie. He beats a small 
dram and blows on a doer-horn whistle. When asked into a house 
ta which there is a Jotiba, he says Bdl aaniosh Bless the children. 
fie reverently lays down the fdirds or half gourds, and sets up the 
bidetit, and the people of the house worship them and the silver 
earringa in the Joger's ears. They are a poor illiterate people 
hot bannless. They give the police no trouble, and seem to 
enjoy their life poor though it is. Though they say that Marathas 
cal with them, they rank below Mardthaa and Dhaugars and above 
Yadars and Korvis. Their great god is Jotiba. They are married 
by Br4hmaas and their other ceremonies are conducted by a 
Ju&onhdta Bairttgi. They do not go on pilgrimage and keep only a 
fflfW tajsts and feasts. In the first five days of the Navrdtra in Ashvtn 
or September-October one man of each family fasts. They have a 
rrfigiotts teacher of their own caste, who lives a single life. He lives 
tin the offerings made by his disciples and names his favourite pupil 
to 80ccc«d to his authority after his death. They believe in sooth- 
mjing and astrology; but profess no faith in witchcraft. They live 
in Ininiing gronuds and other places hauuted by ghosts. When 
in is brought to bed she is fed for twelve days on boiled rice 
iiu^i v.>a.rified batter. By the end of the twelve days she begins to 
more about and attend to her house duties. They have no Satv4i 
vrcrahip, and the child is cradled and named on the twelfth day 
when cajste people are asked to dinner and are served with five sorts 
of grain cooked and spiced and called uaal. Girls are betrothed at 
•o early age, but are married at any time as there is no rule that a 
girl should be married before she comes of age. Widow marriage 
and polygamy are allowed and practised, and polyandry is unknown. 
In a betrothal no presents are made either to the girl or to the boy. 
Some caste people are called and in their presence the girl's father 
MJTd that he has agreed to give his daughter in marriage, betel is 
served, and the caste-people retire. A marriage lasts four days. On 
^e 6nt day the bridegroom comes to the bride's house, where both 
of Ihera are nibbed with turmeric paste. On the second a caste feast 
m by the boy's father. The third day is occupied by a caste 
given by the girl's father and by the marriage ceremony. 
boy and girl are clothed in their marriage dresses and are made 
etftud in the marriage booth facing each other in two baskets 
containing millet. Between them, a Brdhman priest holds a curtain 
with a ceotrai turmeric cross, recites marriage verses, and drops 
grain!* of rice on the pair. While the rice-throwing and the 
vei»e-ropeatiijg go on four manied women take their positions at 
the comers or a aqnare of which the brido and bridegroom are the 
eaotre. Each holds up the second linger of her right hand and a thread 
it p«Me<i five time« round the fingers. When the verse-repeating 
and the rice>throwing is over the five- stranded string is cut in two. 
One jMvrt, tied with a bit of turmeric root, is fastened to the right 




fBombay Oasett 



Lpter III. 






wrist of the bridegroom aud the other part to the left wrist of tl 
bride. After this a burnt-offoring is made. On the fourth day ' 
BrAhman fills the bride'a lap and she and the bridegroom ride 
state to the temple of the village Mdiniti, break a cocoanut, and 
J to the bridegroom's. When a girl comes of age no ceremony 
observed, for girls are generally not married until they have coi 
of age. The dead are buried sitting in a shelf hollowed out on oi 
side of the grave ; and food is taken to the grave and given _ 
crows on the third day. On the twelfth day friends and relations 
are feasted on mutton and cakes. Within the first month the spiri^ 
of the dead is worshipped in the form of an image and placed in tl 
house-shrine, and every year a mind-feast is held. Caste disput 
are settled by the Madarkar or headman and the Sali or Des 
They do not send their children to school, and show no signs of chan| 
ing their mode of hfo. 

Kaika'dis are returned, as numbering 601 and as found in 
numbers all over the district. Their home tongue ia Kiinarese. a: 
their family goddess is Yallamma. The men wear the topknot and tl 
moustache, and the women tie their hair in a buck knot without usiiji 
false hair or flowers. They live in one-storeyed houses with walla a: 
terraced roofs of mud. Most make baskets of dry wild date leaves 
some cultivate. They are dirty and have a bad name as robbers 
house breakers. Their ordinary diet is millet bread and vegetabl 
but they eat fish, and flesh except beef and pork, and drink liqu 
They are badly off and have a low social position ranking next 
Mhaxs. The men roll a piece of cloth round the waist and anotl 
round the head, and wear a third drawn over the shoulders, 
worship all Hindu gods and goddesses as well as Muhammadan sa 
j/ or pirs. They consult Brdhmans in naming their children and to 
tLe time for marriage, but do not employ them to conduct the ce 
mony. Marriage proposals come from the boy's side. After marri 
the boy is bound to live and work in liis father-in-law's house 
he has three children. Should he leave his wife of his own 
and with her consent he has to make an allowance to his 
parents. The bride and bridegroom are rubbed with turmeric 
paste in their own houses and caste-feasts are given. After tlad 
the bridegroom comes to the bride's house with friends and relatiolH 
On his arrival the parents of the girl tie the hem of the girl's roM^ 
to the skirt of the bridegroom's waist^loth and they are husband and 
wife. Kaikddis have no hereditary headman. Their social disputes 
are settled by caste councils. They do not send their boys 
school or take to new pursuits. 

KiliketS, or Katbus, are returned as numbering 374, and as foi 
here and there all over the district, and in considerable numbersl 
Biiddmi. They are of the fonr wandering tri bes of the Bomi^ 
Kdrn^tak who fredy intermar ry, Bagdis. Budbudkers. Gondhu^ 
and Kilikets. The last three lire found in BijApur but the Bs 
hardly ever go so far east. The Kilikets are locally called 
Tbey appear to have long belonged to the district as th^ 
no tradition of having moved from any other country. 

oldest paper that has been found in their possession is a deed or 
nad dated the month Kdrfik or October- November of 930 Fasli, 
Ihst is A. P- 1520 in the roign of the second king of BijApur. They 
cbum descent from a Kahatriya, who is said to have followed 
the P^davs in their wanderings in the forest after the loss! 
of their kingdom. The names in common use among men are 
Bapa, Bkima, Uaibati, Hanmanta, Rdma, T^manna, and Yallappa; 
aad among women Bhjmavva, Jekavva, Lakkawa, Lakshmavvaj and 
Yallarra. The tribe is divided into thirteen clans, out of which 
Uie first ten hold tribal oflBces. The clans are the Ganich6ris, the 

Chapter 11 


or office names are their surnames. This tribe organiza tion is said 

to have been the work of one Hanma ntrfiv.Nar8ing of H^veli in Po ona. 

Be became the headman of the tribe ahdcalled himself Sar-Gan&ch&ri ', 

tha offico of Ganichdri is hereditary in his family. He was joined by 

one Shivichari who brought with him one Neknir Pdtil, who was 

gtren the office of Kattimani. The Patil was joined by a Gondhli 

of MAhergad who was given the title of Pdchangi or BhandAri. 

Tlie Gondhli brought over to their side one Shindya, who was made 

HalmAni. He was joined by one Salva, who afterwards became 

Hog»lavike. Lastlys the Sdsniks and Mohrias joined them. Shingdn 

and Dhravs have joined them within the last ten or twenty years, and 

knre been made HarkAris and Mattimanis. The Vakudas, Dorkara, 

and Dhumalkars have joined within the last ten years. The tribe ia 

being largely recruited from Budbudkers. A representative from 

Mcb of these clans must attend at every Kiliket marriage, and each 

hhB certain functions assigned him in the ceremony. The Dhruv 

or Mattimani brings all the wheat rice and other stores ihat may be 

reqnirod ; the Shingan or HarkAri bids the guests to the wedding ; 

the Ganichiri must give the order for the marriage and throw the 

rice on the happy pair ; the Shivdchari draws the cross called 

Handi on the curtain and holds it between the bride and bridpgroom ; 

the Salva proclaims aloud the names of the god and the ancestry of 

bride and bridegroom; the Shindya or Halmani spreads a 

oketfor the couple j the S^nik strews rice on it; the Neknar or 

Knttimani ties the hems of the married couple's clothes into a knot ; 

and the P6changi does five things, he makes a serpent of earth on 

ydg-panehmi in July-August, distributes provisions equally among 

his castemen, takes 18*. (Rs. 9) from the bridegroom, spends 2a. 

{Ht. 1) in betel leaves and nuts, and distributes the remaining sura 

canally among his caste-people, and lastly prepares fire for smoking 

toMCCo at caste meetings. 

If any one of these oflBce-bearers refuse to attend the Kilikets 
ara put to grave inconvenience. Many years ago the MohriAs, 
ivlioae bosinebs it was to wave peacock feathers at the marriage, 
nlnaed to perform their ofiRce. They were put out of casta and 
marriagoB have aiijoe been performed without the help of peacock 
ffwthers. At present their elaborate caste system is threatened by 
a Tery senoaa danger. Each representative of the nine claus^ not 

'"■^' ""*^' 

[Bombay QaMttMri 



tpter III. 



includiug the schismatic Mohria^ has not Dnlj hia duties bat 
privileges. He is entitled to a certain number of betel leaves aac 
nuts. The Dhruv and Shingin get only one, the Sasnik an( 
Shindya get two, the Silva gets two and a i a. (f'i.), and tU^ 
I Pachdngi^ Neknar and Shivdclidri get four each. How many th| 
Gan^hari should get forms at present the subject of a grav^ 
dispute. The Sar Ganiichdri says five, but some Pachdngis all 
Bd^dmi, Shindy4s at ManglAr, and Nekuars at KutApur say No, 
not five fortho Ganachdri,ono for the god and four for the Gandchdri^ 
Unless they agree to give him five betelnuts the Sar Ganachai 
refuses to attend marriageSj and if it were not for a division ii 
the Ganaoh^i camp, matters would be at a deadlock. Certaii 
GanAchiris hold that their head is wrong in demanding five betel 
nuts, and attend marriages where they receive only four. Tl 
dispute has been going on for years, and ib about to be taken int 
the Bdgalkot civil court. As a rule they are tall and well-builtj 
and though not so fair as Gujarat BhAta are much fairer thi 
Dhangars or Bedars. The moustache is worn, but the beard or 
whiskers apparently never. The hair is short; but in fulfilment of 
a vow persons may occasionally be seen whose hair has never been 
cut. Even when worn long the hair is not coiled like a Bair^gi'a 
but gathered under a turban. The Kilikets never have the wild look 
of a Kathkari or a Garodi. Though all speak Kdnarese, the home 
tongue is a dialect of Marathi mixed with many Kinarcse words aa 
i/ish for bash I eat ; vartun dila for likun dila gave in writing ; 
and apni for huhim order ; engydni and gandgxjdni are their peculiar 
terms for bride's and bridegroom's parties. They are a wandering 
tribe and never own stone houses. They live outside village* 
in little reed cabina like Vadars or Kolh6.ti8. These fiimsy little 
huta are water-tight, and the Kilikets live happily in them 
through the i-ains. The huts are so small that there is scarcelj 
room to stand upright, and, in obedience to custom, they are mov€ 
from place to place at the end of erery third month. Sometimes tl 
rule is not kept and instead of moving the hut the fireplace ia move 
from one corner of the hut to another. A few cooking vessels, 
grindstone, some clothes, and the show-box of pictures constitat 
the furniture; the livestock generally includes a goat or two, a fei 
hens, perhaps a buffalo or cow, and a number of dogs which 
used to pull down wild pig before the Kiliket finishes them with 
bis axe and bludgeon. On pig's flesh, fish, and the grain the 
villagers give him, the Kiliket lives very comfortably. His dress 
is always very decent, a headscarf, a waistcloth, and a shoalderclotk 
The married of both sexes generally wear a necklace of glass 
beads, and the men often rub their cheeks with red earth. The 
women wear the ordinary robe without passing the skirt back 
between the feet and a bodice with short sleeves and a back. Their 
persons and huts are clean and their name for honesty is good 
Their calling ia peculiar. The men fish with nets, and in the eveuisf 
show, before a light, transparent pictures painted in brilliant coloui 
on skin, representing Lakshman, Ramchandra, Sitdbdi, Hanums 
RAvan, and many other heroes and gods, the character of the 
closely resembling that of the Chitrakathis or picture-showe 

north Konkan and Deccau. South of the Krishna where 
aud undergrowth ahoimd, the men are paid iu grain by the 
ra to destroy wild piga which do great damage to tlie crops. 
The women's chief occupation is tattooing. lb often pays a Kiliket 
to have two wives; for while one is managing the house, the*. 
other is earning grain in the village by tattooing the arms of 
the farinors* wives. The Kilikets have probably changed little^ 
Mther in social position or othenvise, during the last two or three 
onlariee. The Ganacharia still hold rent-free or iiuivi lands in 
fiftgalkot, Bi,dami, and Hnnguud, though they do not till them 
«ri(h their own hands. The Arms Act and the Forest Act, by 
breeding pig and seizing guns, have increased the importance 
of the Kilikets' services. They are a contented class, their 
eAraings meeting all their wants. Kilikets have nothing to do 
with BrAhmans. They conduct their marriages themselves. Theirjl / 
two leading diviniticB are Mahddev and Durgavva. Mahadev is V 
tmd to be found only in the house of the head of the Ganaicharis, 
but many have Durgavva in their sheds and worship her themselves, 
lliose who have no image of Durgavva, on her great day, a Tuesday 
mboot Mdtfh full-moon in January- February, make an image of meal 
■ad worship it. They do not keep the sweot basil plant or worship it. 
They worship their leather pictures and ofiFer them polis or sugar rolly- 
tfUmonOnnetih-chatxirthi ihQ bright fourth oi Bhddrapad or August- 
Bflptembor. During the first month after death, on any convenient 
day, the chief mourner kills a goat in honour of his house-gods, and 
% brass image representing the dead is added to gods. They 
keep aUi leading Hindu fasts and feasts, and a few sometimes 
DsaV ' 'rimages to Parasgad in Belgaum and to Pandharpnr 

in '[". Their priests are Gan^hdris aud the head Ganichari 

18 tlj«ir spiritual teacher. They profess to have no faith in 
•oothsaying, and to have no relations with exorcists. When a 
Ktiliket is possessed by a ghost, he or she is made to sleep near 
the show-box for three or four days, aud this scares the ghost away. 
They rank below Kabligers aud above Vadars and Korvis from whom 
they do not eat. A birth costs them ^s. to £1 (Rs. 2 - 10). After 
birth a child is washed in warm water, and its mother is bathed, 
and laid on a bedstead under which a chafing dish is set. The mother 
it ffivcn dry cocoa- kernel, molasses, dry dates, dry ginger, and 
ganic pounded together, and, for the first five days, is fed on boiled 
rioo and wheat-dour boiled dry. In the evening of the fifth day a 

Sit i» sacrificed to the goddess Satv^i, and the caste-people are 
hUhI on itB fleah. During the first five days, at the time of 
balhintr, the mother's hair is moistened with clarified butter, and on 
the ev ' the fifth day the mid%vifo is given a bodiceoloth. 

Oo lh> i.'iy tho mother's clothes are washed, her uuclennneaa 

is orer, and she ie allowed to move about the house. On the 
jewi.r,ri> -.^rne married women put the child in a wide-mouthed bag 
cr. i, and name it. The women are given a mixture of five 

kmiiB u! grain boiled whole. The child's hair is cut withiji the 
fint threo months by its maternal uncle. The uncle showers some 
dty dnios on the h«sad of the child, first goes through the form of 
ouUiog the hair with a pair of leaf scissors, and then cuts it with a pair 

Chapter I 






Ifiombay Oasett 






of iron scissors. TLe dry dates as they drop from the child's head 
are picked up by other cliildren. Girls are maiTied at any time; 
there is no rule that they ehould be married before they come of age. 
The whole cost of marriage is borne by the boy's father. The offfl 
^Jomes from the boy's parents who spend £2 IOjj. to £5 (Ra.25-5f 
on the marriage. At the engagement the boy's father puts gls 
bangles worth about 2d, (1 J a.) on the girl's wrists, and places 
(Rs. 2) in her hands to meet the expense of a feast given to peraoi 
present at the ceremony. Shortly after the boy's father goes 
the girl's house for the betrothal or hdshtagi in which he pays 1( 
(Rs. 5) to the girl's father who feasts him. On the day before tl 
day fixed for the beginning of the marriage ceremonies the boy'I 
father goes to the girl's village and feasts his caste-people on wheat- 
cake and mutton. Next day a marriage booth is raised and wheat, 
a goat, rice, robes, a bodicecloth, dry cocoa-kernel, and betelnats are 
carried to the girl's house by the boy's father. The bride and bride- 
groom are rubbed with tarmeric paste and bathed in warm water, and ' 
the day ends with a caste-feast given jointly by the two fathers, 
the third day the Pachtlngi or Bhandari receives 18s. (Rs. 9) from t\ 
boy's father and spends 2«. (lie. 1) in distributing betel leaves to tl 
gut;sts. The bride and bridegroom are dressed and the bridegrooi 
is made to stand outside of the marriage booth while the bride stan< 
in the booth. The ShivSchari holds the curtain with a centr 
turmeric cross between the bride and bridegroom, and rice 
handed to the guests. The Silva proclaims aloud the names of tl 
god and the ancestry of the bride and bridegroom, the curtain 
removed, the bride gives a packet of betel to the bridegroom, at 
the Neknar ties the hems of the couple's clothes into a knot. Tl 
Shindya spreads a blanket for the couple, and the Sasnik strews ri< 
on it. When the couple have sat on the blanket, the Ganacl 
ties a tinsel chaplet to the bridegroom's brow, adorns the bride 
head with a network of Sowers, encircles their right wrists wit 
kankana or wristlets in which pieces of turmeric are tied, 
throws grains of rice on their heads. After the Gan4chdri, the oth« 
caste office-bearers, each in the order of his rank, throws grains 
rice, and lastly the guests shower rice. The bride's father feasj 
bis caste-peoplo on polls or sugar rolly-polies and boiled rice. ~ 
the fifth day the bride and bridegroom go on foot iu procesaic 
to worship a god and the girl's father gives a caste-feast. On tl 
sixth day the bride and bridegroom are made to sit on a blank^ 
and to mention each other's names ; and the bride is handed by h( 
mother to her mother-in-law. The seventh day is marked by 
ceremony. Ou the eighth the booth is taken down, the friends ai 
relations of each party are treated to a dinner of polU or suj^ 
rolly-polies, and the house -entering ceremony is perforou 
Ou the ninth day the guests return to their homes. Widows 
allowed to marry, polygamy is practised, and polyandry is unknoi 
When a girl comes of age she is made to sit by herself for five 
and is bathed on the sixth by a woman who is given a bodiceelot 
The phaMiobhan or marriage consummation is held on any d( 
between the sixth and the sixteenth. Her husband gives her 
robe and a bodice, and 4*. (Rs. 2) to the persons who are pr 


la the fifth or sefventh month of her pregnancy her mother presents 
her with a green bodice. The dead are buried in a grave like a 
Liagi&ymt grave and they spend 8*. to ',£1 (Rs. 4-10) on the 
fnneml rites. When a Kiliket dies, the body is washed with warm 
wmter and dressed, and if it is a married woman the hair is decked 
with a network of flowers. If the dead was married the body is 
k»p4 is a siyiing^ position by a string fastened to a peg driven in the 
wmI ; i£ unmarried the body is laid on its back. So long as the 
body remains in the bouBe, it is covered with garlands and bouquets 
of Howers, and with rod and scented powders. It is carried to 
the burial ground in a worn-out blanket and is buried sitting if 
married and lying if singlei When the burial is over the funeral 
pftitj bathe and return to the house of monrningj throw blades of 
durva grass in a pot filled with water which is placed on the spot 
where the dead person breathed his last, smoke tobacco, and go 
bome. The mourners do not dine at home. Their friends and 
relations ask them to eat a meal of bread and chatni or relish. 
On the third day the mourners go to the burial ground and lay two 
offerings, one on the stone which was placed on the top of the grave 
and the other twenty-four feet from the grave. These offerings 
are of millet grit mixed with molasses and oil, each worth a 
It. and laid on two leaves. They stand far off in case they may 
hten the crows. If the crows eat the offering it is well, the dead 
left no wish unfulfilled ; if the crows refuse to eat the mourners 
to the dead. If even then the crows do not eat they give the 
ngs to a cow. The mourners bathe, return home, and ask the 
foor pers'jns who carried the body to a meal. On the eleventh 
da? the house is washed with cowdung, the clothes are washed, 
aaa a caste feast is giveo. Before a month is over an image of the 
decooaed is made, ib is placed among the house gods, and the casta 
if fieaated. As is the case with several other castes, the bodies of 
nregoaiit women are burnt, it is said, to prevent the Grarudis digging 
uem op and using their bones as charms. The Kilikots are 
Ifcoirod (ogether by a strong caste feeling. At the same time they 
want some central authority or referee to settle disputes. Tho 
KekntUra are called Pdtils or Kattimanis, but tho Gandchflris seem 
to bo the leading clan. Their name comes first in tho list, it is they 
who perform the dik^ih or purifying ceremony on persons read- 
mitted into caste, they play the leading part at marriages, and are 
then presented with a turban and coat. Every member of tho 
oommimity ia obliged to share his earnings equiUly among all his 
oaite-poopte. A hunter must divide his game with all of his coste- 
people ; when a fisherman catches the dndhali or big blind fish he 
most «haru it with the caste". At the same time he is allowed to 
keep auv money he may make by the sale of the fish. A few 
aena their boys and girls to school, keeping boys at school till they 
ar» foortoon and girls tiU they are ten. They take to no new 
puniiita. They are a contented class and averse from change. 

K'"r<^'her8 are returned as numbering twenty-nine of 
wl at two in Indi are found in Bidimi They closely 

roscinbic vbo Korvis. Their home tongue is TamiJ.theirfamily goddess 
»fJ7— *8 


[Bombay <^uet 



iptCT in 




is Dnrgamma, and tliey live in small dirty flat-roofed mnd honaog. 
Their staple food is Indian millet bread pulse and vegetables, 
they eat the flesh of ahoep goat fowls game and fish, and drii ' 
both country and foreign spiritB. The men wear a headscarf, 
• short coat, a waistcoat, a waistclotb, and a shouldercloth. Tl 
women wear a short-sleeved and backed bodice and a robe withont 
passing the skirt back between the feet. They rank with Mai'dth^ 
with whom they oat but do not marry. They are hardworking, bt 
dishonest given to drink and thriftless. Some are day labourex 
and some hunters, and the women add to the family income 
tattooing. As a class they are very poor. They worship 
Brdhmanic gods and keep the leading Hindu holidays. Th< 
respect and employ Br^hmans. Widow marriage and polygamy ai 
practised and polyandry is unknown. They bury their dead. Thai 
social disputes are decided by meetings of adult castemen, but th€ 
neither send their children to school nor take to new pursuits. 

Korvis are returned as numbering 4916 and as found 
over the district in pretty large numbers. They speak Arvi or Tami 
Some of their peculiar words are tentii for water, ra for comii 
and ho for going. The names in common use among men at 
Bdlya, Bhimya, Hanma, Malla, Satya, Shivya, and Yallya; ai 
among women, Bdlawa, Bhimawa, Hanmawa, Mallavva, Satya'ii 
and Yallava. They have no sarnames but place names. They at 
divided into six classes, Ghante Chors, Kaikadi Korvis, Kun(" 
Korvis, Patrad Korvis, SanAdi Korvis, and Suli Korvis. Sulis ar 
P4trads do not occur in BijApur. Of the Sulis nothing is kno\ 
except that their women are prostitutes. The Patrada are dance 
and singers and live at Vyankatgiri in North Arkot. Tho KaT 
Korvis or Ghante Chors are happily rare, for they are a set ol, 
incorrigible thieves. The Kanchi or Brush-making Korvis are al 
wanderers, and very scarce. They live in little reed huts clc 
outside of the village, and live by catching game, begging, at 
making kunchis or weavers' brushes whose price varies from 
to 10s. (Rs. 1^-5). They are a poor people but are not given 
stealing. The Kaikadi Korvis are also rare. Though genei 
settled in villages they are somewhat wild-looking, and live 
begging, labounng, and plaiting cotton-stem baskets. The ordina^ 
Korvi of the district is the Sanddi Korvi who takes his name from tl 
clarion or sanai which he blows. He is found in all large villt 
following his special calling of blowing the sanai or clarion, 
marrii^e and religious processions. The San^di Korvis are 
settled peaceably in villages. They eat with Kaikadi Korvia ai 
marry with Kunchi Korvis. They are small, black, and poor, W 
fairly clean, with short cut hair, and are not wild-looking. Thi 
live in small thatched huts just outside of the village. Their Bta; 
food is millet broad, husked millet grains boiled soft and eat 
with or without whey, vegetables, and split-pulse sauce. Thi 
holiday dishes are the same as those of the ordinary people of 
district. They eat the flesh of the pig, but not of the cow. The 
who wear the sandal brow lines or nam do not eat flesh 
SaturdayR in honour of MiXruti ; many of them do not eat flesb 



tdavSj and on Tlmradays out of regard to the Pir Haji Saheb of 
Tikot in Bijdpur, tioue of them eat any flesh which baa not been 
puntied by tho Ma:4Hlma.n blessing. They drink liquor generally 
in the evening. The men wear a shoal Jercloth with a thin coloured 
border cast looacly round tho body, a pair of kuee-breecht?8, a jacket^ • 
and a turban or headscurf . The women wear the hair in a knot at * 
ihfi back of the head and dress in the fail Mar^tha I'obo without 
pMBing the skirt back between tho feet and a bodice with a back 
an' " sleeves. All married women mark their brows with 

T'.. . woar glass bangles, and the mangalantra or lucky 

Docklace. Both men and women have a few brass and silver 
ornaments worth 6a. to £-4 (Rs. 3-40). Thoy are respectable 
people, living by selling firewood and grass, plaiting baskets and 
ooim-bmsof cotton stems, ^Ai'/j^ils or grass slings for hanging pots 
oootainicg food and drink, and date matting. Their characteristic 
calliag is playing tho nayuti or clarion. Some of them have little 
plotB of land which they cultivate. The women mind the house and 
odp the men. 'ITio men cut the cotton stems into fine splints fit for 
plaiting and the women plait them into baskets and corn-bins and 
tdl them. When there is only one woman in a honse her husband 
•Oaieiitnes helps her in plaiting but never in selling. The women 
aloue make the grass slings and the brooms. A man and a woman 
tojfeihor in six days make a corn-bin which holds one khandi of 
frvt^ bnndrodweight and sell it for 2*. (Re. 1), and twelve baskets 
en h l^d. (I a.). A musician's day's income varies from 

\i. [Re. J - 1). Besides their regular wages they sometimes 

receive gifts from Jagirddrs and other rich persons, to the amount 
of £2 10*. to £3 {Rs. 25 -30). Some of them are in debt but as a 
daaw the SaniUli Korvis are fairly off. They have a better social 
petition than Nhavis, Borads, Jingars, Buruds, MbarSj Mdngs, 
Cbnnihb'1r>«, or Dhors, and esit with none of theseclasses. They freely 
err tod by people of the higber castes. Men women and 

chi from morning to evening. They are busy during tho 

••i;ht dry months, bnt somewhat idle during the rainy season. 
Tt...,- Mill V holiday is Ndgpanchami or the Cobra's Fifth in July- 
t, when they rest for three days. 

ei to £2 10.9, (Rs, 10 - 25) to build, and theii- house 
t.h 8s. to £3 (Rs. 4-30). A birth costs Is. to 4«. 
{H». 4-2;, a marriage £3 to £5 (Rs. 30-50), and a death 2«. 6d. to 
3, rn.. ' S -1 i). They are religions. Their family deities are Maruti, 
K i:v, Muleva, and Yallamma. They are specially devoted 

to . On Satuniay, which is sacred to Mdruti, they plaster 

tli>- it .*,. I n».a with cowdung, and the women bathe before they prepare 
the io{.<*l. All men of the coste bathe and some of them worship 
MlLruti on thoir way home fx-om the river or pond where they have 
gone to batho. Thoy bow before Mriruti at a distance, but do not 
loach him. At the «ame time thoy mark their brows with 
tbo Mhvm from the incense-bumcr and put a little into their 
moofchs aa a ura^d or god gift. On reaching home some of 
ikeo worship tfioir hnuse grtds in their wet waistcloth ; while 
(•then cbaogc ihuir waistcloth before worshipping. They make 

Chapter 1 





[Bombay GftTfitteer. 






pilgrimages to the shrine of Mdroti at Kalloli, and to several 
MAruti shrineSjandtothe shrine of Yallammaat Parasgad in Belgaui 
They keep almost all important Hindu holidays j but observe 
fasts. They worship village and local deities when they make vows 
, them ; and are said to avoid demon worship. They respect Brtihmat 
• but do not call them to conduct any ceremony. They have no priest 
Every year each man pavs 2«. (Re, 1} to a fund, which is given to tl 
Oahtam priest of Kallolyfippa who comes to visit them. They st 
that they have a Brdhman teacher ; but they do not know where bl 
lives and have not seen him for years. They have faithin witchcraft 
and soothsaying and occasionally call in exorcists and soothsayers. 
Soon after its birth a child is washed and the mother is bathed and 
both are laid on a bedstead. During the first five days the motht 
is given dry cocoa-kernel and molasses to chew and is fed with ric 
and clarified butter. On the fifth day the whole house togethfl 
with the lying-in room is plastered with cowdung, and frienc" 
and relations are asked to a feast of sugar rolly-polies. Tl 
midwife bathes the mother and child. In the evening si 
worships the goddess Jivati, and takes to her house the wave-lar 
used in the worship, under cover, lest any one should see 
and the mother and child sicken. On the tiyelfth day the cl 
is laid in a cradle and named, and a feast, of which tlesh must foi 
part, is given to friends and relatives. When the hair of a chi 
is to be cut for the first time, it is cut before the goddess 
Shatikawa. At the time of worshipping this goddess they set a stoi 
near the root of an evergreen tree, and worship it with turmei _ 
and redpowder, offering rice, and the dressed flesh of a goat. They 
Bay that if a pregnant woman worships this goddess, she and hor chilc^ 
will not suffer from any illness. In a marriage engagement ceremoi] 
the boy^s father marks the brow of the girl who is seated oai 
blanket, and gives her a robe and a bodice, fills her lap with fit 
halves of dry cocoa-kernel, five dry dates, five betelnuts, and fii 
plantains together with red rice. The boy's father lays two poan^ 
of sugar before the girl's house-gods and distributes bet 
The boy's father gives KM. (Rs. 5) to the girl's father at 
mother J and they in return feast him aud his relations on boil 
rice and sapag hadbiis that is steamed balls of dough eaten 
molasses. The girl's father Bometimee makes the boy's fail 
promise to give him two of his son's daughters or to pay a sum 
money as their price. Half of this sum is given to the girl's 
maternal uncle. Their marriages take place on Mondays. Ox 
Friday before the marriage Monday, the relations of the bride 
turmeric powder and oil to the bridegroom's and the boy's relatit 
take turn^eric powder and oil to the girl's. Till Monday the fatht 
of the bride and bridegroom feast their friends and relations at 
their own houses and on Monday the bridegroom's father leads i]^ 
bridegroom to the bride's, where he is seated to the bride's right ^| 
a blanket covered with rice. Kankans or thread-wristleta are tiea^ 
round the right wrists of the bride and bridegroom; and the skirts oL| 
their garments are tied together. TTie guests throw grains of rice i. 
their heads, the viangalsutra or lucky thread is tied round the brid< 



, and feast on polis or scgar roily- polies and rice. In the eveomg 
vardt or rettim procession starts from the bride's hoose to a 
ti's temple- In front of the procession the bride and bridegroom 
indk, dressea in rich clothes, the bride's head covered with a 
Bekwork of Bowers, friends and relations follow, and the proeeestoo. 
M dosed by women waving lamps. When they enter the front* 
dixir of the temple they stand near it, and the priest wares a piece 
of baming camphor before the deity, breaks a coooannt before 
Inm, tiod gives a piece of cocoa-kernel with a little holy ashes to 
the bride and bridegroom who pat a little in their months as a god- 
gift. When they reach the bridegroom's the lamp-carrying women 
vuve the lamps about the heads of the bride and bridegroom. 
Afkerwards the bride and bridegroom are made to eat from one dish, 
ftad encfa puts five morsels into the other's month. In a marriage, 
both the bride's father and the bridegroom's father give two different 
eaete fenste. Except those who have images of M&rnti in their houses 
Korvis generally bury their dead. On the second day they prepare 
rice, cakee of wheat flonr, molasses, and clarified batter, and place 
Kme of them on four different leavee by the side of the grave. The 
real of the food us eaten by the son and the two bearers who carried 
tiie body to the bnrial ground. On the third day the son has his head 
ud moostaches shaved and the two bearers bathe and are free from 
eei'einonial impurity. The son or other chief mourner remains 
inpare for ten days. On the eleventh friends and relations are 
■Bsed to a feast of rice and mutton. Early and widow marriages 
tre allowed, polygamy is allowed and practised, and polyandry is 
inknown. They are bound together by a strong caste feeling 
and settle social dispates by a council of caste-people. They 
have n'it'Ar« or headmen whose duty it is to settle didpntes, but as 
among the Kabligers the naiks have lost much of their authority. 
Conaraering their position the San^di Korvis show an nnusnal 
wilKsgness to send their children to school. 

Ii&ina US, or Caravan Men, are returned as numbering 5708 and 
as found mostly wandering as carriers and to a small extent settled 
as husband men in different parts of the district They do not keepk 
to fixed traffic routes but move from place to place according to 
Ibe demand for their services in gangs of ten to thirty families, 1 
meluding twenty-five to 150 men women and children. Their I 
••^nvnna as well as their settlemenU are called idndds the Marathi 
So^V bonds. The main lx>dy belongs to the Bukya stock and 
dkbfti a Rajput origin. They seem to have been once settled in 
KfitfpatAna and after that in Gnjar^t. 'Ilieir home tongue, which 
is vocally called Lamdui, has a strong Gnjardti element. The 
oaaies in c/)mmnn use among men are Ddma, Jair4m, Jiva, and 
Ni(m; and among women Dogdi; Ghambli, Hnnki, Jamni, and 
ThabIL Men add the word hka or brother and women hdi or lady 
to tlioir nnmes. They belong to the Amgot, BAbisival, Bh4not,\! 
ChayfU), ' '. Jdtot, Jharbala, Kelut, Khola, Mut, Riithod,! 

Ransoif N ., , find Viahalivat family-stocks, each of which IiabH 

distinct family-deitifs. Their marriage rules do not differ from 
Rajpot marriage nilea. All of those stocks eat together and 
ioiormarry, but iulermarriage is forbidden botweon members of the 



[Bombay Chuet 





Bame clan or of allied clans. Thus Devjiyals are forbiddea to 
marry not ouly with other Uevjivals but also with Ransots, 
Babisivals, and many other clans or kulft, because they are branches 

Vof one stock. Their family god is T^^|4j^ whoso shrine is in 
•Ed^jasthiln. The LamAns may be divided into Laindna proper most 
of whom belong to the Bukya clan of which Babisival, Devjival, and 
Ransot are sub-clans, Mh<tr Lamdns^ and Musalmdu Lamrln 
Lanians proper do not take food either from Mhar or Musalmsii 
Lam^ns, though the Mhiirs and Musalmiins take food prepared b; 
them. Mhar Lamdns generally live at some distance both from thi 
Hindu and the Musalmdn Lamdns. The Musalmans and the Mha 
are said to be the remains of many castes, barbers, washerme 
batchers, and others, who when the can-ying trade was prosperoui 
were drawn to the caravans as the best market for their produc 
or their service. In look Mhar and Musalmau Lamdns do n 
differ from other Mhdrs and Lamanis. As a class the Buky 
or mixed middle-class Hindu Lamdns are above the avera] 
local Kdnarcse Hindu both in height and strength. The men 
wear the hea d_hair long a nd shave t he face except the roo us_tache 

yand ayel^rQwa! Tliey have intelligent faces, well cut feature^ 
and prominent nose and eyea. The marked difference in appea 
ance occasion ally noticeable among the Lamdns, some being t 
and rather fair and others short thick-sot with bushy whisker 
and beard, is due to the fact that men of several castes, and 
oven of different religions, live together in one body. It ia curioui 
that as the Kilikets have kept their Marathi, so Lamdns have kepi 
their Gujardti or a dialect of it, though all know Kdnarese, aa 
^nerally Mardthi and Hindustani. A Lamdn calls his own wi 

J QMu, a Lamdn woman not his wifo iuiidri, and a woman not 
Lamdn pori. Where have you come from in the Lamdn langua] 
is kivieti ayio. They live in bamboo and mat huts or sa<.'kclot 
tents, which they pitch either on river banks or pond border 
where their caravans halt for water. Their oai-avans or idnd< 
aro accompanied by cows, bullocks, and goats. Those who 
cultivators live in small one-storeyed houses with mud or stoni 
walls and thatched roofs without front yards. Their furnitu 
includes a few brass drinking pots and plates and some earthe: 
vessels. They aro great eaters and poor cooks, their pot dish 
being mutton bought from a Muhammadan butcher, for they w 

, not eat flesh unless it has recoived the Musvalmdn blessing, ani 

I wheat bread, cooked rico with curry, wheat cakes stuffed wit! 
boiled pulse and molasses called pHranpolis, and wheat cooked 
milk and sweetened with molasses or khir. They are fond of h 
and sour articles, tamarinds, onions, and gai'lic. Their ordinary diei 
is millet bread, vegetable curry, rhatni or relish, and curds, whey, oi 
clarified butter. They use the flfiah nf gnata at uiarriages and on th 
great days of Shital and Ldkdya in bright Aahadh about the end o! 
June, on the day of the goddess Bhavdui during the Dasara holiday 
and on all other leading holidays when they kill goats and offer them^ 
to the god before oatiog them. They also use the flesh of hare, deer, 
fowls, and fish, and drink all kinds of spirits when they can affi 
them. They never use beef or tame pork. The men have a hoada 



OQ their heads, and a Bhonldercloth on their shoulders, 
coat. Like the K^narcse farmers tbey oft^n wear a 
-breeches instead of a waistclotL, and they almost always 
I *a «tring of copper beads round their waist. They wear gold 
inm ear and finger rings and silver or copper waist girdles,; 
le Bij^par LamAu woraen seem to dress very much like those o£ 
'^the Mardcha country. They wear a coarse petticoat, generally 
gTMo or blue, a coarse open-backed bodice often red and highly 
worked, and a scarf or odni. Their ornaments are peculiar. On 
oUior side of the face hang long pendants of wool and pewter^ 
ling in woollen tassels. These pendanta look as if they wore 
3g», bat they are really fastened to locks of hair. The earrings 
noserings are generally small. On the fingers and thumbs 
often several bra ss ri ngs, and on the arms a number of armlets 
of tnefaal, bone, and^.wool embroidered with shells. On the legs 
are metal anklets some plain and some peaked, rather like a coronet 
wilh cloth bands underneath to protect the legs. On tho band of 
tho petticoat, where it fastens round tho waist, they are fond of 
sewing old regimental buttons. The end of the cloth that comes 
orer the head, and hangs over the breast is often loaded with a 
anmber of small bone rings, and ends in a woollen tassel. In 
bnnging water from a well they put on their heads a cushion from 
vhick hangs a handsome flap highly embroidered and worked with 
Ma. Women may often be noticed with pieces of copper strung ^^ 
''• neck. Each of these pieces is worn during confinement 
le the tribe goddess. They show tho number of children 
Ihat the woman has had. Some of them keep good clothes in store 
lor holiday wear, and they always wear local hand-woven cloth 
jierly from BAgalknt, Guledgudd, and Bdddmi. As a class they i 
Lre iiardworkiug, and thiifty, but prone to robbery and fond of drink. | 
""ley are generally kept under the eye of the police. Before there 
made roads Lamaos nsed to carry the local grain, cotton, and 
)i©ce-goods to the coast, and bring back cocoanuts, cocoanut-oil, 
and salt. The centres of their trade were Pandharpar, Dhdrwiir, 
Shol4pur, Kolhdpnr, Chiplun in Ratn^iri, and Maisur. Since the 
opening of roads some have taken to husbandry, some to unskilled 
labour, and some to domestic service. The women, besides minding 
tho house, help the men in their work. Labourers either work on 
)ubl»o roads, in the fields, or go to waste lands to gather firewood, 
iorue alw) work as carriers and husbandmen using their cattlo for 

H well as for ploughing, tho poorer husbandmen accom- v^ 
iravans as hired drivers. Some of them own lands which . 
^ii'V III! either in person or by labourers. As a class they are poor 
id docUning. They rank below Br^hmaus, Rajputs, and Lingdyats, 
rho look down on Uiem, and above Mhdrs, M6ng8, barbers, washer- 
iiid other low-caste Hindus. They take food cooked only by 
of their own caste. The carriers keep constantly moving 
- >•, ill (heir pack-bullocks at dawn and halting near a river or 
I ' u' (en. On reaching the halting place some of tho men 
ill; -V I ..s in unloading tho bullocks and others in pitching the 
' -;ouu as this is done, some of the men toko the animals 

Chapter 1 




[Bombay Gasett 



lapter III. 

to somo neighbouring pasture or woodland to graze and some stack 
the packs, while the women busy themselves in cooking. When 
dinner is ready, the children feed themselves and ^o to the grazing 
ground to relieve the men. The men dine and rest, and towards 
^evening go out to bring back the bullocks. They sup between 
seven and eight and go to bed soon after supper. They rise about 
three, and after about an hour passed in loading the bullocks and 
packing their tents, they start on the next day's march. During 

/the four rainy months they have little to do. The lives of Lamdn 
husbandmen and labourers do not differ from those of other 
husbandmen and labourers. A family of five spends £1 to £1 10». 
(Rs. 10- 15) a month on food. A birth costs 2«. to £1 \0s. (Rs. 1 - 15), 
a son's marriage 10«. to £5 (Rs. 5-50), a daughter's marriage £1 to 
£2 10*. (Rs. 10-25), and a death 2s. to £1 (Rs. 1-10). They believe 
in soothsaying and ghosts, and respect Brdhmans regarding them 
as Bpiritual teachers, though thoy do not employ them at their 
ceremonies. Their chief god is B Aldji. Next to BAlAji they revero 
Tulja-Bhav<ini, Ambiibfii, Mariamma, Mortal, and HingWj, their 

, inferior deities being Shital and Likdya. The image of Balaji is a 
four-handed figure of a man, and that of Bhavdni and other goddesses 
of a woman. Ldkdya and Shital are rough stones smeared with 
Vermillion powder. They worship Bhavdni on Eoli in February- 
March, on Dasara and Divnli in September-October, and in bright 
AsJiddh or Jnne-July. Their women are often troubled by ghosts. lu 
cases of spirit-possession they burn frankincense before the patien' 
and ask the name of the ghost and why it has come. If the spiri 
refuses to speak, a Brdhman exorcist is employed who tries to drivi 
the spirit away by charms. They believe that the spi 
of the wealthy who die in the prime of Hfe, of misers, of womi 
who leave young children behind them, and of creditors come an 
plague the living. They have a high respect for the Musalmi 
saint Pir Bando Navaz, whose tomb is at Kulbm'ga in the Nizam'i 
country. They worship three and a half goddesses or adde-lin devia 
but never give out the name of the half goddess or reveal anything 
relating to her. Child marriage is not common. Widow marriago 

^ and polygamy are allowed and practised, and polyandry is unknown. 
Girls are generally married about the time when they come of age, 
and boys between eighteen and thirty according to the 
circumstances of the family. The bridegroom's father has to pay 
the bride's father £1 10». to £15 (Rs. 15 - 150). The offer of 
marriage comes from the boy's side. Marriage ceremonies diffi 
among the different classes of Lamdns. In some cases the fath 
of the boy with friends and relations goes to the girl's and set 
with her father the amount to be paid for his daughter in 
presence of four or more respectable castemen. When the price 
fixed the bridegroom's party distribute molasses and liquor, 
part of the amount is paid in cash and a part in bullocks. On 
convenient day fixed by a Brdhman astrologer the boy goes in 
procession at night with hia house-people and guests to tie brido'i 
house where he is received by four or a larger number of men a: 
the bride's father feasts the bridegroom's party on boiled rice 




After tha feast the bride aad bridegroom are led to a 

IfmiBre marked with quartz powder where they stand opposite each 

^oUiar. A Br^hmau who stands close to the square hands coloured 

rice to the guests, the bride and bridegroom stand inside of the 

•oa&re, the guests throw rice over them, and the priest repeats versos. ' 

Ix a BrSihronn ia not available^ the ceremony is performed by an 

ieUarlj Lamdu. When the rice-throwing is over, the bridegroom's 

' Gatker Borves the bride's people with a meal of mutton and bread. 

Tliea the bridegroom returns with the bride to his house. At 

aight he retires to some lonely part of the dwelling and lies on the 

ground with a cocoanut under his head feigning sleep^ while the 

bfide sita in another part of the house near an elderly woman 

^ riuunpooiog her feet. One of her husband's kinswomen walks to 

the OTide and tells her that her husband wants her and guides her 

> the place where he is waiting for her. The husband hands the 

the cocoanut and in return receives his wife. In some 

of LamAns the nuptials are performed by married women of 

te caste, of whom the bride's mother or other nearest kinswoman 

I one. In the bride's house a square is traced with quartz powder 

at each corner is set a large water pot or ghdgar and the bride's 

it winds a thread seven times round the necks of the water 

The bride site on a bag-full of rice in the centre of the 

9. The thread is taken from the necks of the pots and cut 

>, and one part is tied round the bride's neck and the other 

her arm. One of the women splashes water on her and 

her, another rubs her body with turmeric paste, a third takes 

wet clothes and dresses her in fresh clothes, and a fourth 

ikles her brow with rice. They join in lifting her from the bag 

and seat her at a short distance. The bridegroom takes 

BOB and undergoes the same ceremonies. At the end the 

ra mother marks both their backs with a Jain cross in turmeric 

The boy and girl sit together, a tub is set before them, it 

with water and a couple of shells are dropped into it. The 

takes the shells out seven times and again drops them 

ae water. The bride picks out the shells seven times and at 

end of the seventh time keeps thorn. In some families, at 

comer of a parallelogram, several swallowwort or ?iti[ 

ftr6 leant up against each other like piled arms, and bound 

Underneath each clump are placed five water pots and a 

' coin. In the heart of the parallelogram an equal-limbed cross 

a circle round it is drawn with meal ; and in the middle 

;h of the east and west sides of the parallelogram is stuck 

groand a rice pounder or muaai. The bride holds on her 

p^m a cowry shell and a rupee, and the bridegroom, placing 

palm over the bride's and over the cowry shell and rupee, 

her seven times round the two musdh, from west to east. 

tho !>"f""il' turn is ended, the bride and bridegroom sit 

8r in I i-e^Wd oat molasses out of one dish. A new 

ihrea*.! is r>roiight and divided in two. One part ia tied 

the boy's wrist autl the other round the girl's, and their 

"dotliet are marked on the back with turmeric Ttaste. The next day 

paaflBM in games and amusomcntR, one of the chief of which in the 

• •77—27 

Chapter l. 



(Bombay Oaidit 



ipter III, 
jpalation ■ 


picking of cowry shells oat of a basin of water. The bride and 

bridegroom vie with each other, and the guests look ou 

interest as the winner in these trials of luck and skill will prove 

w^nne^ in the battle of life, and will rule the house. On the third i 

I a kinswoman loads the bride to the bridegroom's chamber. Tl 

burn the married and bury the unmarried dead. The unmarr 

dead are buried without ceremony. The married dead is covec 

with a new shroud, tied to a bier, and carried to the burning groi 

on the shoulders of four kinsmen. Before lajring the body on 

bier they drop a little clarified butter and molasses in the mouth i 

tie a copper coin in the folds of the shroud. Half-way to 

burning ground the bearers halt, lower the body, and tearing 

the knotted end of the shroud with the coin, drop the coin on 

ground, change plac-es, and go on. At the burning ground the be 

is laid on the funeral pile and the pyre is lighted by tho chie 

mourner. When the body is burnt, the bones and ashes ar 

gathered and thrown into water, and the funeral party return to tl 

house of mourning. When they roach the house water is poui 

on the ground before them Ou the third day all the mourners 

to the burning ground and cat clarified butter, wheat, and molasses 

near water. Some feed friends with cooked rice and molasses 

their own houses on the twelfth day. Others hold that the ^hiir> 

or February - March holidays is the time for the yearly niind-ril 

for the dead, and, ou those days, either feed crows or go in a body j 

the neighbouring waste land and cook flour into bread and eat 

They also feed a certain number of men to propitiate the dead a| 

make money gifts to Brahman priests. Each caravan hasi 

y h ei-edita »'y Lamdn headman who settles social disputes 

^ punishes breache8^t"CMre rules by rebuke, fine, or loss of caste. 

They are a falling class. Their two callings pack-carrying and fu^ 

gathering are dying and they take to no new pursuits. Perhaps 

class suffered so terribly in the 1876 and 1877 famine as 

Lamdns. The distress in their outlying hamlets at times esca| 

notice till help was too late, and their pride of caste prevented the 

men from taking to the regular labour of the relief works 

prevented the women from attending with their children at 

relief kitchens. In parts of South BijApur the mortality among 

LamJins was extremely heavy. In the treatment of their cluldl 

they showed more than any other caste the heartlossness which g( 

with hopeless misery. 

Vadars, or Earth Diggers, are returned as numbering 11,830 and 
as found in considerable numbers all over the district. Their hoi 
speech supports the general belief that they came from Telangan 
search of work. The names in common use among men are Bill 
Rdma, Tima, and Shetya ; and among women Bayja, Hanm^l 
Ndgamma, and RamAkka. Their cununonest surnames aTQ 
Bayamatkor, Dydranglor, KunchApor, Naidpotor, Palldpor, Pitlj 
Ohalldvar, and ValyApor. Persons with the same surname 
not allowed to intermarry. Difference in calling divides th4 
into Mannu Vadars from the K^nareae ynannu earth, Bhandi Vadd 
from the K&narese hhandi a stone cart, and Ptithrat Vadnrs or gril 
stone.makers, who eat together and intermarry. Their home toBf 



It TBlngQ and many of thoin out o£ doors speak Kdnarese and 
HindastAni. Both men and women are dark and tall and the 
men are inascular. They are a wandering unsettled tnbo, 
livio]? in small hats of bamboo matting and thatched roofe 
on the bordors of towns and larf^o villages. Their house goodsl 
inclade n f^w patched qoilts and blankets, earthen vessels and a few 
taetml ■•■:: pots and dining plates. The Bhandi or Stone- 

OattiDg ^ keep bullocks and buffaloes to draw their hhandi/t 

or stone carts, and sometimes also own cows and she-butTaloes. 
Tlie Bfauuu or Barth Vadars and the Pdthrat or Grindstone Yadars 
oani »B9eB which they lond with earth or grindstones. AH Vadara 
Im*P df>g8 to watch their huts and she-goats for milk. They are 
ir otjokii and are proverbially fond of shaq] and sour dishes. 
ir every-day fix)d is millet bread, split pulse, and wild herbs 
with chillies and eesamum oil. They eat fish and flesh 
iacladiufir rats and swiue but not cattle, drink country liquor, and 
■mokti gunja or hemp flower, and tobacco. Every year on 
Dtuara m September-October, they offer a goat to their house gods, 
md after o&ring its life eat its flesh in company with friends and 
JttfMip^opti.*. They never eat flesh on Friday which is sacred to 
ktesh or on Saturday which is sacred to MAruti. Only on 
liey bathe, worship house-gods, and mark their brows 
Wi from the censer of the village Mdruti. Tho men wear 

ttu .J.— ^tand moustache, and dress in knee-breeches, a woollen 
blanket, and a headscarf. The women wear the hair in a back knot, 
aod dress in a robe hanging from the waist like a petticoat and 
having Uie upper end passed over the head and across the bosom ; 
tlMJ do not wear the bodice. Both men and women have a few 
bruB and silver ornaments. They are honest and hardworking, 
but dirty, thoughtloas, thriftless, and given to drink. Most are 
•toae*breakers and earth- workers, digging wells and ponds and 
breaking roaii-metal. The women do as much work as the men 
cam ntjarly as high wages. They move from place to place 
ing tlie rains where they find work. Their employment is fairly 
A man and woman together earn about Is. (8 a/t.) a day 
whitrh tK cfenerally paid in cash. To dig ten square feet of ground 
Ofi - p the Mannu Vadars charge 9d. to 1#. (6-8 as.). A hand- 

mi.. .-. ^-rinding com sella from Is. to 4». (R8,4-2). Squared 
blocks of Btone for bailding walls are sold at 6«. to lOs. (Rs. 3-5) 
the tbouaaod. Roughly hewn stones are sold at 10«. to 16^. (Rs. 5 -8) 
tba bandred, the rate depending chiefly on the distance from which 
the «loa«8 are brought. They work as field-labourers and often 
contracts with tho owner of a Held to finish certain work for 
rtain sum of money in a given time. When the bargain is made 
n-.nniMi and children fall on the work and do not rest till it 
In spite of their regular and well paid work their want 
r»f ■ i forethought keeps them poor. They rank above the 

iii I . , cvnd are touched by Brdhinaos and other high class 

MumIu* whu place them between husbandmen and the impure 
•(■MBa. They do uot eat from Nhivis or barbers and Dhobis or 
WMiurauMD. Except the grindstone-mokers who hawk griedstoues 
all djiv l«jutf-. they work from morniue to noun They rise early. 



Chapter I 


* Wamdi 

(Bombay OttettMr. 


Chapter III. 



El W 

breakfast on the remaioB of the last evening's supper, and go to 
from which they i"eturn at twelve. A family of five spends tl 
£1 4s. (Rs. 10-12) a month on food and dress. A pair of buUoc 
costs £1 10*. to £2 (Rs. 15-20) a month to keep. A birth cosU 
:to £1 (Rs. 2-10), a boy's marriage £1 to £30 (Rs. 10-300), a 
marriage 8a. to £2 \0s. (Rs.4-25), and a death 10«. to 
(Rs. 5-50). They are Br4hmanical Hindus, and their family deif 
are Murgavva, N4gamma, Shri VyankteSh, and Yallamma. Theyl 
specially devoted to Shri Vyauktesh, in whose honour they 
a feast every third or fourth year, on which they spend £30 to 
(Rs. 300-400) which is raised by subscription. On lucky 
a stone image of Shn Vyanktesh is carried in procession from 
village and set on the edge of a pond or on the bank of a stream, j 
Brahman priest washes the image, marks it with sandal-paate, prei 
grains of rice on the paste, and puts flowers on the inxage. 
Vadars then make an offering of cooked rice, potis or sugar rollj^ 
polies, and husked wheat boiled in milk and sugar. The Brahman 
priest who helps at the worship is given 2«. to £1 (Rs. 1-10) and 
nndressed food. After the priest has gone, they feast and in the 
evening throw the idol in water and return home. They keep HoU 
in February -March, the Hindu New Year's Day in March- April, 
Ndgpanchmi in July-August, and Dasara and Divuli in September- 
October. On Ndgpanchmithej worship an earthen serpent coloared 
red or white, with sandal-paste, grains of rice, flowers, and an 
offering of dressed food. Except the Saturdays wad Mondays of 
Shrdvan or July-August on which they eat only one meal in the 
evening, they keep no fast. They believe in astrology, soothsaying, 
and witchcraft, and stand in great fear of exorcists. To prev^ 
the family dead bringing sickness into the house they worship 
dead every year. A little spot in the house is cowdunged an^ 
robe, a bodice, or a waistcloth is worshipped on it, and a sweet 
dish is offered to the robe, bodice, or waistcloth. When an oateic 
ghost troubles any member of a family he is easily driven away by 
making the patient sit before the house-gods and marking the brow 
with ashes from the oenser before the house-gods. Among the article* 
esteemed as spirit-scarers are canes, frankincense, yellow benzoin, 
ashes over which charms have been repeated, and pieces of paper 
with texts or magical designs. Amulets and talismans are geners 
made on Sundays, new moons, and eclipses. As soon aa a Vi 
woman is brought to bed, the midwife, who is of her own 
washes the mother and child in hot water and cats the chi 
navel-cord. The mother is given molasses and dry cocoa-kemdj 
eat, and is fed on miUet husked and boiled. The midwife robs 
mother with turmeric powder, oil, and wat^er, and bathes her in 
water during the first five days. At the end of five days the 
is cradled and named. Girls are married between six and sixt 
Widow marriage and divorce are allowed and practised, poly£ 
is common, and polyandry is unknown. Marriage engagemeof 
take place at caste meetings. The boy's father rises and stated 
he has accepted so and so's daughter as his son's wife; the girl's fa 
eays it is true; betel is served, and the c^etemen withdraw. Ti 
father fixes the marriage day with the help of a Brdhman pric 





to the girl's village, a day before the day fixed, with the boy and 
friends and kinapeople. On the day of his coming the boy'a father 
gires a caste feast. Next day the boy and the girl are seated on 
m. blanket and rubbed with turmeric paste. The guests throw gi-ains 
o! rice on their heads ; and the wedded pair are bathed ia a surgi'^ 
or square with a drinking pot at each comer, and thread passed * 
ronna the necks of the jars. In the evening the married pair are 
taken to bow before the village Mdruti and from the temple they go 
to the bridegroom's lodging. On their way to the bridegroom's they 
call at five Vadars' houses, and bow to the heads of the families, each 
of whutD drops five to ten copper coins into the bride's and bride- 
groom's laps. As a rule Brdhman priests are not called to marriages ; 
when thoy are called they are paid 2«. to 10a. (Rs. 1-5). Her 
monthly sickness makes a Vadar woman unclean for five days. 
After death a Vadar is carried on a bier and buried in a grave three 
to three and half feet deep. In the grave the body is laid on its 
with the clothes on. The men. who go to the burial ground, 
eand return with the heir, bow before the lamp which has been 
the spot where the dead breathed his last, and go to their 
On the third day the heir, taking a millet cake, goes to the 
ground, lays the cake on the grave, and waits till crows 
it. He returns home and pours molasses water and green 
on the shoulders of the four men who bore the body. Vadars 
bound together by a strong caste feeling, and their social 
are inquired into and settled at meetings of adult 
m&a. Only a few send their boys to school and fewer still have 
taken to husbandry or other new pursoite. The great water and 
lailwav works which have been in progress for some years in and 
Msr the district have given the Vadars highly paid and constant 

D eppegse d Br a'l i manioal Hindus include two divisions 
with aiffbii^li of 44,4.^ or'/V8 per cent of the Hindu population ; 

Bijiipur Deprttaed Brdhmanical Bindut, 1881. 







TOUI ... 





ao,eeo 23,444 


S|dJu|^ (K.) Mhars (M.) are returned as numbering 19,567 and 
■B^^B^%1 over the district except in Indi. They are found in 
small nnmbers in villages and in large numbers in towns. The 
natnoK in common use among men are Basdppa, MalMppa, Ram&ppa, 
and Vithu ; and among women Basavva, Gangavva, and Tuljawa. 
They have neither surnames nor stocknames. They are of middle 
hoight, strong, muscular, dark, and with fairly regular features. 
TIm^ Apeftk incorrect Kinarese and live outside villages in mud- 
rooted hat« or sheds. The ground close round their houses ia 
genorall^ clean and well swept, but the air of the Holi^' quarter ia 
1^ often tainted with decaying nesh. Their house goods include a few 
■ patched quilts and blankets and a few earthen and metal reesels. 







[Bombay OasetUer. 



iptCT III. 





! Jlolida, 

They own cows, bullocks, and bu£Faloes, and rear poultry. The 
every-day food is millet bread and split pulse or vegetables ; 
tboir holiday dishes are polis or sugar rolly-polies, kadbu$ 
sugar dumplings, and ahevnya or vermicelli, 'i'hey use animal fo 
Tof all kinds except pork and drink country liquor. Most of tl 
bathe daily before the morning meal> some go to bow to 
village MAruti, and some worship house gods. Tho men sha^ 
the head and chin and keep the top-knot They dress in a loinclc 
in-doors, and iu knee breeches or a short waistcloth a blanket and] 
headscarf out of doors. The women tie the hair in a back-kn( 
and dress in a full Mar^tha robe without passing the skirt 
between tho feet and a bodic e with a back and short sleeves. Boli 
men and women have a few brass and silver ornaments, but oi 
the well-to-do have spare clothes for holiday use. Mhara 
submissive, hardworking, fairly honest, and thrifty when not giv« 
to drinking, but they are dirty. Most of them are day laboui 
and some are husbandmen. They sweep the village office yard 
remove dead cattle, for which tne husbandmen pay them in 
at harvest time. Some are village watchmen and some are 
charge of village pounds. Under former Governments Mhi 
had to carry the baggage of Government officials from village 
village without pay. As labourers the men earn about 4i^d. (3 as.) 
day. Besides minding the house the women help the men 
work as labourers earning 3(1. (2 as.) a day. They are a p< 
class living from hand to mouth. None of them are rich, ai 
most are in debt, as they borrow largely to meet marriage 
other apocial expenses. Formerly they were better off as thf 
received a share called dya of the produce of each fieU 
In return for tEeir services in tho village, the payment 
tho dya was considered compulsory and Government used 
enforce it. Now the payment is left to the choice of tl 
husbandmen. High and middle-class Hindus and even Muiiiili 
look down on Holies as one of the lowest classes in tl 
country, and they are conscious of and admit their position. 
Their touch, even the touch of their shadow , ia thought 
to defile , oome Mhdrs do not eat from Dhors, Mdngs, and 
Samgars, or even from Nh^via and Parits. A family of five 
spend 10a. to 18s. (Rs. 5-9) a month on food and dress. A hut 
costs 10s. to £2 10«. (Ra. 5-25) to build. A birth costs £1 to 
lOvS'. (Rs. 10-15), a boy's marriage £5 to £10 (Rs. 50-100), a girl} 
marriage £2 to £-4 (Rs. 20-40), and a death 10s. to £1 (Rs. 5 -10] 
They arc Bralimanical Hindus and respect Brahmans but beloi 
to no particular sect. They worship all Hindu gods and the 
family deities are Durgavva, Hirodya, Murgavra, Shatikavva or SatlJ 
and Yallamma. The ministrants of Durgavva, Murgavva, taxi 
Shatikavva are Mhara. These three goddesses are represented bj 
Btoue slabs placed under trees and smeared with redpowder. Mh^ 
make pilgrimages to Parasgad in Belgaum and to Tuljapur ia 
Niiiam s country. Sometimes both men and women vow to ra| 
themselves with huitigi or sandal paste in the name of Yallammi 
Tho devotee strips her clothes off, rubs her body with oil, bathe 
smears the whole body with sandal paste and covers it with nm 




loarce from head to foot. Tlie devotee tlien goes to a temple of 
YatUuimft, bows before the goddess, offers her dressed food, and 
retoms home. On the way to and from the temple the devotee 
tbouts aloud Udfio, JJdho, that is Victory, Victory. Their special 
br'^ - nre ilo/i in February- Mnrch, and Dasara and IHvdli inl 
?• r-October, on which they fast all day long and eat in the 

C" Besides these they have no fasts. They have strong faith 

iu 'yiug and witchcraft. After a birth a Mhfir midwife 

iffH«hcs the mother and child, lays them on a bedstead, and 
fawls the mother on boiled rice. On the fifth day she offers 
food to the goddess Sathi, waves a lamp before the goddess, 
takes away the lamp under cover with the food to her 

ise. On the twelfth day the child is cradled and named. 

.i.ra allow child and widow marriage, practise polygamy, and 
forbid polyandry. In the bdnhtagi or betrothal the boy's father 
plnoeaa cocoannfc and \\d. {\\as.) before the girl's house gods, swita 
the girl on a blanket, marks her brow with vermilion, presents her 
with a robe worth 8». (Rs. 4) and a bodicecloth worth Is. (8 as.), 
tad gives her mother a bodicecloth worth Is. (8 a*.). Sugar is 
llaiMled to the guests. The girl's father treats the boy's father to a 
feast ^ rice, wheat flonr balls, and molasses water. When 

Ihc n; lay has t>een fixed by .a Brahman astrologer, the girl 

I* .1 the boy^s house. On coming to the boy's village, the 

"U., .. ...;iicr treats the girl's party and his other kinsjieoplo to a 
{ie««t. Next day the boy and girl are I'ubbed with turmeric paste 
and bathed in a surgi or square with a drinking pot at each corner, 
and a tliread is passed several times round the nocks of all the vessels. 
A married woman waves a lamp before the boy and girl ; the 
bov is dressed iu now clothes, and the girl in a white I'obe and 
yellow bodice. The girl stands ou a low stool or on a stone slab, 
and opposite her the boy stands in a basket containing rice, bits of 
alratiier strap, and a whip. The boy fastens the mangalautra or 
lacky string on the girl's neck, and an elderly Mhir recites a verso 
or two out of the marriage service and di-opa rice on the pair. 
Other guests join hira in throwing rice and the ceremony ends with a 
eastc feast. Next day the boy's father gives the girl a robe worth 
10*. (Ks. 5), and a bodicecluth worth ^d. (4 as), and presents 
ber mother with two robes each worth i^s. (Rs. 4). The heads 
of tto boy and girl are docked with marriage coronets, and they 
are acatfid on a bullock, the girl sitting in front of the boy. The 
procc«>inn is headed bj son^o men beating halkxjs or bell-lesa 
t,i ''.'s. The procession halts at the temple of the vilhigo 

Jl here the pair give a cocoanut to the miuistrant, who 

breaks it before the god and returns half of it to the pair with 
aahca from the god's cenaer. After Ijowing before the god the 
party return in procession to the boy's. Next day the girl is 
tnk«n to her village. After some days the gharbkarni or houso- 
fillint? XnVm place in which the girl is taken to the boy's house and 
jj, id bodice. On any day after this the girl is free 

ao BOO, h 
up tbo 


ud's house. When a Mhur has all daughters and 
no uf his daughters unmarried. When she grows 
1 girl lives by pro.stitutiou and her cluiUrcn 




[Bombay OtiiettMr. 



ipter III. 






become heirs to her and to her father's property. Thooj^ 
these women are allowed to live by prostitution, when a matrie 
woman commits adultery, both the guilty parties are put out of 
caste, and are not let back until their heieuls have been shaved 
;and their tongues branded. Mhdrs bury the dead. When a 
man dies his body is washed and dressed in his daily clothes. Tha 
corpse is borne to the grave in an old blanket and is buried sitting. 
The grave is nine feet deep, five feet long and five feet broad 
measured by the corpse's foot. In one of the sides of the grave 
a niche is made, where the body is laid and the niche is closed bi 
green leaves of any kind. The grave is covered by a stone slab. Tl 
chief mourner and the funeral party bathe and go to their home 
On the fifth day the deceased's house is cowdunged, and tl 
deceased's clothes are washed, incensed with frankincense, ai 
presented with a sweet dish. Their social disputes are inqait 
mto and settled at caste meetings. They neither send th< 
cKildron to school nor take to new pursuits. They are a poor cl 
and show no sig^s of bettering their condition. 

Ma'digS (K.) or Mangs (M.) are returned as numbering 24,866 at 
as found all over the district. They have no tale of their origin ai 
no memory of any earlier home. The names in common use amoi 
men are Basdppa, Malldppa, Ningdppa, R^mdppa, and Sann^ppa ; 
among women Basavva, Sangavva, Tuljawa, and Yallavra. The 
leading surnames arc AivilyAvara, BhandAryAvaru, HonichiryAvj 
Ki,mblyAnavru, and Kengar, names which are peculiar to this cast 
Persons bearing the same surname do not intermarrry. They 
divided into Dalya MdngSj Mochi MAngs, Ped Mtogs, and SanA^ 
M6ngs who eat together but do not intermarry. Both men 
women are short dark and strongly made. The expression of face 
cruel. The women tattoo their hands from the wrist to the elboi 
their brows, and the comers of their eyes. Their home tongue 
K^narese. They formerly lived in huts and sheds built in foi 
lands and valleya Now most of them live in villages in poor hou£ 
with stone or mud walls and flat roofs. Their house goods include 
a patched quilt and a blanket, one or two cots, and a few earthen 
and metal vessels. A few have bullocks and cows and some have- 
hunting dogs. They are great eaters and poor cooks, their evex 
day food being millet bread and split pulse and vegetables. The 
holiday dishes are foUs or sugar roUy-polies and molasses and hhi-eh 
or millet cooked with split pulse and spices. They eat fish and flesi 
They formerly ate carrion ; but of lat-e they have quaiTelU 
with the husbandmen and lost many of their rights, and amot 
others the privilege of skinning village cattle. Since that tit 
they have given up eating carrion. They are very fond of maAi 
spirit and palm-juice and use these drinks to excess. Of an evenii 
M6ng8 may be often seen in their quarters drunk and quarrelling?* 
They smoke gdnja or hemp flower and tobacco, drink hemp wr"*'- 
and give opium to their children to stop their crying. Among i 
only the devout bathe daily before the morning meal, wash tueir 
house gods, mark them with sandal paste, put flowers on them^ , 
burn frankincense or bdellium before them, and offer thei 
food. They often vow a goat or a cock to their house gods a 



er deiiy» and, after o£Feriiig the life of the aniraiU, oat its flesh 
witii friemlsi a«d kinspeople. The men shave the whole head and the 
chin, and wear a headscarf, short breeches, and a blanket thrown 
over the shoalders. The women tie the hair in a back-knot 
woollen thread, and dress in the ordinary Maritha full robe* 
.out passing the skirt back between the feet, and in a bodice with 
k and short sleeves, the favourite colour being' geoerallj red 
black. Both men and women have a few silver and brads 
omninents, but only the well-to-do have spare clothes for holiday 
uae. They are hardworking, but dirty, intemperate, hot-tempered, 
rereogeful, and cruel.* They are true to their salt and many stories 
arc told of their fidelity. They were formerly notorious highway 
rcilibers; resistance was useless and often ended in loss of life. 
Since the establishment of British rule they have settled to 
peaceful pursuits. Dalya Mangs when they travel with Lamdu 
, make and mend their shoes and sandals, and beat drums. 
i Mdngs make sandals, leather whips, nose-bags, girths, and 
y other articles useful to husbandmen. Their boys from twelve 
of age begin to earn about 'id. (2 ««.) a day by making small 
gh sandals. Sandals for men and women sell at 9d. to Ss. 
(Ra. g -1^) the pair. As all men and women except Br^hmans wear 
sandals they always find work, though their income is not large. 
Pod M«ings are village watchmen and attend upon travellers. They 
ivwoep the village chdvdi and the dharmshdla or rest-honse. 
Saaidi Mdngs act as musicians to all other M^ngs and attend their 
BUUTiage and other ceremonies. Besides their distinctive callings, 
most of these classes are husbandmen and some are field labourers 
who are paid in grain. They are also considered specially skilful 
in flptuing cotton thread. Their women besides minding the house 
dala, help the men in reaping and stacking, gather fuel, and 
<o the villagers. Though they earn enough to live on 
nit, most of them have drunk themselves int^ debt and 
at one and a half to two per cent interest a month, 
from morning to evening taking a midday rest. They 
. ... r than Holies or Mhars from whom they eat, and their 
loncb knd shadow are believed to defile all Hindus from Br&hmaua 
lo ShndrAs. A family of five spend 8*. to 10$, (Rs. 4-5) a month 
CD fcwid. A house costs £1 10*. to £7 lOj. (Rs. 15-75) to bnild, and 
\\v ■■ goods are worth £1 10». to £7 lOs. (Rs. 15-75). A birth 

Co J lOs. (Rs. ^ - 5), a marriage £3 to £10 (Rs. 3 - 100), and 

tt de«ch OS. to £1 (Rs. 3-10). M&ng^ are Brdhmanical Hindus and 
fper^if TlrAhmanH who fix their marriage days and many them 
fr ince; but take no part in their birth and death ceremonies. 

Tbfv '.^'irshio all Hindu gods, but their favourite deities or© 
Dargnwa and Yallavva. Brass images of the family dead are seated 
along with the house gods. They keep most Hindu holidays, 
ftfid •om» faMt on the Mondays of Shrdvan or July- August and ou 
Shicrdlra iu January - February . They make pilgrimages to the 
■hhno of Yallavva in Parasgad in Belgaum, and to the tomb of the 
Monliniin saint of Yamnur in Navalgund in DhArwdr. During the 

Chapter I! 




' Itt Mftnktht mdnif-hridayi or mdng-bvurttd ii often used (or m orneJ 


[Bombay Qauttee 



fcpter III. 




Naiyrdtra or Nine Nights of bright Aehvin or September- Octobei 
a lamp is kept burning before the house goda and on the tent 
day or Daaara, a goat ia killed in honour of Yallavva, its drosac 
flesh is offered to the goddess, and it is eaten. They have stronl 

• faith in soothsaying and witchcraft. When ordinary remedies fail 

* an exorcist ia asked to find out whether the sick person suffers from ' 
having ofFeuded any of the house gods, or if his sickness is due to ^S 
charm cast over him by an enemy, or if a family ghost is troablin^J 
himj or if he is possessed by an outside ghost. If any of the houa^^ 
gods is the cause of the patient's sickness, he is taken to bow before 
them, is told to make a vow to the offended deity, and hia brow 
marked with ashes in the name of the god. If the sickness ia due 
a charm the exorcist overcomes the charm by binding a talisman 
the patient^a neck or arm. To humour a family ghost a sweet dis! 
a goat, or a cock is ofiered to the ghost. An outside ghost is driv 
away by thrashing the patient or by burning chillies before him? 
When these remedies fail, some food, especially boiled rice and curda 
mixed togfether, are waved round the patient and left at the p 
where the ghost lives. After a birth the midwife who is a MA 
woman bathes the mother and child in hot water, lays them on 
bedstead, gives the mother dry cocoa-kernel and molasses to ei 
and feeds her on boiled rice. On the fifth day she worships 
goddess SatvAi, waves a lamp before the goddess, and takes aw; 
the lamp under cover as the child and mother may suffer if the lai 
ia seen by any one except the midwife. Among Miinga child 
widow marriage are allowed, polygamy is allowed and practise 
and polyandry is unknown. When the boy's father goes to 
betrothal, ho takes four or five of his kinspeople to the girl'a. 
lays a cocoanut before the girl's house gods, seats her on a blanki 
marks her brow with vermilion, and presents her with a ro 
worth 10*. (Rs. 6) and a bodicecloth worth dd. {6 as.) With t] 
help of a Brdhman astrologer the boy's father fixes the marrii 
day, and sends the girl's father word what day has been dbosi 
The girl's father raises a booth in front of his house and sends £< 
the boy and his party. At the girl's house the boy and the 
are rubbed with turmeric paste in two separate surgig or squan 
with a drinking pot at each corner of the square and a th: 
wound round their necks. Both are bathed and the g 
is dressed in a white robe and yellow bodice and the b 
in a new dress. The girl stands in a basket containing ri 
opposite the boy who stands on a low stool. A curtain wi| 
a central turmeric cross ia held between them ; the Brfihman pric 
recites the marriage service and throws rice on the pair ; the gu< 
join the priest in throwing rice ; a married woman of the boj 
family fastens the mangalautra or lucky string round theg^l'snecl 
and the ceremony is over. In the evening guests are treated toj 
feast of poli-a or sugar roily-polios, and the married couple go 
state to bow to the village god. Next day the guests go to the 
homes. They bury their dead. The dead body ia washed, clotlu 
in its every-day dress, and set leaning against a wall in a sittii 
position. The body is carried in an old blanket. The mouth of 
grave is closed with three stones to which, on the second dii 
are offered rice, molasses, and clarified butter on a castor-oil ]( 

Wh en a crow has pecked this ofFering the chief mourner bathes 
returns home. Oa the fifth day their women cowdung the 
wash their clothes, and bathe ; and friends and kinspeople 
•re asked to a feast of polis or sugar rolly-poliea. Their social 
diuKites are settled by a caste council. They do not send their 
diiidren to school nor take to new pursuits. They show no signs of 
bettering their condition. ^__^___^— — ^— 



e second great division of BijApur Hindus includes those who 
bare partly or entirely adopted the Lingayat in preference to the 
Brihrnanic form of faith. The LingAyata, properly Lingvanta or 
Kjni/- wearers, come under three classes True Lingdyats, Affiliated 
Ljog^yats, and Half Lingiyats, with a strength of about 220^000 
or 38r7i per cent of the Hindu population, of whom 110,000 
are True LingAyats, 83,500 Affiliated LingiiyatSj and 26,500 
Half LingAyatg. Liugdyats are found over the whole district of 
Bij^pur and form a large propoition of the Hindu population of 
DhArwdr, Belgaum, Kolhdpur, and ShoUpur, and in Maisur they 
•re a numerous class. Special interest attaches to Bijipur 
Unff&yats, because BasaVj* the founder of the sect, according to 
tii£ local tradition, was born at Bagev4di in Bijipur, and, according 
to the Baaav Puriin, at the neighbouring village of Ingloahvar. 
^y was the son of a Brdhmau of the Shaiv sect of Arddhya. Tho 
" year of his birth is a.d. 1106. 

name Lingdyat is applied to all who profess Lingdyatism and 
the jangatn or movable ling. Not eveiy one who wears a 
Uag is a True Lingdyat. Those only are True Lingayats whose sons 
can become Jangams or Lingdyat priests ; those whose sons cannot 
become priests may be classed as Affiliated Lingayats. At the 
proeeat nay, and probably for centuries, the wearing of the ling 
and thu desertion of Brahmans for Jangams as priests, have 
been aproading among tho Brdhmanical castes of Bijdpur. More 
than a third of Bijdpur castes wear the ling and are married by 
Jaogams. Many men who wear tho sacred thread and the top- 
knot have brothers or cousins who have taken to wear the ling. Few 
caaiea have remained beyond the influence of the new sect. In Mr. 
Cumine's opinion between Lingayatism and Islam, Brdhmanism 
wnll in a few centuries be almost extinct in Bijapur. Though new 
a<lherents groop themselves round Lingdyatism they cannot rise to the 
level of the original members. According to the Basav Purdn, Basav 
held that the proper worsliip of the ling overthrew all distinctions of 
eaflto, and received converts from the lowest classes as readily as 
from the highest. This enthusiasm did not last long. Shortly after 
Baaar's death, when tho new $ect found its position established, the 
onfftBAl members claimed a higher rank than any outsiders. If 
Brdhmau wished to become a Lingayat he had to pass through 
throe yeaiV proving. The term was six years in tho case of 
Kflhatriya, nine in the case of a Vaishya. and twelve in the case 

he Ling&yat and IaoiAu acoountn arc compiled from materiaU aapplied 
^^ne, C.S. Mr. Cumiae hJM ulao supplied Vttluabl« information for rnanj 

f Biuv'a Ufa At-o given in tbc DbArwAr Statiaticftl Account. 

Chapter I! 



{Bombay Gazetteer, 



ipter III. 



of a Bhudia. Tlie door was apparently shut to all of impure cas 
Except th;it at a religious house almost all divisions of LingAya 
eat together, exclusivcness, which is the social basis of caste, is 
strong among Liugayats as among any sect of Hindus. The ex 
,'to which the modem or Affiliated Ling^yats have adopted Lingdyi 
practices varies greatly. In some castes nearly all wear the li 
and shave the top-knot ; in others Ziii^-weariug is rare, and thr 
and top-knot wearing are common. 

True Liugayats are a very large class, numbering abo 
110,000, and found all over the BijApur district. Their person 
names are generally their gods' names, among men Kas^pp 
Cheanabasdppa, and Shivappa, and among women Basavvi 
Nagavva, and Sangavva. If a Avoman has lost several childn 
she gives her next child a mean name, Tip4,ppa from tipi (K.) 
Btone or Kdlavva trom kahi (K.) a stone, hoping to save the chi 
from untimely death." The mon add oppa or father nud tl 
women awn or mother to their names. Their surnames are pi 
and calling names ; and in a few cases a family ia called af 
some distinguished member. They have five got raa or faraill 
stocks, Bbri ngi, Nandi, Renuk. Shan mulcE^ §n"d Vira bbad 
SI embers of the same family stock do not marry. True LingAya' 
may bo roughly grouped into four great classes, Jangams or prie 
Shilvant B or pious, B an jigs or traders, and Panchs 
Jungams literally MovaUle Lings, the Jangam being cbn'sTSei 
human Hmjahnne., are divided into Virakts or celibat^js, Stimauij^i 
or common Jangams, Gandchdris or managers, and Mathpai 
or beadles, Virakta, the highest class of Jangams, dedicat 
themselves to celibacy, and ai-e not allowed to celebrate niarriag 
They are a comparatively small l»ody and move about the count 
accompanied by their disciples. They stop at maths or roligioi 
houses, live on the oilerings of the sect, let the hair and beat 
grow, and wear no cloth but tho loincloth, a cap on their heai 
with a slnng of rndr/iknh beads in it, and a long salmon-coloui 
coat falling to tho ankles. They never intentionally look on tl 
fttce of a woman. The Samdnya Jangam is the ordinary Jangni 
who has had the aitdii or initiation performed on him. He 
a maiinod man, who conducts marriages, bogs, servos 
a temple, or lives by agriculture. When a Jangam goc 
begging he weare a garter of bells caWeAjamj below his right kne 
and carries a cobra cane or udghet staff.' Besides the regtjU 
Sdmdnyas five classes of Jangams live by begging. The first 
these is the Kuginmdritatidegalu, who sits on a tree and rings 
all day long ; tho second is the I'aharedk^yakdavni, who begs 
door to door, ringing a bell ; the third is the Mullahavigekjlyakdat 

* Mr. H. T. Stokes' Account of Belgaum, 8. 

'The motber's idea soeniB to be thftt evil epirita t^ike spociaJ pleasure in carrj-i 
off Buy ol>ject of special affection. If a child is i-alled a stone or a rubliish he»j) 
BpiritB iniiy think it not worth their while to carry ofl'one whose pareuts value 
Bi> cheaply. 

' The .fftngHms «ay they wear bells and a cobra cane, becanse a demon whom 
•lew, when at the point of death, a»ked Shir to nse hm skin as a wollot, his b« 
bone as a staff, and his eyes as bells. The Virakt'e robo is ^almon-tinlfd because 
reprwenta the skio of a demon which Shiv used to wear m ith the bloti<1y side ouU 

who, m the presence of Lingayats, stands on a pair of woodon shoes, 
ID whose soles are nails with their points up, and does not couio 
out of the shoes till he is paid whatever sum he is pleased to ask ; 
the fourth is the Tekkikiyakdavru, who throws his arms round 
men and does not leave hold until he is paid something; the fifth*, 
Makaksyak that is the silent, who feigns dumbness. Mathpatis 
.-I i^'T^iles and Ganich^ris or managers are Jangams who hold rent- 
free land^, and are considered rather inferior to the regular or 
SimJlnja Jangams. They have not undergone the aitdn or initiation. 
Thej somf>tiiuee marry with one another, but regular Jangams do not 
mmrry with them. Their duties are humble. The Mathpati brings 
for the Lingayats hcl, vEgle mannelos, leaves on Mondays Thm-sdays 
and holidays, and the Gan^chari celebrates widow marriages, an 
t>Sice which the Samanya Jangam refuses. To these fimctions tho 
Halhpati adds the office of corpse dresser, and the Ganichari the 
dnfeios of a messenger who makes known the wishes of tho Virakt, 
tli0 bead of the religions house. If a GanachAri or Mathpati boy 
ham iL in or aitdn performed on him he becomes a SdtnAnya 

JsDjipii. Jjandons his fonner duties, Jangams eat not only in 

the bouse of any member of the LingAyat sect, but in the house of 
nny '■■ - -rearing member of any other caste, except Liogayat 
Ci ..r Mh.irs. A few of the Shilvaut or Pious Lingdyats, 

who arc' lil^o called Chilimiagni ov Water-hiders live in Ilkal, Dharwar, 
wad onij or two large towns as goldsmiths or merchants. They are 
aft ottreraely rare in Bijdpur that they cannot be said to form a part 
of the lucal Lingayat community. They aro called Chilimiagnis or 
Wacer.hidors because they take no water from any well or reservoir, 
but every day scoop for themselves a hole in some wet sandy stream- 
b^d, nnd in cai-rying the water home shroud the water-pot 
in a doth. Banjigs aro tho third main class of pure Lingayats. 
The name moans ivnu's or shopkeepers. A man who gives 
Banjig as his caste genenUIy belongs to one of the three following 
obuiam ; IIoliyAt-hihalkis or beyond river-men, Dhulpdvada 
or foot-duat sprinklers, and Chalgeribalkis or vdlagers.' The 
Iloliy4chibaIki like the Shilvant puts a cloth over hia water-pot 
when he carries it homo ; unlike the Shilvaut he takes water freely 
fr« •; and wells. Both Holiydchibalkis and Dhulpavdads 

ai- found as merchants in the towns south of tho 

Kriifhua. Clialgeribalkis or villagers are chiefly fanners, though 
nmoy arc shopkeepers and wealthy moneylenders, Tho mass 
of Uio BonjigM belong to this subdivision. The Panchamsalis 
form the bulk of tho cultivating Lingayats, and are probably more 
namerous than any other division.* Their position is honourable. 
Tbaj turn ndmilted to be the parent stock from which the other 





'<• KiUiKroeo hoU river ainl nclu beyond, Apparently tho 

. tho Hftiiftkrit (/fiitii dui«t and pdd foot, becAuso thoy apiinkic 

oil ■ Jnngi&nra feet, Chalgeribalkis, tlio KiiuiTcse chal(jrri 

. who eat together. 

■ rii.jin .T.-iin VVonvont. The Panchamft ore tho fifth or lowest 

widows hiive to join. Compare tho accouut uf 

Aitol DhixwAr. 

Chapter J 

"'"' "■ 






tpter in. 


of fact this rising 
With girls it is 
Panchamsdli girls, 
by dikmha into her 

divisions have sprung and from this stock fresh divisionu may ai 
day spring. A Panchamsdli boy may become a Jangam^ even 
Virakt Jangam, which none of the lower classes over becomes. 
Chalgeribanci, a Dhulp^vdad, a Holiydchibalki, or a Shilvat 
' is a man whose ancestor was a Pancbamsdlij and went thronf 
the diksha or cleansing rite. Any Panchamsdli may enter any 
the higher grades he chooses by undergoing dilcsha and beii 
invited to dine with the particular division he wishes to enteij 
In the same way a Chalgeribalki, a Dhulpavdad, or 
Holiy^chibalki can always ascend if he chooses. As a matt 

to a higher grade is very rare among mei 
common because the Banjigs often mar 

and then the girl is always previously tak« 
husband's grade, and is not allowed a£ 
to eat at hor parents' house. In rare cases even Jangams mari 
PanchamsAli girls who have been brought iuto their division 
dlksha. This is seldom done except when parents have lost all th< 
family but one girl and devote hor to bo the wife of a Jangai 
As regards eating, a member of any one of the main divisions 
eat in the house of any member of his own or of any higl 
division. The Holiydchibalkis will eat in the house of a Shilva 
and all eat in a Jangam's house. None of the divisions below tl 
Jangam eat in the house of any member of an inferior divisiol 
But in a field, in a rest-house, or in any place except the host's hoas 
so long as the host has used a new set of earthen cooking vessel 
they will eat food cooked by the host even though he is of an inferic 
division. In a math or religious house any Lingayat without questic 
will eat bread which a Jangam has gathered in his begging. If tl 
Jangam has brought it, it is all right, whoever cooked it, whethf 
n Raddi, a BilejAdar, or any other /z«(7-wearing and sacred threap 
hating Hindu. Though the rule is that a member of a lower divisi* 
is allowed to eat with members of higher divisions in a Teligi( 
house when a Jangam is present, this privilege is not granted- 
all classes who profess Lingdyatism. The classes who are del 
from this privilege are NhAvis or barbers, Gavlis or oowkt 
Dhobis or washermen, Bedars, and the depressed classes sach 
Mhiirs and M6ngs. In the same way thore is no objection to 
/t7i^-wearing man coming into a Lingiiyat^s house and seeing the fc 
but if a Musalradn, or a Mardtha, or any one without a ling sees 
food it must bo thrown away. This rule applies only to food 
one's own house ; it does not apply to food in the field or in tho 
rest-house. As regards marriage a Jangam occasionally marrieSj 
Chalgeribalki, Holiydchibalki, or Panchamsdli girl, first making 
a Jangam by dikaha or cleansing rite. Shilvants seem not to give the 
daughters in marriage to Jangams. A Jangam girl cannot ms 
any one but a Jangam ; Holiyachibalki girls and Chalgeribs 
girls may marry Panchamsdli husbands. No True Lingdyat boy 
girl ever marries into any of the Affiliated Lingdyat castes. 

All True Lingayats speak Ranarese. So large a body ooi 
every difference of character, appearance, height, and colour, 
may be said that the average True Lingayat is probably fairer tl 




t^ average Kduva Brahman or the average Mardtha Kunbi ; and 
ig oertainly fairer than a Knrubar or a Bedar. Some True Lingdyat 
vomen are remarkably fair-skinned. The striking points in the 
npeanuice of a True LingAyat man are his ling which ia worn 
(Ulker at his waist in a silver box hung round his neck, or tied in '^ 
t red ribbon round the neck, or round the upper left arm ; the * 
absence of the sacred thread ; and the shaven top-knctless head. 
They live in ordinary better class honsea with mud walls and flat 
roofs J almost all are one-storeyed, only a few in towns have two 
itateys. The houses of True Lingaydts, esj>ecially of those who belong 
higher religious gradee, are closed on all aides, except a few 
:g8 for air and light. Though very dark they are well swept, 
both the floors and the furniture are scrupulously clean. The 
reason they give for having their houses so close shut is to prevent 
lay bat /ing-wearers seeing their food. But the want of 
itxings is probably as much to keep out the eye of the sun, whom 
£rahma the strict Lingdyat hates, as to keep out the eye of the 
igen A True Lingdyat's house can be always known from a 
iman^s or a Mardtha^s by the absence of the doorsido tuisi or 
baaiL The houses of the rich have bed.<«, carpets, bedsteads, 
a&d a large supply of brass and copper cooking and storing vessels ; 
in the booses of the poor most of the vessels are of earthenware, 
ar." " and country blankets are almost the only other furniture, 
. liquor are forbidden. All are strict vegetarians, the 
>\a food being Indian or spiked millet, pulse, vegetables, onions, 
_ lie, relishes, milk, curds, and clarified butter. Rice is considered 
A dainty and is eaten only on holidays. The chief article of food 
in a dinner is millet bread. Next to bread comes kamja, that is 
hoflked and boiled millet. Sometimes this husked millet is boiled 
in whey when it is known as hidldnuchc?m or sour Imnya. Their 
holiday dishes are godhi huggi that is husked and boiled wheat 
waxed with molasses, and sometimes with milk, shevaya or vermicelli 
Ibai is wheat flour beaten Into dough and drawn into long threads 
which are curled round sticks, dried in the sun, and eaten with 
nolasses and milk ; IcaMua or orange-sized balls of wheat-flour 
stoffad with split gram and molasses or sugar, and boiled or fried 
in I * 1 poU» or wheat-flour cakes rolled round a lump of 
«jil .1 boiled with molasses, and baked. The commonest of all, 

becaaae the cheapest, is the godhi huggi. Besides these holiday 
dhdias, i}ie rich make many costly sweetmeats. Lingdyats of the 
ht^i^r religious grades take two meals, the first between eleven 
and two, the second between seven and nine. Others take a third 
moalj an early breakfast on bread left from the night before and 
aoma chalni*or relish. As a nile all True Lingdyats bathe every 
morning Iwfnpo eating, and strict Lingdyats bathe before each meal. 
Ai ■ lie dips the right thumb middle finger and ring finger 

ixj'- ,_ ^ shes, and rubs the ashes on his body repeating the text 

which hiH religious guide breathed in his ear when he was purified. 
After washing his mouth a True Lingdyat rubs his brow with ashes. 
When he sits to eat he takes the Hug out of the box, lays it on his left 
p»i' ' ih water, and drops bel leaves and cowdung ashes 

01 yate daily ask one or two Jangams to dine at their 


Chapter I 


; Bombay Gi 




houses aud the poor call them on hoUJajs. AVhcn a 2 
comes to a laytuau's house to dine, ho is scatod on a - 

are wnsbed, some of tbe water is sprinkled on the lint/, 

is poured on Shiv in a Shiv's temple, for the god lives in the J 
.with more divinity than he lives in theimage. ''"' ' ------ 

' not served aa a layman's iood is served in n , 
Tho plate is laid on a three-legged stool and 
the low stool on which the Jangam is to sit. No i 
sits to eat till the Jangam has tini>>hed hi^ dinner. A «i 
should leave nothing on his plate. So carefully do some Ji 
keep this rule that they wash the dish when they are donean( 
the water with which the dish was washed. A Jangam esd 
leaves and nuts before he washes his moutlij as, after wi 
mouth, he is not allowed to eat anything. Tho men wear 
cloth, the shouldercloth, the jacket, and tho headl 
the women wear the robe aud bodice. The robe is woaCil 
the waist and allowed to fall to the ankles. Tho end of th- 
is not passed between the legs and tucked into the wni^t 
but is gathered into a large liunch of folds in front or to t 
side. The upper end is passed across the bosom and over 
and haogs loosely down the right side. The two v 
are tied in a knot in front, leaving the arms neck 
Many of them have silk and brocade clothes for holiday 
are fond of black either by itself or mixed with rod. Soi 
neat and clean as firdhmans, but tho dress of most is Icsa 
clean than the dress of Brdhmaus. True Lingdyat woui 
bangles and the lucky necklace or inangaUutra, and the ; 
the lucky necklace plays a much more prominent part 
than in a Brahmanical wedding. Some True Liugd\'at \ 
6rst husbands are alive mark their brows with kttalcu or rer\ 
and others with ashes. Even after her second marriage, no wi 
allowed to put either vermilion or ashes on her brow. True IflD 
women do not wear false hair or deck their hair witi 
Both men and women are fond of ornaments.^ 

As aclass Lingayatsare orderly.sober.audhonest! 
where they are cunning and unscrupulous. The i 
begging and on the offerings of the people ; the Banjigs and I 
are shopkeepers and moneylenders ; and most of the I'anriuii 
husbandmen. Lingdyats seem never to enter the army or the pi 
Few of them are in Government service as clerks, but that is prol 
because they find agriculture, shopkeepiug, and mone^'lcu 

to t 


•The men wear on the neck, the ^f-"^' --.'rand ehnr,- -'^^ — --j 
k/iaildg&adtodit-s, round theright wrisi lound the v 

oil the fingers. A rioli joftn'sornaineat- ., c- l'J> * P*^'*'" ^'- - - 

wear tho earringa called vali, bugdi.jluimii, ijfuxtUi, aud bainjhanU all ol| 
without peaila ; the noae rings called mwj, na(h, and vnfjfi nil 
without pearls ; round the neck gcjUikta, •futuHfitUcla, haniffilikk 
kdripaU, sariffi, kaUidne, and puHimra: on the arm ««Jfc», nd^murgi^ 
the wriats go(, ftdtlya, tCkJds, jnt>r, h>i ' ' . r/om. and ' 
the I»im6ar;ya/f a, cither with claapa i' i; mouths <': 

on the ankles Mkhli, paijan, idliado . . .i: 1 hilungart all _. , muM 

pillf. UO'P'^lf, miHjiUti>, and gmdui all of ailver. Poor women goucraUyl 
brttcdeta aud aecklnce^ 




better than clerkship. Of late more True Lingdyat youthg have 
entering Government service. Asa class True Lin gdjats are 
cidedly prosperous. Poor women help their husbands in the 
"ter parte of field-work, and in village shopkeeping families 
women sometimes sit in the shop and sell. On ordinary days* 
ktabanduiea go to their work at six or seven, return between 
and eleven, and begin work again after the midday rest, 
end it by sunset. In harvest time they go to field in the 
ig, eat their dinner in tlie field, and do not return till 
ght. The chief difference between a shopkeeper's hours 
a husbandman's is that the shopkeeper sometimes stays in 
shop till eight or nine. Thoy rarely close thoir shops on 
oUdays. Though they think themselves superior to Brdhmans, 
lither drinking water at their hands nor allowing thorn to 
•the inner parts of their houses, Lingayats generally rank with 
The three watchwords of the Lingnyat faith are the linrf, 
'H. and the gurv. The h'lig is the stone home of the deity, 
ii ( lie human abode of the deity.and the guru in the teacher 

L. .;.:.. „3 the sacred spell into the disciple's ear. The ling 
1 by Lingdyats is gonei-ally made of light-gray slato stone. The 
consists of two discs, the lower one circular about one-eighth of 
I inch rhjck the upper slightly elongated. Each disc is about three- 
r an iuch in diameter, and is separated by a deep groove about 
cif an inch broad. From the centre of the upper disc, which 
^Jtly rounded, rises a pea-like knob about a quarter of an inch 
r*na three-quarters of an inch round, giving the atone ling 
height of nearly three-quarters of an inch. This knob ia 
lied the ban or arrow. The upper disc is called j'alhdn that is 
Water carrier, because this part of a full-sir.ed ling is grooved to 
the water which ia poured over the central knob. It is 
lied piih that is the seat and pithak the little seat. Over 
fiw^, to keep it from harm, is plastered a black mixture of clay, 
^duijg a«hes, and marking-nut juice. This coating, which ia 
•d Iciiftthi or the cover, entirely hides the shape of the enclosed 
It forms a smooth black slightly-truncated cone, not unlike 
rk bbtelnut, about three-quarters of an inch high and narrowing 
)m thp^e-quarters of an inch at the base to half an inch across tho 
The fitone of which the ling is made comes from Parvatgiri in 
irth Arkot. It ia brought by a class of people called Xambi 
because, besides the ling stone, thoy bring slung from 
Ider-bamboo the holy water of the PAtAl-Ganga, a pool on 
iri, whose wat^r Lingayats hold as sacred as Bi-jthmanical 
loa hold the water of the Ganges. The simplest ling costs 
(1 a.), and their usual price is 3», (Rs, IJ). To the clay,ashe8, 
nuirking-nut juice, the rich add powdered gold silver coral 
even diamonds raising the value of the ling sometimes to 
50). A ling .should be tied to the arm of a pregnant woman 
Jgfath mouth of pregnancy and to the arm of child as soon 
bom. This rule la not strictly kept. The ling is sometimes 
on tho fifth day, but generally not till a day between a fortnight 
weeks after birth. A child's ling has generally no case or 
be kanthi is sometimes not added for months, sometimes not 
The ling is sometimes tied to the cradle in Tvhich the 

Chapter Ill- 
Pop alation. 



[Bomliay Oaxetteei 



»r III. 


child sleeps, instead of to the child. It ia rarely allowed toremaii 

the child till the child is five or six years old. Till then it is gener 

kopt ill the house shrine along with the house gods. The Ivig 

worn either on the wrist^ the arm, the neck, or the head. Some weal 

• the litig slung from the left shoulder like a sacred thread and 

some carry it in the waistband of the lower garments. The ImA 

two ways are contrary to the rule that the ling should nerei 

be worn below the navel. It is worn either tied round by a 

ribbon or in a silver box fastened by a silver chain. Each family 

has generally a few spare lings in stock. The ling is never shown 

to any one who does not wear a Ung himself. It should be taken 

out three times a day, washed, rubbed with ashes, and a striag d 

rudrdksh beads bound round it. A man or a woman keeps the 

same Hng all through life, and, in the grave, it is taken out of its case 

and tied round the corpse's neck or arm. If the ling is accidentally 

lost the loser has to give a caste dinner, go through the ceremony o( 

sknddhi or cleansing, and receive a new ling from the teacher or 

guru. The person whose Ung is lost fasts till another is tied on. He 

bathes and washes a Virakt Jangam's feet, rubs cowdang ashes on 

the Jangam's head, and bows before him. He sprinkles the water in 

which the Jangam's feet were washed on his body and sips a little of 

it along with the five cow-gifts. The Jangam places a new ling on 

his left palm, washes it with water, rubs cowdung ashes on it, layi 

a hel leaf on it, mutters some texts or mantras on it, and ties it 

round the neck of the person. When a Jangum loses his ling, th6 

case becomes serious, and many a Jangam is said to have lost hii 

caste on account of losing his ling. The gum or religious teacher, 

the third watchwardof the Ling^yat faith is either a Virakt or celibata 

or a Silmdnya or oi'dinary Jangam. Their head teacher is the head 

of the monastery at Chitaldu rg in North- West Maisur, Like 

other Hindu teachers, the head teacher during his lifetii 

generally chooses a successor who acts nnder his orders so lonj 

he lives. The head teacher may belong to any of the higher cIj 

of Ling^yats. He lives in celibacy in bis monastery at Chitaldi 

with great pomp, and receives divine honours from his follows 

He goes on tour once every threeor four years, receiving contributions 

and in return giving his followers the water in which his feet 

washetl, which they rub on their eyes and drink. The ordina 

maths or religious houses are under married or unmarried Jan^ 

When the head of a religious house is a celibate or Virakt Jan| 

he is succeeded by his pupil. These pupils remain unmarried 

are the sons either of married clergy or of laymen, who, unde 

vow or for some other cause, have, as children, been devoted tol 

religious house. Bo)'8 devoted to a religious house under a vow 

called viaris or youths. The g urus or teachers are of five kii 

The gum who ties on the ling is called the Dikshaguru that ia~ 

diknha or purifying teacher. The yum who teaches religion 

called the ShikshAguru or the instructor, and the religions guide is' 

called the Mokshguru or absorption teacher. The guru of t^ 

Mokshgnru is called the Gurvingam or the teacher of t^hers, a|fl 

the highest priest is called the Paramgnrn or the chief teacher. ThdH 

religious books are written in Kinarese. Like BrAhmanical religioua 

works they seem to bo divided into bhak(ij}ar or the faith-path 


fm^an giar g^ pie knowledg fl- path. Of the books wliich teach faith 

ma Lhe path to hcavea the most popular is the Basay PnrAn, and of 

thoee which teach knowledge the best known is the Prabhu Ling 

LUa, The Basav Purdn, which gives the life of Basav the founder 

of the religion, is described by Mr. Brown as an amusing 

book foil of wild stories.^ The Lila is an allegorical poem, the 

object of which is to teach the favourite Jangain doctrine, that 

the object of religion is that the deity should live in the boliover b 

■oitl IIS he lives in the ling. Besides theso two leading works, 

there are the Chennabasav Purdn and the Mari Basav Puran and 

several other Jangam legends. The Basav Puran is the favourite 

k aad is much read. The other books are seldom seen and 

not held in high esteem. The book generally consulted by 

the Bijipur Lingayats is the Vivek Chint^mani a work written 

in rial Kuunad or old Kauarese. It treats of rites and observances, 

SL to be a modern compilation, made to correspond with the 

liiuuuuuii K.armkdDd. If a Lingayat is asked why ho has kept so raanjr 

lir^manical rites and customs, he will generally name the Vivek 

CUinUUnaniashis authority, thoughthe chances are thatho has neither 

read nor seen the book. One of the few points in which Lingiiyats agree 

with Brihmanic Oindus is the study of the Yogshitstra, the science 

which teaches the mastery over the senses and organs, and enables the 

expert to contemplate the Universal Soul in undisturbed meditation. 

The Lingtijats sum their rehgion under eight loading behcfs : First, 

tbcre IS noGod bat 8hiv ; second, Shi v's followers arealone high-born; 

third, the human body is made pure, that is evil spirits are scared 

oat of it, by doing a service to the t-eacher, to the ling, or to tho 

priest, by taking a gift from a priest, by wearing rudmksh berries, 

by repeating texts, by drinking water in which a priest^s foot has 

bcciu biithed, and by rubbing the body with holy ashes ; fourth, the 

Cre conducts or panchuchdr are the five sources of life i^ 6fth, not to 

take life is virtue ; sixth, to have no worldly desires is true conduct j 

eevcnth, tho righteous life is heaven ; and eighth, the wicked life 

is hell. If, jwhich is unlikely, the high ideas of the Basav Puran 

ever seized hold of the lives of Liogdyats they have to a great extent 

loei their hold. The leading doctrines in which the Basav Puran 

differs from the practice of Brahmanism is that there is one God 

who gtiards from evil ; that between this god and his worshipper 

iHere is no need of a go-between and no need of sacrifices, penances, 

' fasts J second, that all /in^-wearers are equal, therefore 

lyat woman is as high as the Lingdyat man, that she 

BhouiU Dot marry till uho oomos of ago, and should have a voico in 

^liK.-iirK^ lit?p husband, so also that as all ?»?i(/- wearers are equal, caste 

s should cease ; third, that a true believer and /i7i(;-wearer 

ii'M jw itnpnre, therefore that births, women's monthly sickness, 

death attise tho Lingayat no impurity; fifth, that on death the 

er goes straight to Shiv's heaven, therefore his soul cannot 

-O a lowcaste manor into an animal, therefore he needs no 

Chapter I 


Tstis Lixoi' 

» Ifaitna Journal ■>'^ f (♦"•ntare and Science, XI. 

* TIm PamieSdth i.onduc U are Bhritydchdr condact worthy of a human 

at of Sbiv, ' conduct worthy of a siiirit servant of Shiv, Lingdchdr 

i worthy of a />>if/-»Qarer, Sadilehdr conduct worthy oi « uiut, and SkivdchUr 

rcoada ct woUhy ol tit>iv. 

(Bombay Gazetteer, 




1 LlNOAVAfll. 

funeral rites to help him to heaven or to keep him from wanderin 
on earth an uneasy ghost ; sixth, that as Shiv is an all-powerf oj 
guardian, the wearer of his emblem need fear no evil, the influent 
of the stars is therefore powerless and astrology useless : the evil eye," 
wandering spirits, spells, and incantations can work the Ling^yat no 
hai'm. According to the books Basav taught that there w^aa only o 
God, In practice, like their Brahmanic neighbours, Lingiy 
worship many gods. Fii-st among their gods comes Basav i. 
founder of their faith whom they identify with Nandi or Mah^de 
bull. They also worship Virbbadra and Ganpati whom they consider 
the sons, and Gauga and P^rvati whom they consider the wives 
Shiv, and keep their images in their houses. Besides these membo] 
of Shiv'a family they worship Yallamtna of Hampi in Belldri, Mala 
Mallikdrjun, and Tulja-Bhavani of Tuljdpur in the Nizam's coun 
As a guardian against evil, that is against evil spirits, the great ri 
of the ling is the sun. According to one account Basav was turn 
otit of his father's house because ho refused to say the sun-hymn 
gayatri.^ Shilvauts and other strict Lingfiyats veil their drinking wa 
80 that the sun may not see it : they say the sun is Brahma. Cent 
to the rules of their faith common Liugiyats worship the sun on n 
moon day, and the moon on full moon day. Again according to t! 
books Basav removed fasts and feasts, penance and pilgrimage, rosari 
and holy water, and reverence for cows. This change probably ne- 
passed beyond the sphere of books. At present Bijiipur LingilyatB all 
fast on Shivrdtra or Shiv's Night on the dark thirteenth of Mngh 
January-February, and on Nngpanchmi or the bright fifth of Shrdv< 
in July-August, and follow their fasts by a feast. ,They k 
partial fasts, tliat is they take only one evening meal, on Skrd 
or July-August Mondays. They make pilgrimages to Go 
and to Ijlvi where Baav died in North Kanara, to Sanifam ei 
to P ftrvatg iri in North Arkot, to Qftmpi in Bell^ri, and lo T n! 
in the Nizdm'a country. A few devout Lingayats even visit 
twelve shrines of Shiv in different parts of India.* Many Jangai 
wear rosaries and tell their bead.s ; the water in which a Jangai 
feet have been washed is drunk as holy water or Urfh, ai 
Lingdyats show the cow as much reverence as Brahmanic Hin 
show her. As regards mediators, Basv's efforts to drive Brdh 
out of their place as mediators between men and god ba^ 
been successful. No True Lingayat and not many Affilia 
Lingdyats, except that they cousult them as astrologers, o 
employ or show respect to Brahmans. In practice the Jangam 
as much a mediator to the Lingayat as the Brdhman is a medii 
to the Brahmanic Hindu. In theory as a /tn^-wearer the Liogi; 
woman is equal to the Lingayat man, she ought not to be m, 
before she comes of age, and she ought to have a voice in oh 

' Madru Journal of Literature and Science, II. 144. 

* The twelve gr w* _8^^'^ «hrinM are Bhim Aahank ar on the baak of _ 
Bhima in t:aflQa. nhri^hmoshvar >n glesa. »n t^e NiaAm'* country, Kodirj 
QflrwhAl in the Kortl^^- Western Provinces, Mah^Al in Ujain, Malliklrjun on Bf 
Shail in North Arkot^ N^KnAth in Avandhe in Bhor. OnikAreshvar in Mil< 
Rameshvar in Madura, SomnAth in KithiAwAr, Tryambak in N*nk, Vaidyi 
Parli in the NizAm'a couatry, and Vishvcahvar in Benares. 




bQfiband. In practice tbere is little difference between the 
Stion of a LingAyat and of a Brdh manic woman. The Lingajat 

like the Lingayat boy is invested with the ling, and in this she 
iffera from Brdhnianic women who are never girt with the thread; 

putting on of the bride's lucky neck thread is also the chief 
in a Lingiyat wedding. Still Lingflyat girls are married arf 
Idren and if they come of age before they are married the fact is 
kept carefully hid. They do not eat with their husbands and they do 
not mention their husband's name. A girl has no share in choosing a 
bnBbaud, and a husband may marry a second wife without asking the 
firat wife's leave. The widow's head is not shaved, and, except among 
jMigaiDS, she is allowed to marry again. Still a widow is considered 
unlaoky and is never asked to joyful ceremonies. According to the 
books a woman is as fit as a man to be a religious teacher. In practice 
no Lingdyat woman ever teaches the creed, or, except Basvia or 
religious serving-girls and courtezans, ever adopts a religious life. 
Tbe tbeory that among meu all iing-vfeskrers are equal has been sliown 
to have early broken down. Except in religious houses and when a 
prieitt ia present the diScrent Lingayat subdivisions are socially as 
exclaeive as the different Brdhmaiiical castes. Their feeling to the 
MhArs, Mangs, and other castes deemed impure is in no way kinder 
or more generous than the Brahman feeling. The theory that nothing 
can defile the wearer of the ling has toned down in practice, A 
coniiog of age and monthly sickness, a birth and a death are all 
believed to cause impurity, though, as among Jains, the iinjmritj- is 
much less thought of and is much more esi^ily and quickly cleansed 
lluiD among Brdhmanic Hindus. That the dead Lingayat goes to 
Sbiv'a heaven seems to be a practical belief which has greatly reduced 
ibe rites to the dead, and probably the fear of spirits. Still in 
practice the ling has not been found to protect its wearers against 
«U evil. Ling^yats consult astrologers, fear and get possessed by 
eril spirits, and employ knowing men to cast out spirits, lay ghosts. 
Bad counteract charms and spells, little if at all less freely than 
their neighbours among Brahmanic Hindus. On the whole, says 
Mr. Camine, Ling^yuts are less fettered than Brahmanic Hindus 
by ceremonial details and observances. They have fewer gods and 
have l«.*s.s fear of the dead, the perfohm no miud-rites and they allow 
the widows of laymen to marry. Wlien you have said this, and said 
that ihey do not read Brahmanic holy books, that they hateBrdhmana, 
that> when men meet, instead of calling on Rjim they say Sharnarthi 
ibat is Help Pray, and when you have added that they wear a ling 
and not it sacred thread, that the men shave the topknot and do not 
nhavethe widow'nhead or the mourner's lip, you have about exhausted 
the difference between the two parties. 

IdDgayats have two peculiar religious processions, the 
Kandikoun or Nandi's horn and the Vyjisantol or VyAs' hand. The 
fVory about Nandi's horn is that in a fight with a demon Naudi 
once lost a horn. His followers found his horn and carried it ia 
procesaioa. The horn is now a long bamboo pole wound round with 
ainps of coloured clnth and the top is surmounted by a conical globe. 
About four and a half feet from each side of the pole a plank is 
CMtoDAd, and on each plank is set a braj^s bull. This is paraded 
ebiefly in the month of Shrdvan or July-Auguat. Vyasantol or the 

Chapter I. 

Tkue Lit 

[Bombay Oazotteen 



Lpter III. 





hand of Vyas, the reputed author of the Purlins, ia a hand made 
rags which is tied to Nandi's horn, and, to exasperate Brdhm 
is paraded in streets where Brahmans are numerous. As the na: 
of Vy/is is as sacred to them as the name of a gi 
Brahmans, when his hand is pai*aded, are by no means backwa: 
in avenging the insult by force. Formerly riots were of const 
occurrence, and about forty years ago in one fight in Dharw 
many lives were lost. The parading of Vyaa' hand was forbidden^ 
but in outlying villages the practice is still kept up, and, in 18 ~ 
it caused a riot in Belubi in Bijapur, The story is that when Vyi 
had finished ten of the eighteen Pui"^us, five iu pnvise of Vishnu an 
five in praise of Shiv, the rishis or seers a.sked which god was the 
greater. Vy&s pointed to the five Vaishnav Purnns, and Virbhadra 
in anger cut off his right hand. As Vyas wrote the remaining eigl 
Purdns in praise of Shiv, Shiv allowed his hand to grow ag 
Though in theory the /t?i//-wearer is safe from evil spirits, LingAy; 
are' as much afraid of ghosts as other Hiadaa, and, one of their fi 
holy ashes^ is specially valued as a ghost scarcr. When a person 
possessed his brow is marked with ashes from a censer placed bef 
the bouse image of Virbhadra, or he is sometimes given charmi 
water to drink. They have also faith in soothsaying and astrolo 
and occasionally consult Brahman astrologei's to find the lucky time 
to hold marriage and other ceremonies. 

After a birth a Kabliger, LingAjat, or Maratha midwife washes 
the mother and child in warm water, and lays them on a bedstead. 
The family priest ties a ling round the neck of the child and 
withdraws.* The mother is given dry dates, dry ginger, anise-sood 
or shep Pimpinella anisum, raw sugar, and clarified butter, and " 
fed on boiled rice which is eaten with garlic. She is kept warm 
having a chafing dish set under her bedstead on which garlic rind 
burnt. On the fifth evening the midwife places in the lying-in ro 
an image of the goddess Jivati, sprinkles turmeric and redi">ow 
on the goddess, lays cooked food before her, waveis a lamp about h 
and carries the lamp unrlor cover, for if the lamp is seen by any ol 
bat the midwife the mother and child will sicken. On the twol 
day the child is crndled and named. Each of the women, who com* 
for the naming, brings with her a robe or a bodicecloth for tl 
mother, a jacket or a cap for the child, and two halves of o 
kernel and a pound of millet, wheat, or spiked millet. 

The rite of aitdn or initiation is performed on the unmarried so; 
of all Jangams. When aittiii is performed on a youth he beco; 
fit to hold the highest religious posts ; he may become a mathaday 
or the head of a religious house. A Jangam who has no sons li 
the rite performed at his expense on one of the sons of a lay disci 
of the Panchamsdli caste or of some caste above the Panclmmsd 
The boy who is chosen from a lay Lingayat family should bo 
respectable parents, and his ancestors, both male and female, o 
to the eleventh generation, should not be children of m 

* The five holy whoa arc akahaua or no dying, rtwi/aprakdthmtln or glowing wl 
heavenly light, mnhadauhvanjadilynk or bestower of great pruajwrity, nJjtviAtJ 
Barer from spirits, dcnionB, wiltl Ixjiuts, and rc'iitilcs, Kai tarvajHl/ntdshak or cloan^ 
of all sins. 

" Dctftils are given iu tbc hhirwii StatUtioal Accoutil. 



widows. For this roason tho sons of mathpaiis or beadloa and of 
g.i • or managers seldom undergo initiation or aiUin. A 

1>< - nied when he is between eight and sixteen years old. 

The ceremony takes place at night, that no non-/tn^-wearing Hindu 
may see it. It should take place in one of the seven months ot. 
KatirAtiAAor April-May, Shrdvanor July-Angust,^*Aw'n or September- 
Ocfcobor, Kdrtik or October -November, Mdrgashir/th or November- 
December, Mf'ujh or January -February, and Phdlgun or February- 
Marcli ; and on one of eight days in either fortnight, the second, 
tho third, the fifth, the seventh, tho tenth, the eleventh, the twelfth, 
or the thirteenth. Of the days of the week Monday, Wednesday, 
Thtmsday and Friday are suited for the ceremony : and of the lanar 
mansions or nakshairds, the lucky ones are Anuradha, Hast, Magha, 
Mriff, MqI, Revti, Rohini, Uttara, Uttarashadha, and Uttar- 
bihAdrapftda. If the boy is to become a Virakt or celibate, his 
ir:- - performed in the dark half of the month, and when Jio 

i» i to be a Grihast or householder, the ceremony takes place 

in the bright lialf of the month. In an initiation tho hhtiehuddhi or 
earth purifyiag is tho first observance, Either in a religious house or 
ia » dwelling house a piece of ground eleven and a quarter, twelve, 
or ' ind three-quarters feet, by six and three-quarters, seven 
«4. r eight and a quarter feet, ia dug seven and half to eight 

ter feet deep. Bits of stone and tilo and other impure 
tnken out ot the pit and it is filled with fine earth, which is 
sfierwnrdH beaten hai-d. At the same time the house is whitewashed 
and painted and its floor is cowdunged. On the day fixed a small 
bower with a canopy of silk cloth is raised on the sacred epot. At 
the entrance of tho bower an arch is made of two plantain trees or 
ne stalks. The floor of the bower is plastered with tjnrochan or 
,r, cowdung, cow's clari6ed butter, cow's milk, and cow's urine, 
on it is drawn a parallelogram with lines of quartz powder. In the 
iarge parallelogram throe small parallelograms are drawn with lines of 
quart}!: powder. The first parallelogram which lies farthest from tho 
entrance, measures three feet and a quarter by two feet and a quarter. 
Ill 'd with a folded silk or woollen cloth and is set apart for 

th< !■ initiator. The second or middle parallelogram is six 

foot by two and a half feet. At each corner and at tho centre of the 
Bcoon<I parullologram is set a kalttnh or brass or cijppor vessel with 
a narrow mouth and a domo-ahapod bottom. The five vessels represent 
the five raooths of Shiv and the five <jotrds or family stocks which 
are believed to have sprung from the five mouths. Tlie names of 
the five mouths are Aghor, Ishdnya, SadyojAi, Tntpunish, and 
Vdmdov, and the n.ames of the corresponding family Ht<icks are 
Udd^D, Pauchvanigi, Padudi, Muthinkanti, and Mali. Of the five 
©aaols the Sadyojdt jar is set at tho comer which is close to the 
■ru's right hand, and the Viimdev jar at tho corner which is close 
tho guru's left hand. Opposite the Sadyojtit jar is set the 
'at|>oru6.h jar and opposite the Vilmdev jar is set tho Aghor jar; 
ud in the centre is phwed the Ishslnya jar. Each of these jars is 
ivored with five pieces of white, blaclc, red, green, and yellow 
li, and before each of them are laid five halves of dry 
kernels, five dry dates, five betelnuts, five turmeric roots, 
re betel leaves, and five copper coins. The third or last 

Chapter I 



IBombay Oazetteer' 



Dpolation- , 
; LtxoAtats. 

desigUj a square two feet each way, is close to the eDtrance] 
the bower. This square is covered with a woollen cloth Beat^ and' 
occupied by the boy, whose head has been completely sha^ 
,in the morning, and who since then has been naked and fastii 
•Near the guru are placed a small brass vessel called gilalu 
Kfinarese, a conch shell, and a cane. Behind the boy sits a 
belonging to the boy*s gotta or family stock with a cocoanut in 
hands. This man says to the guru. Excellent teacherj purify tl 
body of flesh and blood, and bows low before the guru. After 
the boy bows low before the guru, and worships an earthen ves 
filled with water, in whose mouth is a cocoauut which is cove 
with a piece of cloth. The boy first marks the vessel with sane 
paste, burns frankincense before it, and offers it molasses, 
betelnut and leaves, and money. At the end of the jar worship ! 
string with five threads is wound five times round the Ishanya 
central jar and is taken to the Sadyojdt jar and is wound five tir 
round it. From the Sadyojdt jar the string is taken to the cent 
jar and again wound five times round it ; and from the central 
the string is carried towards the guru and wound five times ronj 
his wrist. From the guru it is taken again to the central jar, woui 
round it five times, and taken to the Vitmdev jar and wound 6,\ 
times round it. From the Vamdev jar the string is taken to 
central jar, wound round it five times, and then to the Aghor ji 
and wound round it five times. From the Aghor jar the string 
taken to the central jar, wound round it five times, then taken 
the boy, and wound round his wrist five times. From the bo) 
wrist the string is taken to the central jar and wound round it fil 
timo8,and is taken to theTalpurush jar and wound round it five tim< 
When the guru or initiator and the boy are thus seated, the maihpi 
or LingSyat beadle worships the ling which the boy wears and 1 
hand and head. He first washes the boy's ling with seven he 
waters in this order, gandkodalc or sandal paste water, dfiulodak 
dust water, bhasmodak or ash water, shuddodah or mantrodi^ 
purified or charmed water, suvamodak or gold water, ratnodak 
jewel water, and puskpodak or flower water. After these sev^ 
washings, he washes the ling seven times with the mixture calle 
panchdmrit or five nectars, namely milk, curds, clarified butt 
honey, and sugar. In the same way he washes the boy's han(! 
and his liead. When the boy and his ling have been thug washed, 
the guru or initiator gives the bciy a jholi or beggar's four- mouthy 
wallet and a staff, and tells him to beg alms of those who ha^ 
come to witness the ceremony. The boy is given dhdtubhiksha 
metal alms, that is gold silver or copper coins. After gather 
the alms the boy gives the alms with the bag to his guru 
initiator, bows low before him, and asks him to return the bi 
promising to obey all his commands to the letter. The guru 
initiator commands him to live on alms, to share his alms wil 
the helpless, and to lead a virtuous life, and returns his bag. Tl 
boy gives his initiator gold, vessels, and clothes, and gives otM 
Jangams money and clothes, Resides these gifts the initiator 
a handful of copper coins from a heap of copper coins worth 
(Rs. 3|t), and the rest of the coins at* distributed to ordinary 
S^m^nya Jangama. The frirrrla ivnd kinspeople of the boy's pnrei 



preaeut the boy with clothes and vessels ; and the boy is given a bgbt 
repast. Next morning the boy's father gives a caste feast to Jangams 
o£ all orders and to fnends and kinspeople. Aitan can be performed 
on one or more boys at the same time and by the same initiator. 

Diktha, or cleansing rite, is performed on any True Lingdyat who' 
wiahea to enter into a grade higher than his own. It is also performed 
on one who has been put out of caste, to let him back to caste. 
In the main points diksha does not differ from aitdn or initiation ; 
the only difference is that in the purifying it is not necessary that a 
6elibat« Jangam shoald be the performer. His place is often taken 
by » fi&mily priest As the person on whom the rite is to be 
performed ia old enough to pray for himself, no man of his family 
stock is required to sit behind him. The dikxlui rite can be 

■ormed on twenty or thirty persons at the same time. When a 
lOn has uudergoae this rite and has entered into a higher grade, 
bs not eat with his former kinspeople. But this rarely happens 
1^ when a girl marries into a higher grade. The ceremony 
p«rformed at the time of tying a ling on a child's neck or arm is 
al&o called diksha. 

Child-marriage is the rule among Bijipnr Ling^yats, andj if a 
ffirl has come of age before marriage, the fact is kept carefully 
hidden. A Lingdyat girl is generally married between seven and 
twelve, and a Lingdyat boy between sixteen and twenty. The 
ohooiiDg of the bride and bridegroom is managed entirely by the 
parents. Among Lingiyats marriage is mnch cheaper than among 
jJrihxnanical Hiudoa, as no price is paid for the girl. The offer of 
marriogo comes from the boy's parents. When a boy's father can 
afford for his son's marria<;»e, he goes to a family who have 

a dsn ly to make a suitable match. If the girl's parents 

^w irna home and tells his wife that he has secured a 

br, -- - - -:--.■• son. After some days the boy's father, with friends 
and relations, goes to the girl's village, and, through a Mathpati or a 
Ling&yat Oarav, asks those of his castemen and Jangams who live 
in the village. When all have come and taken their seats at the 
girl's, a blanket is spread, some gnlins of rice are strewnon the blanket, 
and the boy and girl are made to sit on the rice. A kinswoman of 
tho Iviy's dresses the girl in a new robe brought by the boy's father, 
and gives her five pieces of bodicecloth, out of which one mnst 
bo white, and the remaining four of any colour except black. The 
woman dresses the girl, puts on her a g^ld ring and other ornaments, 
and fills her lap with two cocoanuts, five lemons, five dry dates, 
fi' ' 1 a few betel leaves. The girl's father presents the 

b- . • suit of clothes, including a turban, a shouldercloth, 

B coat, and a gold ring. The boy and girl then rise, bow to the 
Jangams and house gods, and resume their seats. The Jangams on 
both sides, naming the father of the boy and girl, declare to the 
poople that the boy and girl are engaged ; and the guests are 
cLwmissod with betel leaves and nuts. This ceremony is called 
the *■''' '' '' '■ or engagement. Next day it is followed by the 
hdght 'otrothaL In the betrothal the girl's father gives 

% oaa* presents clothes to the relations of the boy's father. 

Chapter 1 






kapt«r in. 

and leads tbem ont of the village in procession with mi 
When the boy's father reaches homo he asks an 
to fix the days on which the wedding rite and other c 
relating to the wedding should take place, makes a list of the dsj 
* and scads a copy of it to the girl's father. Preparations then heg 
On the first day the laps of five married women are filled with 
of dry cocoa-komel, dry datesj soaked gram^ and betel. A _ 
stone and a wooden mortar are brought outj whitewashed with li 
and marked with red stripes of hunnanj or red colour. Before tl 
are laid bits of dry cocoa-kemel, dry dates, soaked gram nnd 
leaves and nuts, and incense is burnt. The women w' j» 

been filled at a lucky moment, begin to pound the tnn 
the mortar and grind them on the grindstone. On another It 
day the marriage booth is raised, the number of posts in each 
being always uneven. The ornamenting of the booth del 
o.n the parents* means. "When all preparations are finished, 
kinspeople of both parties are asked to live with them dtiririGr 
ceremony. A marriage takes five days. It is held at ' 
house, not at the girl's. On the first day the bride and bi 
sit together on a blanket at the boy's house; and, about eight 
night, a Jangam begins to rub their bodies with turmeric 
The rubbing is carried on by a party of married kinswomen, whe 
first husbands are alive. When the women have finished tl 

and bridegroom rub turmeric on each other. The womc 

a light before the pair and chant. This day is called the argfimr\ 
turmeric day ; and, when the arshnn has been put on, the boy 
girl are considered madmaklu that is husband and wife. The se 
day is called the devharya or god-humouring day. The boy's fat 
gives a great dinner to Jangams and friends ; the marriago garme 
are laid beside the house god and worshiped ; the guru's or 
feet are washed, and the water is taken and drunk by the 
bridegr<x»m and all the family. In a house in which VirM u 
of the house gods, the third day is called the gnggul or iMl./Uiiirn ^^ua 
day. A new earthen vessel is brought to the boy's house, the ne^j 
broken off, and a piece of sandalwood set in it, tipped with oil, i 
lighted, and camphor and guggul that is bdellium, the g'um of I 
Amyris agallocha, are burnt. The earthen vessel is held by a Jangi 
and the boy and girl stand in front of it with the image of Virbl 
in their hands. The Jangam takes up the vessel and the boy i 
carry the god, and, with music playing in fi-ont of them and fol 
by a band of friends, they go to Basavanna's temple. In 
the musicians walks a vadab or bard, dressed in silk, with a 
in his hand, and an image of Virbhadra tied at hia waist, chanl 
the praises of Virbhadra. At the temple, the pair wot 
Basavanna, break acocoanut, lay down the earthen vessel, and 
to the boy's house. Next day the actual marriage c yj 

chief part in which is the tying on of the bride's luck;, 
or mangahutra, is performed by a Jangam. 

Other persons of special position who ought to attend R T.i"<^« 
wedding are the teacher orguru, the matliadiiyya,tind ihejKiv • 
or 6ve pots.namely the gandchdn or manager, the malhpnti or hixjuiJ 


ibe rHJfli^anda or village head, the desdi or hereditary district revenue 
Bupennt-f-ndent, and the deihpdnde or heroditaiy district revenue 
accotmfant. A dais or raised seat called Bhashikate or rice-daia 
is iua<i<' ready, a blanket is spread on the dais, and on the blanket 
wtuii.'u Htrc'w rice. On this rice-strewn blanket the bride and", 
bridegroom are seated. In fi'ont of them lines of rice are arranged 
it) the form of a square, and, at each comer of the square and 
in the centre, a kaliish or drinking-pot is set with betel leaves 
snd a botelnat on it some molasses and twenty-five copper coins 
fire close to each pot. Round the necks of the four corner 
drinking pots two strings are five times wound. One end of the 
•trings is held by the bride and bridegroom and the other end by the 
teacher or guru who sits opposite them beyond the rice square. 
Between the teacher and the rice square sits the maihadayija or 
fuonastery head, with the metigattda or village headman on his right 
and the mathpati or beadle on his left. In the row behind, on each 
«)■' ' 'f teacher who holds the threads, sit the ffctfA^MtttZe and the 
g,: . the deshpdnde on the teacher's right and the gandchdri 

oo iht> teacher's left. The bride and bridegroom do not sit opposite 
each other but side by side and no curtain is held between them. 
Niwr the drinking-pot in the middle of the squai'e is set an image 
of lahvar or Basavanna, and the inanfjalsulra or lucky-thread is 
kept in a cap of milk and clarified butter. The ceremony begins by 
the iHaihpati or Lingiyat beadle bowing ti) the mangaUutTa or lucky 
t-hn-nd a«d proclaiming that it is about to be tied to tho bride's neck. 
T- _'room lays his right hand on the bride's right hand, the 

r»« : ^ lays the lucky thread on \he boy's hand, the jandchdri 
dmps H-aler, lyibhuti or cowdong ashes, and kunku or vermilion on 
Lbe Inckv thread, and marks the bride's forehead with red and the 
boy's with aandal paste. Tho teacher gives the order to tie on the 
lu ' ' ' ' he gandrhdri ties it on the girl's neck, and calls 
^ 71, that is Tho moment has come, beware. When 

11. Ufwaro, the lucky time has come, the gnests throw 

ri' boy and girl. Tho gandchdri ties the hems of the 

bndc'jj ond bridegroom's robes together, and, in the knot, ties a 
lif ^ 







aiiJ"* i 

s:ilt. and split pulse. The teacher lots go tho ond of the 
which are passed round the pot necks, ties a piece ol 
nac!i of the two strings, and binds one to the 
ad the other to tho girl's left wrist. The married 
: liuw u before the teacher, who ends the rite by dropping 
' their mouths. The rice i.s given t-o the beadle, and he 
her four panchacharxits iirc presented with the five quarter- 
^which had been lying bosidethe kalasftas ordrinkiug-pots. 
On ilie last evening the bride and bridegroom ride on one horse in 
fitato to a temple of Basavva, break a cocoanut before the god, and 
reioni nnd U\ke off the marriage wristlets. On their return friends 
waTO t 11 and curds round the heads of the bride and bride> 

IfTooiiJ . !'>w tho rice to theovil spirits. During the passage to 

acid from llic txjmple, when they reach a street crossing or when they 
. ... r ^ niinod house, they break a cocoanut to the evil spirits. 

>rding to their religion tho wearer of tho Img cannot be made 
impure. As a matter of fact Bijapur Lingdyats, besides after a birtU 

Trpk LmoA' 

[Bombay G«i«t 



ipter III. 


and a death, observe ceremonial imparity during^ a woman's mooU 
sickness. The feeling about ceremonial uncleanness, "which has 
basis in the fear of spirit possession, seems to be stronger in 
north than in the south. Among Lingayats in the south n« 
' Maisur a woman's monthly sickness is not considered to 
impurity, while in the north of Bijiipur, in some families women 
by themselves on the first day of their monthly sickness and in otl 
families a woman has to bathe on the first day and to mark 
forehead with ashes^ as the MarAthi proverb saya : The Liugij 
woman puts on ashes and is pare.' Families in which this 
is kept do not let their women touch the house gods during thft? 
sickness. If a Ling^yat girl comes of age before she is mar 
the fact that she has come of age is kept secret. When a mar 
girls comes of age .she is seated gaily dressed under a canopied 
for four to sixteen days. During this time her kinswomen feed 
with sweetmeats and at the end she is sent to live with her hosba 
On the last day the boy's father feasts Jangams and kiuspeoj 
The boy's father g^ves the girl a rich robe and the girl's fatl 
gives the boy a dress. In the fifth month of her first pregfnancy 1 
mother gives the girl a green robe and a green bodice, and 
kinswomen make similar presents. Widow marriage is forbidd 
among priestly families; it is allowed among the laity. A widow's hi 
is not shaved and she is allowed to wear a bodice. But her gl 
bangles are broken and her lucky necklace is taken away. Among 
laity a widow is not married in her father's house, the ceremony| 
performed by a monastery manager or gandchari, not by a S4m4i 
or common Jangam, and women whose first husbands are alive I 
not look at the married widow until she has bathed. The vrii 
bride is not allowed to wear silver toe-rings or knlungars at 
wedding, and may never again mark her brow with vermilion or 
on the lucky neck-thread or viangalsiitra. She is never asked 
marriages or other joyful ceremonies. 

Lingdyats always bury their dead. They make no exception 
in the case of a leper, or of a woman dying in child-birth. Accor 
to the Lingdyat theory death is a cause of gladness, the dead W 
changed the cares of life for the joys of hailds the heaven of Shi^- 
When a Lingayat dies and the few rites are performed he is believed 
by the people to go straight to heaven. It is well with the deiwli 
and the Ltng^yats are leas nervous about the dead walking Alii 
coming to worry the living than most Brahmanic Hindus. Still tbe 
loss to the living remains. A Lingayat death scene is a curious 
mixture. The Jaugams with^ merry music, the widow and 
cHildren mourn and bewail the dead. When fatal symptoms set in, 
& mathadayya or head oi a monastery is called. When he cornea 
the dying person gives him ashes and a packet of betel leaves and 
nuts and say.s, I go to become one with your lotus-like feet.* When 
the dying has breathed his last wish, the Jangams whispers a text 

The Marithi mna : LingdyrUdchi Mykc IdvU rdih dmjhdli pdkh. 
The Mftrithi ran* : Ariya pddArvinddthi tk hoto. 



into hia right ear, and those who stand roand say, His 

is elettQsed.' When all is over the body is bathed and set on 

^er»nda or sopa, and the brow is rubbed with cowdung ashoa. 

o( of the body a Jangpam sits reading passages out of the 

Bcriptures to help the soul in its flight to heaven. A feast* 

■e ready in the inner room and the Juugams go in and eat. ' 

sitting each Jangam sets his right foot on the dead head. 

the feast is over the Jangams are given money and clothes. 

.y is dressed in fine clothes and ornaments and flowers are 

in the head dress. The body is set in a vimdn or gaily canopied 

and sprinkled with powder and betel leavea The beadle 

cloth, tears it in two, keeps one half and lays the other 

on the dead face, and seats himself in front of tho chair and 

gB a bell. Properly on the day of the death, but sometimes not 

VBtil two or three days have passed, tho chair is carried to 

fti grave. The chair is carried by any four caatemen, and the 

pocesedon is headed by a band of music. The poor, though 

Mitrary to rule, sometimes can-y the dead on a bier. While 

the Jangam'a feast goes on in the house of death, the length of 

the deiid man's foot is taken and the grave is dug. The gn^ve is of 

twokinds, a married person's grave and a celibate's grave. The grave 

» niDo of the dead man's feet long and five of tho dead man's feet 

bnad. It is entere d by three steps, the first step one foot wide and 

•86 foot deep, the second step two feet wide and two feet deep, 

thft third step three feet wide and three feet deep. At the bottom of 

•iie grave is raised an altar one foot high and three feet broad. In 

tlie Hid© of the grave, facing either east or norths a five-cornered 

PKJ)>> \ n cut, each of the three sides measuring three feet and each 

"Ubo two sides measuring one and a half feet. On either side of the 

wgg aiche is a small niche one foot across, for keeping lamps. Such 

* grave is called £gnuiJch samddhi or the cow-mouth grave, and is used 

for married men. A celibate's grave is called shUJiar samddhi or 

ftk' ' ' ' ve. Tho celibate's grave has three steps equal in breadth 

*n<i I those of a married man's grave, but of unequal length. 

The first m one foot long, the second two foot, and the third three 

foet. When the funeral party come to the grave the body is stripped 

I itfi_ neb clothes and ornaments, which are either given to a 

^aogam or kept by tho mourners. It is carried into the grave by 

vo kiDsmeo and seated crosslegged on the central altar. The 

Xhly i& generally bare except a loincloth and a facecloth. Sometimes 

is ahrouded in a sack. In either case the ling ia taken out of its 

cover. The cover is given to a Jangam and the ling is tied 

the neck or round the upper right arm of the body. 

cbe is partly filled with ashes and faded bel leaves 

that have been oftered to Shiv and the body is set in 

and the niche filled with cowdnng ashes and fresh 

The grave is then filled with earth. On the grave the 

ft stone and on the stone the Jangam stands, and the 

washes his feet, lays bel leaves on them, and gives 


> The Mftr&lhj riuu : Ydcha dima thuddhjhdUa. 


[Bombay Gazetteer. 





, LisoAvATa. 


id wm 

him and the beadle each 6ve copper coius. Sometimes the beadle 
washes the Sdmduya Jangam'a feet, lays beJ leaves on them, and 
gives him five copper coins. Alms are distributed to all Janganis and 
poor people who are present. Those who have been at the funeral 
• bathe and go home, or go home and bathe. After they have bathed 
' the mourners wash their teacher's feet and purify themselves by 
drinking the water in which his feet are washed. Strictly spee 
True Lingayat funeral rites end with the purifying of the mounw 
In practice the rich, for five days after the funeral, daily aenc' 
a Jangam, wash his feet, and drink the water ; and do not eat 
wheaten bread or sugar. On the eleventh day friends are feasted. 
Nothing is taken to the grave and there is no yearly miod-feaat. 
True Lingayats are bound together by a strong religious feeling. 
Social disputes are settled by the castemen in the presence of eight- 
ofifice bearers, the Ttiatkadayya or monastery head, the gamichdri or 
monastery manager, the maUipati or Lingayat beadle, and five 
representatives of Shiv's five sons, who are said to have sprung 
from the five mouths of Shiv, are supposed to be present. In 
social disputes final appeals are made to the four lion-thrones of 
sinhdaans, the north throne at U j ain in MA lwa, the east throne at 
Shri Shail i n! Korth A rko\ the south throne at ^Jlli^^ inBeUiri, 
and the west throne at Exjlbilp ur. The fifth throne which is filled 
' by the childless Virakt, is known as the ahunya or empty throne. 
Appeals to the four thrones are rare. 

True Lingdyats have lately begun to lay mtich stress on education- 
The Lingdyats of Belgaum and Dhdrwar have raised a fund whicb 
now amounts to nearly £1000 (Rs. 10,000) to help Ling&yat boys to go 
to England to finish their education. Many of them keep their boys 
at school till they are eighteen or twenty, and several of them sen.*^ 
their girls to school till they are ten. As a class Lingayats ard 
pushing and prosperous. 

Affiliated Lingayats include nineteen divisions with a strcngtl^ 
of 83,408 or 14G9 per cent of the Hindu population. The det 
are : 

Bijdpur Affiliated LitufdtfoU, 1S81. 

OivuioK. Molos. 









88,409 I 



Chittture , 



U&nde Tajcln... 



Kofihlbur NlllunUia. 








18,4 H4 

















NAdigs or NihvU ... 


















A're-BanjigS, Adi-Banjiqs, or Ad-Banjios, are returned 1B 
numbermg (3071), and as found scattered all over the distil^ 
especially in Bijapur. They seem to bo MarAth^ who haro 
turned from Brtihmanism to Lingdyatism. They speak K&nare 
and do not differ in appearance from ordinary PanchamsAlis. 
are well-to-do being generally substantial farmers and sometil 
merchants. They hold a few village heaJahipa. They are ont' 




devoted to Jangams, and thoir customs and ceremoniea are almost Chapter II 
the same as tlioso of Truo Lio^dyats. Tbey send their children to Populatioi 
acbool and are a pushiug steady class. 

CllSlTa'dis, or Mhdr Sacristans, are returned as numbering 92. 

ia found in every Lingjtyat settlement. They*, Chalv 

>, who have gone over to LingAyatism and have 

adopted True Lingdyat practices in every particular. Their 
nersona] names are the same as those of True Lingdyats, and they 
oraw BO neatly and so exactly like True Lingiiyats, that it is often 
difficult to distinguish them. Their daily food is millet bread, 
split pulse, and vegetables. They neither eat flesh nor drink 
liquor. They are orderly, sober, and goodnatured. They live on 
alma which they collect from every Lingdyat house. Their second 
aoorce of income are the money payments on festivals and funerals. 
In II LiiiL'iivat community the chief duty of the Chalv^di is to head 
«r ;it processions carrying a large brass ladle across lys 

»Loi.i«t. . At the upper end of the ladle is an image of a bull 
shaded by a serpent's hood. In his hand he carries a brass bell 
which ho repeatedly rings, and on his ankles are small brass bells. 
A ChivlvAdi also attends all rehgious and social gatherings and 
ev and then sings religious songs during the time the 

bn the nieoting goes on. The married women do not help the 

ni ' by minding the house, Brahmanical Hindus rank them 

Wii" L.^.. . .c«j or ilhdrs, with whom they neither eat nor live. They 
are Lingiiyats and their chief gods are Basveshvar and Shiv, and they 
also worship Hanumdn and Yallamma. They wear the ling round 
tbe neck. Both men and women bathe daily before the morning 
neal, and worship the ling like Truo Lingdyata. They marry their 
irirls before they come of age. But they do not provide husbands 
for all their daughters. When they fix that a girl is not to marry 
and IS to become a Basvi or female devotee, a caste meeting ia 
called and in the presence of the CAstemen a Lingdyat priest tolls 
the girl that she has been made a Basvi and is free to live as a 
courtezan. Divorce and widow marriage are allowed. They send 
their children to school, take to no new pursuits, and on the whole 
arc a stuady class. 

Chatters, or Bodicecloth Sellers, are returned as numbering c'ho 

420, and as found in Bfigalkot, B£gevadi, and Indi. They seem to 
be a branch of Ndgliks, though they have now no connection with 
tbe Niigliks. They speak Kanarese and do not differ in appearance 
from ordinary PanchamBdlis. They make and sell bodicecloths. 
They often combine weaving with husbandry and are fairly off. 
TX..,.. n-.. devoted to Jangams, and in customs and ceremonies do 
from True LingAyats. They send their children to 
iicLi'Jijj, Dut tttke to no new pursuits, and fall or rise as the weaving 
of bodicecloths thrives or fails. 

OA'nigB or Telis, that ia Oilmen, are returned as numbering 
06,952, and as found all over the district. They are divided into 
Saijiin Ganio;^ who forbid, and K^ekul Ginigs who allow widow 
in ' Kjtrekul Gdnigs are by far the commonest especially near 

d iu the uorth of Biigalkot, They are found in all isu'HQ 


fcpter in. 


villages. Of late many have given up oil-making and taken Bol€ 
to husbandry. The name Kdrekul probably means Black-cl 
though the rich make out that the word ia Kharekul or True-cIi 
The names in common use among men are Bas&ppa, KallApj 
. Lingdppa, Ndgdppa, and Shivdppa-; and among women Gaura^ 
NAgawa, Shidawa, and Yallawa. They have no family nt 
except place names and calling names. Karekuls have many he 
or family stocks, members of the same stock not being allowed 
intermarry. The oil on his clothes betrays the oilman, but drc 
a G^ig in clean clothes, and smear his brow with cowdang ashj 
and he cannot be told from a True LingAyat. They are stroi 
dark, and square-built, many of them with pleasing faces. Th^ 
home tongue ia KAoarese, but they also know Marnthi and Hinc 
stAni. They live in one-storeyed houses with mud and stone wa 
and flat roofs. They keep servants to help in their calling and oi 
bullocks and buffaloes to drive their oil-mills. Their staple fooc* 
millet, split pulse, and vegetables, and they are fond of sour 
pungent dishes.. Their special holiday dishes are the same as the 
of True Lingdyats ; and like True Lingdyats they neither 
animal food nor drink liquor. Except the religious who eat or 
twice a day, most take three meals a day beginning with an 
morning breakfast. Before they sit to eat they worship the Un^ li 
True Lingdyata The men wear the headscarf, waistcloth, coat, a^ 
shouldercloth ; and the women the ordinary robe and bodice af 
the fashion of True Lingayats. Twenty or thirty years ago the m^ 
used to wear knee-breeches of khddi or coarse country cloth, a tl 
bordered shouldercloth, and a small headscarf. Both men 
women use ornaments shaped in True Lingdyat fashion. A wot 
in ,her husband's lifetime marks her brow with kujiku or vermili 
wears glass bangles, and ties the mangaUuira or lucky tl 
round her neck. As a class they are orderly, hospitable, hon« 
goodnatured, hardworking and thrifty, but rather dirty. Th^ 
chief calling is oil-pressing, but many of them also cultivati 
Hereditary headmen do not press oil, but live as husbandme 
The women mind the house and retail oil in their shops, 
the children drive tho bullocks which are yoked to the mill, 
harvest time the women and children carry food to the men in t]| 
fields and scare birds from the ripe crops. As a class they 
well to do. They rank themselves with True Lingdyats, thoaj 
True Lingdyats do not eat with them, except in a religious houl 
In religion they are stauach Lingayats and are married and burifl 
by Jaugams. They imitate True Lingdyats in their religiol 
beliefs, practices, and customs. Their gods are Malayya of SI 
Shail in North Arkot, Basavanna of Bagavddi in Bijdpur, Yallai 
of Parasgad in Belgaum, and Tulja-Bhavdni of Tuljdpur, wl 
shrines they occasionally visit. They keep all leading Lingdj 
fasts and feasts. Child marriage is tho rule ; widow marriage 
allowed and practised ; and polyandry is unknown. Their mt 
and death details do not differ from those of True Lingayats. 
social disputes are inquired into and settled by the deaal of Ko!1 
in Bdgevddi, whose office is hereditary. They send their chile 
to school, and are a steady poshing class. Sajjan Gdnigs, like '" 




G&aigti, are Kngr- wearing oil-pressers. Tliey are neither so 
Toua nor bo well off as the Kdrekuls. Most of them are oil- 
re, and the rest are husbandmen. They are not strict Ling£- 
being married by Brdhmans and keeping many Brihmauical 
ms. Unlike the KArekuls, they hold a cnrtaiu between the 
e and bridegroom and the Brdhmau priest ties the mangalsuira 
In' 'Tlace. They do not worship the five jars, and nee the 

mark the time for the ceremony. They do not allow 
.re. A widow's glass bangles are broken on her 
' if h and are replaced by silver bracelets. Their social 
are settled at meetings of the costemen headed by Brah- 
In other respects they do not differ from Karckul GAnigs. 
Gavlis, or Milkmen, are returned as numbering 351. The 
inar}' Kdnareso milk-seller is generally a Hande Va;!ir by caste, 
at Bij.'ipurj MarnddpuT, Bagalkot, Ilkal, Kaliidgi, Talikot, 
, and perhaps a few other large villages a few families of 
are found who have come from the Maratha country, chiefly 
the neighbourhood of Pandharpar in Sbolapar. These people 
: Mar&thi, and in some instances, as at Mamd^pur, hate been 
led in the district only since the famine of 1876. Almost all are 
or Nand Gavlis. The other division, which is very small 
Ids a lower social position, are called Mardtha or Khill4ri 
w. Tlje names in common use among men are BAlya, Genu, 
du, Namaji, Narsinga, Sdvlya, and Sbidhu j and among women 
■'''kobAi, Gangdbdi, GirjAi, Hirnai, Malkai, and Rukhmabii. 
iWr commonest surnames are Bhairv^i, Dahinde, Gadydppa, 
\, GydnAp, Jagingavli, Kileakar, Kisdl, N^mde, and Pangud- 
Each surname represents a separate clan, and persons 
the same surname are not allowed to intermarry. They look 
ry Marutha Knnbis and dress like them, except that the 
>egnn to uso the KSuarese rumdl or headscarf instead of 
a turban. They seem to prefer living not in villages 
huts in the fields, under the same roof as their cattle, 
are a poor people. Except a few brass pots for milking 
ing milk, their house goods are almost all earthen vessels 
Ite together worth 8». to £1 (Ks. 4-10). Their staple diet 
t bread, split pulse, and vegetables. They are fond of 
and pungent seasoning. Their holiday dishes are boiled rice, 
eavcfied whenten cakes eaten with molasses and water, and 
lad minced and mixed with curds. Sometimes butter is 
th bread, but clarified butter is never used. They bathe 
00 a Week or once a fortnight. Some bathe on Sundays and 
ip tlio house image of Khaudoba and offer it milk. On 
a the offering is of dres.qed food. As they are Ling&yata 
n, thf-y neither eat flesh nor drink liquor. As a class they 
1. vdrking, honest and thrifty, but dirty. Their 

L' . - :y culling is to tend cattle and sell milk, cnrda, 

r. 'I'heSr women help by making curds and butter and by 

• •^'- curds, and butter in the streets. They carry milk in 

i!urds in earthen pots on their heads. Their children 

le. They sjxtnd almost the whole of their earnings 

j» fix ^thing. They often run into debt to meet marriage 

• •n-31 

Chapter III. 




[Bombay Quct 



ipt«T III. 



and other special expenses. Lingdyat Gaylis eat no food ibat is i 
cooked bj their own castefellowg or by Lingdyat priests in a religio^ 
house. Mardtha Gavlis eat from the hands of Mardtha Gavlf 
Lingdyat Gavlis, and Lingdyat priests. The men work for 
iiours in the morning and two hours in the evening, and the childrfl 
'graze the cattle all day long. They never stop their work. Tb< 
chief divinities are Khandoba, and Ambdbdi of Tuljdpnr. They m« 
pilgrimages to Pandharpur in Sholdpur, Jejuri in Poona, Tuljdpi 
in the Nizam's country, and Shingndpur in Satdra, where are 
shrines of their family deities. They offer their gods cocoanat 
dry dates, plantains, and camphor. The days sacred to their goc 
are Vaaara in September -October and Chhatti or the sixth day 
Mdrgehirah or November- December. Their house deities are mi 
of metal. Their priest is an oyya or Lingdyat priest, whom th« 
call to officiate at their marriages. They respect Brdhmans, &i 
ask them to find out lucky days for holding marriage ai 
other ceremonies. Their holidays are IToli in February-Marc 
Ndgpanchmi in July-August, Damra and Vivdli in Septemb»i 
October, and Chhatti in November -December. They fast on tl 
Ekdclafthts or lunar elevenths of each Hindu month, on Shivrdtt 
in February, and on Gokulanhfami in July- August, and brea 
the fast on the next day with a feast. On the Mondays 
Shrdvan or July- August and the Sundays oi Mdrgshirah orNovembe 
December they take only one meal in the evening. Their gui 
or religious teacher is a Lingdyat Jangam who lives at Mddalgdv ne 
Pandharpur and is known by the name of Chandra9hekhdp[ 
He is not manned and chooses his favourite pupil to succeed 
his authority after hia death. They believe in soothsaying, ai 
occasionally consult astrologers and palmists to tell their fortai 
They y/rofess not to believe in witchcraft or ghosts, because th« 
say that a Gavli never becomes a ghost. Like other local Lingdyal 
the navel cord is cut, and the child and the mother are bat' 
in warm water. Unlike other local Lingdyats the mother ai 
child are made to lie down on a mattress covered with a blanl 
or a quilt. The mother is given dry cocoa-kernel, dry gin[ 
and pepper pounded together and mixed with clarified butter 
eat. She is held unclean for five days, during which she is f^ 
on butter and boiled rice. On the fifth the house gets a 
coating of cowdung, and the mother's clothes are washed. In tl 
evening the goddess Satvai is worshipped, and a wheaten cake is l« 
before her. A Lingdyat priest ties the ling round the child's nee 
and receives eleven coppers as his fee (4Jd.) Next day a Brahmj 
astrologer is paid a copper or two, and is told to choose a lucky nai 
for the child. On the twelfth they call five married women to dinn< 
The five women hang a cradle on two ropes, cradle the child 
name it. After they have named the child their laps are filled vrii 
a mixture of wheat, gram, millet, cocoa-kernel scrapings, af 
molasses. The rest of the mixture is given to all present by hani 
fuls. In the ninth month, or in some month between the ninth ai 
the twelfth, the child's maternal uncle sets it in his lap and cuts 
hair with a pair of scissors. The child's father gives the uncle a h.^ 
cocoa-kernel, betel leaves and nuts, and he in return gives the chi 

gMTi4tok j 


a tap and a jacket. When a match is proposed, the fathers of the 
hf 1 with soma of their castemeii go to a Brahmau astrologer, 

an: ,^ him the names of the boy and girl, ask him whether 

the njArriage will prosper. If the stars favour the match a little 
sugar ia put iu the girl's mouth, sugar and betel are served, and- 
the gueata withdraw. iShortly after, on a lucky day, the boy's father, ' 
with some of his relations^ goes to the girl's, and lays before her 
hoaae-gods a ykanti or ear ornament, a sari or wire uock ornament, 
kdtdoms or wristlets, a robe, a bodicecloth, a piece of chintz, five 
other bodicecloths, two packets of sugar each weighing four ounces, 
ft OOOOftnat, five plantains, five dry dates, five betelnuts, vermilion, 
five turmeric roots, and five pinches of rice. Of the things laid 
before the gods, only one packet of sugar is left before them, the 
rest are afterwards laid in the girl's lap. The girl is dressed in the 
robe and bodice, and docked with ornaments. A Lingayat priest 
tooobos her hand, and her lap is filled by five married women. 
Brihmans, Ling/tyat priests, and other guests are dismissed with 
sagikr and betel. The girl's father treats the boy's father and his 
party to a feast of polis or sugar rolly-polies, rice, and an onion salad. 
The boy's father fixes the marriage day, and goes to the girl's village. 
Ou the day after their arrival the boy is rubbed with turmeric paste 
and the girl with what of the paste remains over. The boy and girl 
•ra bathed in different jfHr^iJf or squares with tdmhyd^ or drinking-pots 
alcaeh corner andasLring wound round them. At the time of mari-iage 
five Imltiskai or narrow-mouthed copper pots are worshipped as by 
other Lingiiyata. The threads passed round the siirgis are folded 
and made into kankans or bracelets which the officiating Lingayat 
priaat ties to the right wrist of the bridegroom and the left wrist 
of the bride. The bride and bridegroom are made to stand facing 
other, in two baskets containing millet and rice, and a curtain 

eld between them. The priest drops some grains of rice on the 
s of the pair; and the guests follow his example. After the 

moay is over the bride's father feasts his castefellows. In the 
evening the bride and bridegroom are seated on a bullock, 
tbo bride's head is decorated with a network of flowers, and the 
bridegroom's with a marriage coronet j and they are led in proces- 
aion to the village temple to worship the god. In the temple they 
break a cocoanut and lay a pice before the god, and mark their 
brow4 with sacred ashes from the god's censer. Shortly after 
the v(^rdt or married pair's return -proceBsiun comes the sdda 
or cloth-preaenting when the bride is handed to her mother-in-law. 
Then follows a caste feast given by the boy's father, and after 
the feast the bride and bridegroom go to the bridegroom's house. 
With tliia la-^t ceremotiy the marriage festivities end and the guests 
return to thoir homes. Girls are married when between one 
month and twelve years old, at a cost of 128. (Rs. 6) in rich families, 
10«. (R«. 5) in middle-class families, and 68. (Rs. 3) in poor families. 
A Bon'a wedding costs a rich family £5 (Rs. 50), a middle-clasB 
Iwnily £1 (Rs. 40), and a poor family £3 (Rs. 30). Widow marriage 
nod polyg:\my are allowed and practised ; and polyandry is unknown. 
liug^yui Qavlis, like other LingAyats, bury the dead ; and perform 

Chapter I 

• AirriLIATl 










the regular Lingiyat funeral rites. Somo of tbe funeral party bat 
others purify themselves simply by rubbing their bodies 'with cowdai 
ashes. All return to the house of mourning, sprinkle oil mixed vn\ 
water and harli grass on their feet, and go home. On the third 
.the mourners go to the burial ground and raise a small mound 
•earth over the grave. On their return the ft^ur bearers are made 
look at their own reflection in a cup of oil, and are given smi 
pieces of hardened molasses to eat. On the third or twelfth d 
dressed food is laid near the grave, as an offering to the depart 
Boul. Crows ought to eat the food : if they will not the offeriog is give 
to a cow. On the twelfth day a easte-foast is given. They keep 
memorial ceremony in honour of the dead every year on the third 
Vaishokh or April- May. Their death expenses vary from 8». 
14*. (118.4-7). The customs of Maratha Gavlis differ little from thoi 
of MarAthds. They are bound together by a strong caste feelinj 
and inquire into and settle social disputes at caste meetings whc 
decisions are enforced under pain of loss of caste. They do 
send their children to school, take to no new pursuits, and show 
signs of improving. 

Hande Vazirs, also called Handekumbars or Shepherds, al 
returned as numbering 2003, and as found in Bageviidi, Bij4p« 
Hungund, and Indi. They are Kurubars or shepherds who h»^ 
become Lingiyats and respect no priests but Jangams. TJiey 
left off meat and liquor, and changed sheep-rearing for blaal 
weaving. They are generally better off than their Brdhmat 
brethren. They are strict and zealous Ling^yats. 

Handeyavarus, or Handcuavarus, are returned as nuraberit 
585 and as found only in Bd,ddmi and Bijdpur. Handeyavarus ti 
Lingdyat Kabligers or fishers, who have given up fishing and haj 
separated from their parent- stock. They have no gotrds or famf 
stocks, and proved relationship is the only bar to marriage. Unl 
Brdhtnanical Kabligers they neither eat fiosh nor drink liqa^ 
As a class they are dark and square with a lively expressifl 
They dress like Lingfiyats, and have nothing to distinguish tbeC 
from other low class LingAyats. They are generally husbandmeo* 
often with an hereditary village oflfice as talicdr or watchman, and 
pujdri or ministrant, as at Parmanna's temple at Hovinheppargi. 

Their women mind the house and help the men in the field. Thfl 
hold a low position among Lingdyats, and Jangams will not eatj 
their houses, though many families have been Liugfiyats for sevei 
generations. Even in the oldest families the I'mg is not put on ui 
marriage. Their chief gods are Basavanna, Parmanna, and Yalla^ 
ma ; and Jangams are their only priests. Like Brdhmanical Kabli 
they have mnch faith in soothsaying and witchcraft. They 
married by Jangams, and the rest of their observances are the a 
as those of Brdhmanical Kabligers. Like Lingdyats they buiy tl 
dead and their funeral ceremonies are attended by Jangams. 

Kala'vants, or Dancing Girls, are returned as numbering 151 
as found in Bijdpur and other leading centres. They eat only fi 
the hands of true Lingdyats, accept Jangams or Lingjtyat priests, i 




meat and drink no liqaor, and in no important particalars differ 
the Ling&yat coartezaos of Belgauin. 

KOBhtiB or Weavers, also called Nilkanth Linga'yats, are 
ktnmed as nambering 8010, and as found in all the weaving towns 
large villages of the district. The names in common use among * 
are Basappa, Chendppa, Chenbasd,ppa, Chenmallappa, Gur- ' 
lUppa, Giinippa, Gurningdppa, Gurubasdppa, Irappa, Irsaugilppa, 
kjipa, ifadfippa, Nilkanthappa, and Shivningappa; and among 
'women Basavva, Bhorawa, Gangawa, Guruningavva, Ithawa, 
tllavra, NAgawa, and Shidawa. Appa is added to men's names 
afua to women's names. Like True Lingdyats their surnames 
place and calling names, as Honvattagi, Kupkaddi, Nimbdlkar, 
fl T>^rvi. They arc divided into Bilejadara and Padsalgijadars, 
her eat together nor intermarry. The FadsalgijjldarB have 
•m the Bilejadars who refuse to eat with them. Thoy 
iVB sjxty-three family-stocks, some of which are Jirdgi, Banni, 
rl, Menas, Hitta, Hong, Sar, Kadigya, Vanki, Dharm, and Gtm5. 
"Tbe family stocks of the bride and bridegroom should be different as 
icmbtTs of the same family stock are believed to be descended from 
ic same person. They are like True Lingdyats though somewhat 
?r and weaker. The in-door sedentary life at the loom makes 
vrenk and pale. Th«y are of middle-height, and plump, with 
leuc-y t.) tliibbiuess. The skin is brown and the expression dreamy, 
are deep-set, and the nose is flat and long. The women 
trongertban the men as they do the out-of-door starching and 
"ng of the warp yarn. Like other Lingilyats they speak an 
zt K Anarese in-doors. Most of them live in dirty one-storeyed 
w ' 1- of stone and mud and flat roofs. Only the rich 
s to help in their calling. Their staple food is 

split pube, vegetables, and chatni or relish. They freely nse 
. crarlic, and oil in seasoning food and are fond of sour and 
dishes. Their holiday dishes are poZi* or sagar roily-polios, 
- ur dumplings, ghevai/a or vermicelli, and godhihuggi 
isked wheat boiled with molasses. PoHs are made on Da-aara in 
Pk^mbor-October and on Ilolim Phdlgun or February- 
u* on Nth/fjanchmi iu Shrdvan or July-August, and 
aluhafurt/ii in lihndrnpad or August- September, and 
on Hindu New Year's Day in Chaitra or March -April and 
in A»hvin or September- October. They give caste feasts 
hoDonr of betrothal, marriage, and a girl's coming of age, 
iBil on days when vows are paid to the gods. Men bathe daily 
id some worship the house gods before dining. Women bathe 
Mondays and 'rhuradays. Like other Lingavats they do not use 
They smoke and chew tobacco but never touch intoxi- 
; or rlriigs. Men shavo the head including the topknot 
•bin and allow the moustache U} grow. They wear a headscarf, 
'''-th, a jacket, awaistcloth, and a pair of shoes, A rich 
la £1 \(Js. (Rs. 15) a year on dress, a middle-class Koshti 
ti ;Ks.8-Kl), and a poor Koshti 8«. to 10«. (Rs.4-5). The 
lents worn by men are a chank, a silver ling case, khuhds or 
caskets, bangles, earrings, a twisted waistchain, and a gold 


Cbapt«r 11 L 

. ArriLiAn 

rBomtfty Oi 



Shapter III. 


Lis Oil VATS. 


necklace among the rich. A rich maa's ornaments are worth oveti 
(Ra. 100), a middle-class man's over £4 (Ra. 40), and a poor mt 
£1 10*. to £2 (Rs. 15-20). The poorest have not even the silver /in 
case and wrap the ling in silk. The women wear their hair in bt 

• or tie it in a knot by a woollen thread. Girl-s deck their huir 

* flowers until they come of aga Women dress in the usual rol 
and fall-backed bodices of different colours. They dress in 
ordinary full MarAtha robe without passing the skirt back betwc 
the feet. They generally wear sandals. Rich women 8]>end 
As. to £1 6s. (Rs. 12 - 13) a year ou dress, middle-class wot 
14*. to 168. (R3.7-8), and poor women lOa, to 12*. (Rs,5-0). ' 
ornaments worn by women are, in the ear jfiamkis and tfhani 
a nose-ring, for the neck the mangalsutra, hanir]itikkaa.nA vajrutik 
and for the waist a kambarpatta which is worn by girls till 
come of age. Besides these rich women have many other oi 
ments on which they spend £15 (Rg. 150) and upwards. A 
%Vo man's store of ornaments is worth about £2 10*. (Ra. 2^ 
However poor they may be, after marriage all Koshti men ms 
wear the Hng, and all Koshti women mast wear the lucky ne 
thread or mangalsutra. They are onlerly, even-tempered, he 
working, and fairly clean, but unthrifty. They weave sheets, rol 
and other articles of khddi or coarse cloth. An ordinary weaver Cak 
five days to weave a pdsodi or sheet twenty-one feet long by 
feet broad. He sells it for 6s. (Rs. 3) a price which leaves hi 
2s. (Re. 1) of profit. A good weaver earns 16s. to I8s. (Ra3>9) 
month. They teach their boys to weave and take no apprent 
They have many tricks, one of the commonest being to we 
uppermost fold very tightly in the hope that buyers will thii 
whole is equally closely woven. Their goods have a great.^ 
among husbandmen, shepherds, Lam^ns or carriers, fishei 
Vadars or earthmeu, and other castes who work out-of-doore 
require strong cloth. They make these articles to order or 
sale. Some till land with their own hands, others employ servs 
to work for them, and pay them 3s (Rs. 1^) a month with 
or Ss. (Rs. 4) without board. Resides their pay, servants are ere 
year given a blanket, a waistcloth, and a jacket. Field laboc 
are paid in corn or money. The wives of husbandmen help tl 
husbands in carrying their food to the fields, in reaping, 
ginning cotton, and in milking cows and she-buffaloes. ~ 
weavers are busy and fairly prosperous, as most of them 
hardworking. They borrow to meet marriage and other spc 
expenses generally at about two per cent a month. They eat fc 
in the same row with other Lingdyats in a Liogdyat religic 
house when a subscription feast is held in honour of the 
They serve food to Mardth^s, Dhangars, Parits, Nhdvis, and oT 
inferior castes and hold them beneath them. They eat no fo 
except what is prepared by their castemen. They rank themsolt 
with True Lingdyats. Men women and children work all 
long. They are busy during the marriage season and idle d« 
the rains. A family of five spends £1 to £1 4s. (Rs. 10-12) 
month. Their houses cost £5 to £10 (Rs.50-400) to build and 1-f 



to 19». (Rs. 7-9) a year to hire. Their house goods are worth £5 to 
IbO (Rs. 50-500). A birth costs 10*. to £3 (Rs. 5-30), a boy's 
marriage £3 to £10 (Rs.3O-100), a girl's marriage £2 to £8 {Rs.20-80) 
ADd a death 1 Is. Bd. to £3 (Rs. 5^-30). Of the doath expenses is. 
IBs. 2) are given to the grave-digger and 2*. (Re. 1) to the Jangam 
orpriest. They are careful to keep the leading rules of the LingAyat 
fcilh. Nilkaiith or Shiv and Mallikarjan of Shri Shail in North 
Arkoi, Basavanna of Kalyda in Maisur, Fdrvati Rdchaana, Mallayya 
of Parvatgiri in North Arkot, Lakshmi, and Dhanyddevi are 
tbeir family deities. They are specially devoted to Mallikdrjun of 
Shri Shail and Nilkanth. They make pilgrimages to the shrines 
of tbeir family gods. They respect BrAhmans and call Jangams 
to officiate at their marriage and other ceremonies. Their 
'■"'■- ns teacher or r7wru is a Lingdyat who lives at Talikot. He 
1 Nilkanth Svami. He leads an unmarried life and is 
^iicctiJed by his favourite pupil. His claims on and his duties to 
bis di.soiples are like those of other LingAyat teachers. They 
worship village and local deities and believe in witchcraft and 
tootlisaying. The greatest magician and exorcist in Bijdpur belongs 
to the Hatkdr caste^ though he calls himself a Khosti ; hia name is 
Chcnbasavanna Malldppa, and he lives at Ilkal in Bij^pnr. Their 
*^«toms do not differ from True Lingnyat customs except that they 
*eep ceremonial impurity for five days on account of child-birth, 
Aej are bonnd together by a strong caste feeling. Social disputes 
inquired into and settled at a meeting of the men of the caste 

their guru or teacher, and in his absence by a vialhadayya or 
of a religions house. They send their children to school and 

them reading writing and working sums. They take to no 
pursuits and show no signs of improving. 

Kudvakkalgers, or Hoemen, are returned as numbering 8108 

" fts found in considerable numbers all over the district. They 

mmonest in the valley of the Don. They are divided into 

!Avatis or Fine-payers, Minigadiks or Patched-shoe wearers, 

odis or Fools, and Yattiraks or Bull-wounded. Minigadiks 

Yattiraks are seldom seen. They wear the ling but the men 

the top-knot and they are married by Brdhmans. In other 

l^ffticnlarB they do not differ from Trne Lingdyats. They are a 

''nltivating caste. They hold one or two village headships in 

fiijipar and though by no means wealthy, are fairly off. They 

rwjk below Tnie Lingdyats who do not eat from their hands. They 

d their children to school, take to no new pursuits, and show no 

igns of rising. 

Kumbha'rs, or Potters, are returned as numbering 5429 and aa 
found in pretty large numbers all over the district. They are divided 
' ' ' V nt, Mariitba, Pardeshi, and Telang Kumbhdrs who 
' her nor intermarry. Pardeshi Knrabhdrs eat from 
.yjit Kuiijbh.'iris.lmtLingAyatKumbhivrs do not eat from Pardeshi 
blidra. The following particulars belong to LingAyat Kumbhdrs. 
names in common use among men are Chenmallayya, 
ipdtUppa. OamshidAppa, TrAppa, and MallAppa ; and among 

Chapter II] 





I Bombay Qacett 



ipter III. 



women BasayvB, Baslingawa, Gurawa, Ishvarawa, Malla^ 
Niluvvaj and RAclievva. Men add the word appa or father an' 
women the word avoa or mother to their names. They have no 
family names, bnt their caste name is added to their personal namifl 
' as a surname. To look at they are like I-^anchamsnli LingAyats, stron^P 
* and over the middle height. They are dark and dreamy. The face 
is round with deep-set eyesj thin lips, and lank or curly hair. Th 
homo tongue is a corrupt Kanarese. They live in mud a: 
stone bailt houses one storey high. They keep their clothes a 
their houses as clean as their dirty work allows them. Except a i& 
metal platters and drinking cups their vessels are all of earth. Th 
have domestic animals, and, though it is against their religion, th 
keep asses. The staple food, which is bread and split pulse, coi 
2^d. (It a.) a head. They season their food with onions, oil, chillii 
and tamarind. Rice is cooked at marriage and coming of age feasi 
on the cradling of a child, and on the coming of a daughter-in- 
to her father-iu-law'a house for the first time. Besides rice, polis 
sugar roily -poliea are prepared on these occasions and on liolida^ 
On Divdli in Aahvin or September-October and on New Year's Di 
in ChaiiraoT March-April only shevaya or vermicelli is made, and 
Ndgpanchvii in Shvavtm or July-August kadbue or sugar dnmplin 
They eat out of a platter sot on athree-legged stool called aJdan 
in Kanarese. The devout bathe daily and the rest wash every seco 
day. Before eating the strict take the wearing ling out of its cloil 
wash it, rub it with a«hos, and mark their brow8 with ashes. Th 
eat no flesh and take neither liquor nor narcotics. A few use gd 
or hemp flower in private, bat any one who is caught is put o 
of caste. Most of them shave the head clean and the face exce' 
the moustache and eyebrows, and a few wear the top-knot. Mi 
generally dress in white, and women in black or in red. Worn 
part their hair down the middle and tie it behind in a knot. Thi 
do not deck their hair with flowers or with false hair. Men dr 
in a waistcloth, an overcoat, a headscarf, and a pair of shoes 
ornaments worn by men are the hhUdidltHor gold earrings, a silver Ir 
case, and a twisted waistchain. The women's dress includes a ro 
and a bodice. The upper end of the robe is passed over the hi 
and the right shoulder, the skirt is gathered in puckers, and 
puckers aro thrust in front into the waist without passing the e 
back between the feet. The women's ornaments aro the mavgalsul 
and liJcka for the neck, vakis for the arms, silver bangles for tl 
wrist, ghantis, jhamkisj vdlis, and hadigadis for the ears, and nai 
for the nose. Girls wear silver waistchaina till they come of 
Few keep a store of clothes for holidav wear and moat wear th 
ordinary clothes newly washed. As a class they are orderly honi 
and thrifty. Most of them arp potters. A few are husband 
tilling their own fields or growing crops in other fields on paym 
of half the produce. They earn £110*. to £2 (Rs. 15-20) 
month. They are good farmers but have no skill in growing t! 
richer crops. The women help the men in selling pots and 
reaping and working in tho fields. The potter takes a lump 
clay puts it on his wheel and turns it into a rude pot. The pot 
taken off and hardened in the sun and ita surface is smoothed ai 

I £5 to £S0 (BL30-a«>te 
r £10 to i 
10-20), mmd 


(BiLMO.JIOl^mgid's ■■iii^ £1 to 
~ £110«L (Ba.a>U). 

<tf Ski Skfl « 
^rlcDt, VMkida of Biebaii, TkUaai^ of T«iv » OUfaidi 

in Belgaom. fi— m of Wift iiiii li bB^^b^TjAkma of ^nogad 

in Bel^asm, sad TJ^JIhmwimi ef TM^i^t i» Ae IBaim's ooatry; 

They tadke i»lgiiiM|w to the dkaw» of tfceie ifajriw Tlwy knp 

BoofBoIeto &■* OB ffliual** in Ymbnmj sad feHt on tk» next dny. 

Ob ;8«niwN or Jolj.Aagal Moad^s Akt fuk tffl cfmiiig aad 

liMii faui in a— ynj wiik itafgamm. Thoir ii|B'iil—l IwfhiB jb 

» celibate Jsagwa, w^oae Iwu w ito JP^il ■ ao c e e da hna afier In 

d«tL He adriaes bis diaciphi to feUov tbe rnlea of tkeir nligaoa 

and to lead a -rirtaoaa Kfiai Tlay wonUp TJTkga gods aad oAv 

tbMB foixL Their toaple mtnHtraata are nea <S Ae Gamv 

CMka The wonwn and childTBa of tlna caste nller ma^ from 

ipirit attacks and aeek the hdp of wmmwhi to rdiere them 

«^o wwcaMiil. SooM exoraata aei Ae poneased penoA befbra 

tt idol of Virbhadra» nibbia f o r ab e a d with aaered aanea, and cane 

bin tiU the deril leaves him. The images of buiwehtiM gods aro 

Bade of ailrer orbnaa. Soaw of them are foil figures and others 

no bnata. Ererj morning Uieae goda are bathed, nibbed with 

oovdong aahee, xoeeaaed with frankiaeenaB or bdelliom, and 

pMsnled with cooked food. On hobdajs when a Jaagam 

ksober i^ feasted, the gods are sprinkled with the water in whioh 

tLti .T'ingum's feet have been washed, and are presented with food 

■e Jangam has left the house, for they hold cbe Jangam or 

"uiuAa god higher than the metal god. They never plnck hal 

hurm^ bnt ml them from ma i kfa iU or their women and lay them 

■OS. After a birth the mother and child are bathed 

- a bedstead. The mother ia made to drink half a pouad 



CBoml)ay Qazett 


ipter III. 


of clarified btitter and is given dry cocoa-kemel and mola 
to chew. For thirteen days she is fed with rice and clarii 
butter, and kadbua or sugar dumplings. On the fifth day 
child and the mother are again bathed^ and the house is wasl 
with cowdung. On the same day they smear a stone with moh 
and ground cocoa-komel, turmeric powder, and redpowder, ai 
present it with sweetmeats. The young mother and her rolatiol 
are feasted. In the evening the midwife worships the goddess Jivs ' 
offers her sweetmeats, waves a lamp about the goddess and takes 1 
away under cover, for if any one sees the lamp the loothor and chil 
will sicken. The midwife is paid 1 { an7xa. On the same day tl 
Jangam ties the liytg round the arm of the child. On the thirteen! 
the mother is feasted with ])oIis or sugar rolly-polies and the chi 
is laid in a cradle and named. A rich man's wife keeps her re 
for a month, a middle-class man's for three weeks, and a poor mat 
for a fortnight. They seek a bride from their relations. When ti 
go to ask a girl, they take two cocoanuts and three-quarters of 
ponnd of sugar and lay them before the girl's gods. The girl 
father asks them to a feast of kadhns or sugar dumplings al 
rice, and, on the next day, treats them to a feast of polia) rice, ai 
vegetables. When they go to the betrothal, they present the _ 
with a robe worth 8«. (Rs. 4) and two pieces of bodicecloth ot 
white and the other red, and ornaments according to th< 
agreement. The girl is seated on a blanket covered with rice, 
forehead is rubbed with ashes, and her brow is marked with 
powder. Her lap is filled with a cocoanut, five plantains, five pie 
of dry cocoa-kernel, five dates, and five turmeric roots and bo(j 
leaves are served to the guests. Along with some Jangams relatic 
are feasted on sapag Jcadbus that is kadbua without raw st 
and on molasses and rice with clarified butter. Next day polit 
sugar roUy-poliea, vegetables, and rice are made ready for dini 
and Jangams are asked to grace the feast. Some days before 
marriage the bride is brought to the bridegroom's, and, on a luci 
day, both the bride and bridegroom are rubbed with turmed 
and oil. Next day Basavanna is worshipped and a feast is giv« 
in his honour. On the third day after the turmeric rabbii 
the bride and bridegroom are bathed in a square or aurgi, 
married women mark the brows of the pair with soot to keep off 
evil eye. Married girls wave a lamp round their faces, talce the 
inside of the house, and dress the bride in a white robe and a whi 
bodice dyed yellow with turmeric. The bride and hridegrooot^ 
are decked with ornaments and the bridegroom is dressed in U6! 
clothes. The bride and bridegroom are seated on a bullock and 


to worship the village Mslruti or Basavanna. Meanwhile the five jn! 
are worshipped, and, on their return, the bride and bridegroom are 
seated on low stools in front of the jars, the bride sittin 
bridegroom's left. The Jungam tics the luck-giving no> 
matiijalsvtra round the bride's neck and throws grains of nee 
their heads. The guests also throw rice and musicians play, 
the evening the vardt or married-pair return-procession starts 
the temple of the village god. After a band of musicians corao 
bride and bridegroom seated on a horse, the bride in front. A 




haplei is tied to the bridegroom's tarban and the bride's bead is 
ered with a net-work of flowers. Behind the horse walk women 
lighted lamps, followed by men. On reaching the temple the 
and bridegroom alight and enter the temple. The ministrant 
8 a coGoanut, offers it to the god, and waves a burning piece 
of camphor before him. He takes half of the cocoanut, pots a 
' "' ho9 in it, ties it in the skirt of the bridegroom's shoulder- 
aches the brows of the bride and bridegroom with ashes 
Ir^Lu Lbo frankincense burner, and puts a little ashes into their 
months. On reaching the bridegroom's some women come oat of the 
koQse with burning lamps and with pots filled with water. They wave 
tbe lamps before the bi-ide and bridegroom and wash the horse's 
koofs with water from the pots. To gnard the pair from the evil 
eje, a cocoanut is broken and its pieces are thrown to the right and 
to the left. The bride and bridegroom are seated on one low stool 
atil "I to eat from the same dish. The bride puts 6ve morsels 

of ' :i khir or vermicelli boiled with milk and molasses into 

tbe brifii'groom's mouth and the bridegroom does the same to tho 
hride. After feeding each other they each feed themselves. After 
diDDor they mb each other with fragrant powder. The bride applies 
ttadal powder to her husband's body, presents him with a packet of 
WttI leaves, bows to him with folded hands, utters his name, stands 
brforo him, and is told by her relations to sit on his left hand. 
The bridegroom rises, rubs the bride's throat with sandal powder, 
Barko her brow with redpowder, and speaks her name. When 
tkia ceremony which is called utani or sandal paste rubbing is 
otCT, tho bride's mother hands her to her mother-in-law saying, 
Henceforth she is your daughter. On receiving the girl the 
oother-in-law gives her robes and bodices. All the boarding 
Kpenses daring a marriage are borne by the boy's father. Two 
*wn! after marriage, or when the girl is old enough to remain with 
'cr-in-liiw, her father-in-law sends for her and she cornea 
iiied by eight or ten relations, who are treated to two feasts. 
'I^is ceremony is called gharhharni or house-filling When a 
fpt\ oomes of age she is seated in an ornamental frame till the 
I Wventh. eleventh, fifteenth, or twentieth day after coming of age 
~' ■ the first lucky day. Before the 2>/«otAffl« or marriage 

<n ceremony no one tonches the girl except the woman 

■batheii her every day. On the day of the ceremony the girl 
bbed with scented oil and bathed in warm water. She ia 
led in new clothes and decked with ornaments. Friends and 
fon» with Jangatns are asked to a feast of polis, rice, and 
TOgotablea. Before sitting to oat her food, the girl bows at the feet 
Jaognms and they say, Be tho mother of eight sons. In 
in^ the husband and wife sit on a carpet with a lamp on 
' !iom, rub each other with fi-agrant powders and scented 
-'■ tcigether to bed. For five Saturdays and Wednesdays 
beginning to live together as husband and wife tho pair are 
"lowed to eat millet. During the third month of a woman's 
cy her longings are satisfied, and, in the fifth month, her 
invos a feast and presents hor daughter with a bodice. After 
toe body is washed, di'osscd, decked with ornaments, and 

Chapter III 


[Bombay Oaxett 



^pter III. 

riUATKD • 

I Ktiaradtis, 


placed Bitting supported by a etring hnng from a peg in the 
A viaihpati or Lingavat beadle comos, applies some aahes to tL 
forehead, and the body is carried to the grave either in a frame orq 
a blanket according to the family's means. The grave is nine of 
I dead man's feet long, seven of them broad and seven deep with 
one of the sides a niche for the dead body. Green leaves of any ■ 
are thrown into the grave, the grave is filled with earth, and its i 
covered by a stone slab, the tnalhpati stands on the slab, is giv€ 
money, and his feet are worshipped. The funeral party bathe 
and, on returning home, tuke green leaves or blades of durrn grt 
with them and throw them where the dead body was seated, 
little raw sugar is distributed among them, they put the headscs 
of the dead man on the head of his son, and hand him over to tl 
eldest male member of the family. On the fifth, relations and friend 
with Jangama are asked to a feast of godin hvggi or husked wh« 
boiled with molasses. Girls are married from their infancy till tht 
tVrelfth year. Widow marriage and polygamy are allowed 
polyandry is unknown. They are bound together by a strong ca 
feeling. Their social disputes are settled by Jangams and by oX 
of their own caste who is called katiimani or head. This oounc 
lays down ca.<ito rules and any one who breaks the rules is put out 
caste. Before the incarnation of Basavanna a kattimani was th« 
teacher ; since then his place has been taken by Jangams. Th^ 
Bend their boys to school and keep them at school till they know h<; 
to write road and work simple suras. A boy is seldom kept at schc 
after his fourteenth year. They take to no new pursuits. 

Kursalis, or Baatords, are returned as numbering 1423 
as found all over the district. Several castes have Kursali 
bastard divisions. There are Sittdr Kurs^dis among Satyrs, Loh&r 
Kursiilis among Lobars, and Dhangar Kursdlis among Dhangars. 
Sutars eat but do not marry with Sutar KnrsAlis. The Kursjilia 
of diil'crent castes neither eat together nor intermarry. They havo 
the same surnames and the same gotrds or family stocks as their 
fathers. Thoy follow the colling and keep the customs of the caste 
to which their fathers and mothers belong. 

Kuruvinshettis, also called niro or Big Kumvinavara, 
returned as numbering 2446 and as found all over the district 
considerable numbers escept in Bjtgovddi, Indi, and Muddebil 
They are the same people as the Chile or Little Kuruvinavars, 
are described under Half-Lingdyats. The only difference is 
the Hire Kuruvinavars became Lingayats long before the CI 
Kuruvinavars with whom they neither eat nor intermarry, 
names in common use among men are BasAppa, Kill^ppa, 
Ndgappa ; and among women Basawa, Mallawa, and Nigai 
Their surnames are place and calling names. Thoy havo sixty- 
gotrda or family stocks, which are arranged in two equal groups, 
one called after Shiv and the other after Shiv'a wife Pilrvati. ITie 
stock names Ashva, Benni, and Dharu are included in tho first group* 
and Arishiv, Dev, and Guru in the second group. They are of 
middle height with well-cut features. Thoy live in one-storej 
houses with flat roofs and stone and mud walls. They neither 




ioach a dog. Their daily food is millot bread, pulse, and 

stables. They neither eat flesh nor drink liquor. The men dress 

, sbort fvaisteloth, a shouldercloth, a jacketj and a headscarf ; 

jthe women in the ordinary full Mar^tha robo without passing 

flldrt back between the foet, and a bodice with short sleeves and" 

back. Both men and women have a few gold and silver 

mts, and tbe well-to-do have spare clothes for holiday use. 

ape even-torapored, orderly, hardworking, and hospitable, bat 

3T nntidy and dirty. They are not allowed to keep a mistress 

in of loss of caste. Trade is their hereditary calling and most of 

are grocers. They carry their stores on bulls, because they 

»ve a rule that they must not own or even touch a bullock. They are 

liugiyats and are married and buried by Jan gams. Their family 

,CDds are Nilkanth or Shiv whose chief shrine is at Shri ShaU in 

I Knrih Arkot and Shiv's Nandi or bull, who is represented in their 

> iMMse shrines by a silver image of a bull with a white cloth on 

bis back. They keep many Brah manic and Lingayat fasts and 

fawts, and some go on pilgrimage to Shri Shail in North Ai-kot. 

Their spiritual t«acher is a Lingdyat Jangam named Nilkanthiippa, 

who lives at Chdngiri in Madras. They marry their girls before 

tliay come of ago. Their other ceremonies do not differ from those 

of True Lingiiyats. ITiey send their children to school and are a 

ikcady class. 

Hftlga'rs, or Flower-sellers, are returned as numbering 253, and 
ai foand only in Bdgev&di and Indi. Malgars trace their descent 
from the serpent who girdled the waist of Adirudra or Shiv. 
^iBy are also called Areb^nangirs and are probably Maratha 
ooaterta to Lingdyatism. Their names, surnames, and family 
ftooks are the same as those of other Lingayats. Their family 
gods are Kovleshvarling and Vigoncharling. They are divided into 
I Aahlbhairavs, Nalcharm^, Patravanshds, and Konkapgaln^ts, who 
again subdivided into Dakegdrs, Hungers, Latmdls, Meghmddis, 
Nil' " ■ ivB, Namutmals, Pushpamava Huchird&jds, Tantrapils, 
ac'. ^'iUs. All these divisions and subdivisions eat together 

and intermarry. Except in their calling, they resemble other 
liingdyats in evei-y respect. Among them there are Phuldria or 
lloriste and Mitlis or gardeners. They grow vegetables, flowers, and 
fruit and sell them in markets. Their women help them in gardening, 
aoll boaqitots and (lower garlands, and make tinsel chaplets and 
flower net-works to deck the brides' hair, llioy are very busy 
dnrixig the marriage season. 

Na'gliks are returned as numbering 1213 and as found all 
ovor the district except in Bugevadi. N^gliks who are a division 
of Shimpis have given np the business of sewing for that of 
dy- ' They are found at Chirchun and Tambe in Indi, 

at ' u BiigevAdi, at Ilkal, and in large numbers at Biiapur 

ftod Biigrtlkut, where they prosper as dyers and husbandmen. 
Tbuagb most men keep the topknot, all wear the limj and are 
Lingdyats in religion. They do not pass through the dikstui or 
imrtfying oeromony. They are married and buried by Jangams, 
and Jtu^ama are their religious teachers. 






rBombay Oazetteert 



ipter III. 


Na'digS, Nha'vis, ot Barbers, are returned as numbering G926 
and as found in considerable numbers all over the district. They are 
divided into Lingayats, Mardthds, Bajpnts, and Sajjans, who neitUc 
eat together nor intermarry. Of these the Mardth^ have come: 
.the Maratha country, the Rajputs from Rajputilna, and the Sajji 
from the Nizam's country in the 1877 famine. All of them have M 
their language, dres'9, customs, and religion, and are found only 
small numbers in towns and large villages. Sajjans speak Teh 
are poor, and most of them are field labourers. The bulk of Bijjlj: 
barbers are Liugayats, to whom the following particulars belong. ^ 

They trace their origin to a man whom Basaveshvar chofl 
to shave his children, called him Hadpadhampanna and baa| 
his descendants earn their living by shaving Ganamguls or 
Jangams devoted to the worship of Shiv. Ho also told theui 
to give shidha or uncooked food to a Jangam before eatii 
their first daily meal. Strictly they ought to shave no 
except Lingdyats, bat this rule is not kept and they sht 
men of all castes except the depressed classes. Strictly 
Hadapadhampann/is or Lingjlyat barbers should never shave al 
the middle of the day, now they shave at any time of the day. 
men's names are Basdppa, Gadigeppa, KallAppa, Mallappa, Nilipj 
and ShivAppa ; and the women's names Ambawa, Bassai 
Mnllavva,Mudevva,Nilawa,andShankaravva. They have no surname? 
and add the word nddig or barber to their names. They are divided 
int<i five baffis or subdivisions each of v?hich has a guru or teacher at 
its head, and the family stock of the teacher is the family stock of 
all under his authority. The names of the five stocks and teachers 
are,Mu3dibagiNandbasavayyawho liveaat Indigrdm, Kupaskantibaj 
Suppayya, Malebagi AyyAnavru, Padalbagi AyyAnavra, 
Balikautibagi Ayyanavru. The members of the different stocks 
with one another and intermarry. Members of the same stock 
together but do not intermarry. As a class they are strong auf 
muscular, of middle height and oithur brown or dark-skinned. The 
differ little from ordinary husbandmen. Their home tongue 
Kanarese. They live in ordinary one-storeyed houses with atone 
mud walla and flatroofs. Except a few brass platters and drinking 
cups, most of their vessels ai-e made of earth. Their staple food 
bread, pulse, vegetables, and buttermilk mixed with millet dot 
Kadhiisoy sugar dumplings are made on A^a^^anc/miiiu July-Acgt 
and saitag kadhus or steamed balls of doughouGaneshchaturthi in Ju^ 
August. On other holidays they feast on polls or sugfar rolly-pol 
and on shevnya or vermicelli on the Hindu New Year's Day 
March -April. Men bathe daily and women on holidays and U 
days. They worship their gods only on holidays, full-moons, 
now-moona. Thoy neither eat flesh nor drink spirits. Men she 
the head including the topknot and wear the moustache, 
dress in a waistcloth measuring seven feet and a half, a should^ 
cloth, a headscarf, a jacket, an overcoat, and a pair of shoes 
sandals. Their ornaments are bhikbdlts for the ear, bangles 
the wrists, and twisted chains for the waist. Women gather thi 
hair in a knot on the neck and do not deck it either with false 
or with flowers. They dross in rod or black robes and bodiC 




){ different colours. In putting on the robe they gather one end 

ito packers and tie them in a knot at the •waist in front, the 

upper end is passed over the left shoulder and head and hand's 

looaoiy on the right shoulder. Their ornnmeuts are jJuimki and 

'^hctnti for the oai-, a nose-ring, mungalsutra, santikka, kdrimatitikica,. 

mujUikka for the neck, silver vdkis and bangles for the hands, ' 

Ichaina for the feet, and jodvis for the toes. Their dress is fairly 

I clean and simple. All their ornaments are made by goldsmiths. A 

rich man's clothes are worth about £1 (Rs. 10) and his ornaments 

about £2 10«'. (Rs. 25) ; a middle-class man's clothes are worth 10*. 

(Rfii. 5) and his ornaments 6s. ( Rs. 3) ; and a poor man's dress is worth 

6». (Rs. 3). A rich woman spends £1 to £5 (Rs. 10-50) on her dress 

WJd ornaments, a middle-class woman IGs. to £1 12«. (Rs. 8-lG), 

Mid a poor woman 4^. to 10i(. (Rs, 2-5). They are an orderly and 

Wpitable class, but wanting in modesty and cleanliness. 

Besides practising their hereditary calling of shaving some havo 
tttkeu to husbandry. In large towns their monthly income varies 
from £1 10». to £2 (Rs. 15-20) and in villages from 12jj, to lC<i. 
(li*.6-8). In addition to these money payments they receive gi-ain. 
They have of late sufiFered from the competition of outside barbers. 
Among those who follow field pursuits, some hold their own lands 
Md others hold as tenants. The wives of husbandmen help 
tlUi men chiefly in reaping and ginning cotton. As well-to- 
"0 persons got themselves shaved oftener than they used to 
wbera are prosperous. As a class they are fairly free n'om debt. 
They rank wth Nhi,vis or barbers, and call themselves NAdigs. 
Bnibmans, Lingayats, and other high caste Hindus do not eat Avith 
"Jtttn, and they in turn do not eat with MhArs, Mangs, Chambhsirs, 
*od Mu.sidmdna. They keep no holidays and generally work from 
morning till evening. A family of five spends £1 to£l 4s. (Rs. 10-12) 
»toouth. Their houses cost £2 lOs. to £10 (118.25-100) to build 
•od 6rf. to 'iss. (Ra. J-2) a month to hire. Their house goods aro 
I'orth £1 t,o £10 (Rs. 10-100). A birth costs 6s. to £1 (Rs. 3-10), 
» I'oy's marriage £10 to £50 (Rs. 100-500), a girl's £1 to £3 (Rs. 10- 
30), ftnd a death 3*. to £1 (Rs. U-10). 

Th^ V :ii-/. n religious dass. Their family gods are Mallikjlrjun of 
"^' North A rkoX BasaTOnnaofBagevadi inBijdpur.Mallayya 

^f ^' ir, Virabhadra of Yadnr in Belgan m, Yallamma 

^' ■' mm, and Banashankari of Bidami^ in_Bij{tpur. 

"' (o the shrines of these deities. Jangams, 

*'■ • called to officiate at their marriage and 

Owior ccrenit mies. Thoy keep many Hindu holidays, chiefly Shimfja 
^^ iloli in Februnry-March, N<iypanckmi in July -August, Mnrnavvii 
»nd Druara in September-October, and Divali in October. On 
^n>W//m or Shiv'a Night in January- Fobruaiy they keep acompleto 
**-''t, and feast on the next day. Thoy fast on all Sfmtvan or July- 
Anjfiist Miindajs and break their fast in the evening. Tlieir gunm 
'w* thit Jangams who teach them their religion. Their house gods 
^^oi brasfl made by local goldsmith.s, in the form of men, women, 
""lis, and the ling. They havo groat faith in witchcraft and often 
•Wk tho services of sorcerers to drive out devils. The sorcerer 

Chapter Ii: 


• ArriLiATiT 



FBombay Oatettoer. 


ipt«r ni. 



tios a small closed cylinder full of holy ashes round tho arm or the 
neck of the possessed person aa on amulet. Sometimes a pa] 
amulet is also tied. When a NhAvi woman is brought to bed, 
child's navel cord is cut, aud the mother and child are bathed in wa: 
•water and laid on a bedstead. The mother is given cocoa- ken 
and raw sugar to chew, and is fed with rice and clarified butter, 
the third she is fed on millet grit boiled soft. The Jangaui ties t 
lintj round the child's arm on the fifth day, and in the evening t 
midwife worships the goddess Shatikawa or Satvai and takes awa' 
the waving lamp under cover lest any one may see it. Five daya 
after delivery a poor woman begins to move about the house and 
look to her house affairs ; a rich woman keeps her room for 
fortnight or three weeks. In proposing a match, the boy's &,t 
takes with him a cocoanut and three-fourths of a pound of su 
lays them before a family god, and serves sugar to all who 
present. In the hashiagi or betrothal the boy's father with 
relations goes to the girl's house, presents a sadi or robe wo 
8«, (Rs. 4) and two pieces of bodicecloth one red and the o 
white each worth Is. (8 aa.) to the girl who is seated on a bl 
covered with rice, marks her brow with redpowder, and preso 
her with ornaments. A piece of white bodicecloth is given to t; 
cirl's mother. The girl's lap is filled with five half cocoa-kern 
Full of sugar, five betelnnts, two or five plantains, and five dat 
Tho boy's father rises and tells the guests that he has received the _ 
as his son's wife and serves sugar. On that day and on the ne: 
day ho and his relations are asked to two feasts one of had _ 
or sugar dumplingfl and tho other of polls or sugar rolly-polies. 
After fixing the marriage day tho girl is taken to the boy's if tho 
parties are poor, but if they are well-to-do the boy is taken 
to tho girl's. On the day before the marriage both of them ot^ 
rubbed with turmeric, and the boy's father gives a caste foaslfl 
Next day the boy and girl are bathed in a aurgi or square with w^ 
narrow-mouthed brass vessel at each comer and a string rouod.- 
thoir necks and tho girl is dressed in a white robe and bodice 
the boy in his holiday dress. At the time of marriage the five j 
are worshipped as by True Ling&yats, and tho bride and t! 
bridegroom are seated on low stools or on a cloth strewn with ri 
Tho priest and the guests throw rice over the pair, and t 
Jangams tell the bridegroom to tie the nuuiyahtutra or luc 
necklace round the bride's neck. Betel is handed to the gues' 
In tho evening or on the next day the vardi or m»rried-pi 
retum-proces.sion starts for the temple of some guardian dei 
Behind a band of musicians come the bride and bridegroom sea' 
on a bullock, gaily dressed, and with the bridegroom's br 
adorned with a tinsel chaplet They alight from the bullock, 
worship the deity and mark their brows with holy ashea Next day 
the bride's and bridegroom's parties throw guldl or redpowder 04 
each other and return home. When a girl comes of age she ^ 
seated for twelve days on a low stool or in a frame. On the twe^ 
she is purified by a bath, and, on some lucky day, the phalshoh 

or consummation ceremony is performed. In the fifth or . 

seventh month of her pregnancy she is presented with a bodice 

After death the body is wasbed and supported in a sitting position 

bj A cord hung from a |>eg iii tlie wall. If the dead is a man he is 

tiressed in his daily clothes and a boaquet of flowers is stack in his 

head-dress. A woman is dressed in her daily robe and bodice^ and 

if her husband is alive her brow is marked with redpowder. The", 

corpse is tied in sackcloth or in a worn blanket and earned by 

four persons to the grave-yard. The rest of the barial ceremony 

h in the True Lingayat form, the only difference being that NhAvis 

to&ke the beadle or nuxthpati a present of five coppers. After the 

barial, men bathe and return home carrying five stones and some 

blades of durva grass. Meanwhile the house is cleaned, a 

' a or narrow-mouthed brass drinking pot filled with water is 

the house, tlie five stones and durva blades are laid before the 

p«:4., and the relations of the deceased bow before it. The Jangam 

dtstri bates a little raw sngar to his relations. In the evening 

kinspoople and friends are asked to a feast of rice, polia, and kkir, 

lad the beadle or mathpati is given shidka or uncooked food. Friends 

9B/i relations who have come &om other villages leave the house 

epi^ next morning without even bidding the mourners goodbye, 

bocgnsB they may not speak to the mourners. Enr\j and widow 

are allowed, polygamy is practised, and polyandry in 

They are bound together by a strong caste feeling, and 

their social disputes are settled by a council composed of the head 

of a Lingdyat convent, the katiimani or hereditary head of their own 

CBiste, and some of the caete elders. Any one who breaks the rules 

is put out of caste. Boys are sent to school and kept there till ihey 

are able to read write and work easy soms. On the whole thqr 

are a well employed and well paid class. 

Nilga'rSt or Indigo-dyers, are returned aa nnmbering 094 and 
as found in smaU numbers aJl over the district except in Sindgi. 
Their head-quarters seem to be in Indi and Bij&pur. Th^ are 
generally found only in towns and leading villages, and are 
speciaUy nnmerons in the large weaving towns sooth of the Krishna. 
The names in common use among men are Basippa, Ir&ppa, 
lUch^ppa, Sangappa, and Shivbasfoca; and among women 
BbAgawa, Chenarra, Gumbasarra, IChalavva, Nimbawa, and 
Bhindamgavra. The men add the word ofpa or father and tbe 
women awa or mother to their names. They bave no ^^mjjy namesi, 
their sunames being the names of jibees and callings. They haf« 
no divisions bat include many differenk goirds cr family stockai,^ 
the chief of which are Chitramkar, Kadaraarm, Kilaadaarni, 
Khamarm, Mdiamarm, MisaldaTra, Hohalnavni, and Tanginarm. 
Tbev are a fair chss of middle height, ttrongly made, and 
fliteUigent The wouon are like the men, only slimmer and hand- 
somer. Tbeir home toogne is K4narese< Thej live in ordinary 
hoosos one sloref high wiw stone and mnd walls and flat roofs. The 
inside of the hocMe is ^l^vvp c o r e ted witli sooft Cram the fire-place 
which the tlnwad is boued' They hare on servsals, bat emnknT 
J labooffvra* They are laod— fa entsm and poor cooks, thmr 
pie food hmag nudleft. P"ln^ •ad. regeliables. Tbey are;fond of. 
sharp, ana oily dliMi. Their l^liday dishes are kidJmt or 

Chapter ] 


* Amvua^ 





ipter III. 



sugar dumplingB, poUe or sugar roUy-polies, and shevaya or vemaicel 
Like all strict Lingayats they neither eat flesh nor drink spirit 
and do not differ from other Lingdyats either in character or dre 
They dye cotton thread black and a few cultivate in a amall waj, 
.'The black dye is made of indigo, lime, plantain-tree ashes, ani 
tarvad seed. Their trade has suffered greatly from the competition 
of foreign goods, and as a class they are much in debt. Thei 
borrow to meet marriage and other special expenses at three pt 
cent interest. They rank below True Lingayats but ai-e allowed 
to eat in the same row with them in their religions houses. The 
eat from Ndgliks and Koshtis, but not from Raddis, KumbhArj 
and Kudvakkalgera. Men women and children work froi 
morning till ton, and, after the midday rest, begin about two ai 
work till lamplight. A family of five spend £1 to £1 1( 
(Rs. 10-16) a month on food and dress, A house costs £5 to £^ 
(lis. 50-200) to build and 4». to 16*. (Ks. 2-8) a year to rent. The 
are Lingayats and are devoted to Jangams who offioiate at all 
ceremonies. Their religious observances and social customs 
L'ttio from those of True Lingayats. Their teacher is a Jar _ 
who lives at Shidgeri in Kolhllpur. They send their children 
school, and teach them to read write and work easy sums. Th« 
take to no new pursuits, find on the whole are rather a fallii 

Fadsalis are returned as numbering 2205 and as found in lat 

numbers in B^d&mi and in smaller numbers in Ddgalkot at 

Hunguud. The names in common use among men are Basdppi 

Lingdppa, Mallappa, SangAppa, Shivrndrappa, and VirsangAppa; and 

among women Basavva.Mallawa, Nilawa.Niugawa, and Phakiravva. 

Their commonest surnames arc KuUeniyavru, Kirgeyavru, 

Maddaneyavru, Mengniyavru, Munddsdavru, and Sarangiyavru. 

Perikx&a bearing the same surname may intermarry, but members 

of the same gotra or family stock cannot intermarry. They are 

said to have one hundred and one family stocks, of which the chief 

are Ajjmjlmniyavru, Ainbliyavru, GinmAuavru, Habsenavru, 

H<itdnavru, Hangondnavru, Harkenavrn, Heggadiyavru, 

Malgenavm, Murtiyavru, NiirAnavrn, Nigaldavru, Phargiyavro. 

Rdkttnavru, Sannuravru, Sbiddhmallavaru, Tangauavru, ai 

Vadgdnavru. They differ little from other Lingd.yats, wearing tl 

ling, and rubbing ashes on their brows. They speak KAnarea© ] 

homo and abroad. They live in ordinai'y houses and keep the 

clean. As they wear the limj they neither eat flesh nor drixik 

liquor. Their daily and holiday dishes are the same as those of 

other LingJiyats. All bathe daily and worship the ling like Trai 

Lingdyats before eating thoir morning meal. Their daily fc " 

charges amount to 2i<i. (li a.) a head. They dress liko Langdyal 

Weaving is their hereditary calling and they use Bombay made 

yarn. Their condition does not differ from that of other weavers, 

with whom they rank, especially with HatkArs. Their workiog, 

hours are the same as those of other weavers and they take twet 

holidays in the year, two on account of Shu'riiira in Februai-y-Mi 

one on the full-moon of Mngh or February-March, five on accoi 




o( Iho Shimga holidays in March, three on account of the Hinda New 

Year's Day in March-April, two on account of Ndgpanchnii in July- 

Anini'st. two oa iiccvant oi GaneshchaftirfM in Au^ist-September, 

t) on account of Divdli in Soptember-October. They aro strict 

''", und in a religious house in the presence of a Jangam 

1 to eat their food in the same row with True Lingdyata. 

'hi of god is Siiloshvar. Among Padsfllis child marriage ia 

ile, widow marriage is allowed and practised^ polygamy ia 

ftUowed but seldom practised, and polyandry is unknown. Their 

38 are conducted by Jangams. Their customs do not 

ler from those of pure Lingdyate, except that the guggul 

" ession in honour of Virbhadra is compulsory,^ They have no 

le caste bead, but some sections of the community, such as at 

uledgndd and other places, are under a headman, who is called 

ia. He is a married man and his office is hereditary. They are 

rly off, though not so prosperous as the Hatkars. They send 

ir boys and girls to school. Samsalis and Shuddhasdlia aro not 

fotmdl in Bijapor. 

Shiva'cha'ris, or Lingr»yat Hatkar Weavers, are returned as 
Dombcriug sixty-eight, and as found in Baditmi only. They are 
Liagflyat Hatkars who have long been separated from Brlhmanical 
flatk^rs, and have given up their old customs and taken to Lingdyat 
customs instead. Jangams marry and bury them and they have no 
eottnection with Brdhmans. 

Half Linga'y&t Hindus include nine divisions with a Halt 
strength of 26,-105 or 4*64 per cent of the Hindu population. The 

Bijdpur Half Lingdyaf^, ISSl. 










Umk&T* „, 















Pfcrito ... .. 



ToUl ... 










Chik Euruvinavars are returned as numbering 235 and as 

ifoand only in Hungund. The names in common use among men are 

Ayyiippa, Basdppa, and Virbhadrdppa ; and among women Basawa| 

iM^vva, and Pdrawa. Men add appa or father and women avva 

lor mother to their names. They have no surnames, but take their 

|cai^ DAmo Chik Kuruvinavar after their personal names. Like 

Korvinahettis they have sixty-six gotrds or family stocks, among 

which ate Are, Bile, Menas, and Mine. The family stocks of the 

Lbrido'a niother''8 father and the bride's father should be different from 

of tlio bridegroom's father and of the bridegroom's mother'u 

They are dark, stout, and sturdy. KAuarose is their home 

10. They live in ordinary ill cared for ono-storeyod houses 

Chapter I 




IDttoOa Aro given under True Lingiyftta. 

fBombay Oaut 



ipter III. 



with flat roofs and stone and mad walls. Their boose goods inclt 
a few blankets and qnilts and a few storing and cooking vea 
mostly of earth. They do not employ servants and only those 
are husbandmen own cattle. They hare a strict rule against gelc 
.'bulls and never own bullocks. They rear goats and fowls, bat 
not keep dogs, as any one who is found keeping a dog is at once pot" 
out of caste. Their daily food is millet bread, pulse, and vegetable 
and their holiday dishes are sugar roUy-pohes, boiled rice, 
tamarind sauce. They eat goats, sheep, hares, deer, and fowls, 
drink country liquor. They vow to offer a goat to Limbadev, 
after offering its life to the god, cook and eat its flesh. On ev« 
Mdgh or January-February full-moon, they kill a goat in honour 
Yallamma. Men bathe only on fast and fenst days and worship 
their house gods when they bathe. Women bathe once a weel 
Men keep the top-knot and moustache and dress in a short 
qjoth, a shouldercloth, a jacket, and a headscarf. The wom< 
wear the hair in a back-knot, and dress in the full Maralha rol 
without passing the skirt back between the feet and a bodice wit 
short sleeves and a back. They generally use country clot 
Well-to-do men and women have a few gold and silver ornamer 
and have spare clothes for holiday use. They are hardworkii_ 
and thrifty, but rather dirty. Trade is said to be their hereditary 
calling, but none are now traders. Most arc weavers and tho r€ 
are husbandmen. They weave plain coarse cotton cloth and es 
4i<i, to 9ti. {3-6 as.) a day. They buy cotton thread from loc 

spinners and sell tho cloth to local cloth dealers. Women ai 

children help the men in their work. Their calling does not niakd 
them rich, but keeps them from want. They seldom lose money in 
their trade, but are often required to borrow to meet marriage and 
other special charges. They rank below True Lingdyats and Sdlis, 
and above Shimpis and Kurubars who eat from them. The Hindu 
marriage season, that is from December to May, is their busy time. 
They keep twenty-two yearly holidays. A family of five spend 1-1*. 
to 18s. (Us. 7-9) a month on food, a birth costs 16». to £1 (Its. 8- 10), 
a boy's marriage £10 to £20 (Rs. 100-200), a giri's marriage £3 to 
£10 (Rs. 30-100), and a death 12s. to £1 (Rs. 6- 10). Except that 
they eat flesh and drink liquor, they are almost Lingayats iu fait 
and are married by a Jangam. Their family deities are Prak^ 
Ling who is also called Limbadev and whose chief shrine is 
Limbgaon in llkal, Yallamma of Parasgad, and Virabhadra. They 
make pilgrimages to the shrines of these gods. Their religioi 
teacher is a Jangam by name NilkanthAppa, who lives at Hubli 
Dh&trw&T. ^ They keep most Hindu feasts, but fast only on Sfiivrati 
in dark Jl/a^^ or January- Febniary. They believe in soothsaying 
admit the existence of ghosts, but profess to know nothing of 
witchcraft. After delivery the midwife cuts the child's navel cot 
bathes the mother and child, and lays them on a bed. For the 
five days the mother is fed on boiled rice and clarified butter. 
the evening of the fifth day, tlie mid^vifo breaks a cocoanut befc 
the goddess Shatikavva or Mother Sixth, and lays dressed fc 
before tho goddess, which she takes afterwards to her hor 
Among Chik Kuruvinavars no lamp is waved round the goddc 



Sbfttlka^va. On the ihirteonth tho child is cradled and named. 

On aome holiday, either in the fifth or seventh month of the child's 

first year, its hair is cut. A bhmket is spread as the seat of 

Uilkauthadev, and on the blanket betel loaves and nuts ai-e laid. 

On the blanket sits the child's maternal uncle, who seats tho child* 

on his lap and goes through the form of cutting its hair with a pair 

of betel leaf scissors. After the uncle is done the barber cuts the hair 

wbicb is gathered and after some days thrown into water. After 

the hftir has been thrown into water, pieces of dry cocoa-kernel 

are distributed among all who are present. Child marriage and 

■idow marriage arc allowed, polygamy is allowed and practised, 

Md polyandty is unknown. In marriage eogagements the boy's 

father takes four pounds of dry cocoa-kernel, six pounds of sugar, 

four pounds of dry dates, and betel leaves and nuts to the girl's 

house. At the girl's some kinsmen and friends are called to witness 

tho ceremony. The girl is bathed and dressed in a new robo and 

her head is decked with a flower-net. She is seated on a blanket 

b. f t s, and one of her married kinswomen fills her lap with dry 

cvk 1, dry dates, sugar, and betel leaves and nuts. Betel is 

handed to the guests, and the girl's father treats tho boy's father 

to a (3iah of wheat and millet cooked together, clariBed butter, and 

Rgar. In a betrothal the boy's father has to take five bodice- 

ebths, five flower nets, sixty pounds of rice, ten pieces of dry cocoa- 

kwnol, twenty pounds of dry dates, two pounds of raw sugar, eighty 

da of betelnut, three hundred betel leaves, a pair of silver 

ets, a silver waist-girdle, and a pair of gold earrings. As in 

tlie engagement ceremony tho girl is bathed, her head is decked 

frith a flower net, she is dressed in a new robe, and made to sit on a 

bUnkot. Before her is spread a blanket, on which sixty pounds 

of rice are heaped. Before the heap are laid two betel leaves, a 

nnt, five copper coins, and a piece of dry cocoa-kernel. A married 

jdnswoman of the girl lays in her lap tho dry cocoa-kernel, the raw 

«ngar, the remaining four flower-nets, and tho dry dates. Of the 

eighty pounds of betelnuts a platterful is given to the girl's father 

and the rest is served to the guests. The man who removes the heap 

of rice takes tho copper coins, dry cocoo-komel, and betelnuts and 

leaves that were heaped before the heap. Two days before the 

mar riage day the girl is taken to the boy's and the girl's father gives 

-a caste feast. On tho marriage day five married women go to a 

riYer or a well and bring water in five whitewashed earthen pots. 

Ono of these pots is set at each corner of a square or surgi and the 

fifth pot is laid before the house gods. Into each of these pots four 

betelnuts are put. The boy and girl are bathed in the surgi or 

gqoare, the girl is dressed in a white robe or pdtal and the boy in 

a new suit of clothes, and both of them are made to sit on a blanket 

Btreirn with rice, tho girl sitting to the left of tho boy. Five married 

kioflwomen wave a lamp round the pair, and a mathpati or 

I^gAyat beadle tells the boy to touch the mangnlsutra or lucky 

ttfling and fastens it to the girl's neck, the guests throw plain rice 

on the pair, and the parents of the pair give to and receive presents 

from thoir kinspeople. Afterwards twenty-two sugar rolly-poliea 

from the boy's side and twenty-two from the girl's side are broken 

Chapter ] 
Bai.f Linc 






fcpter in. 


into small pieces, and mixed with boiled rice. The whole mi 
kaeaded with clarified butter and sagar, divided into two equal 
and laid in two platters. At one of these platters sits the 
and at the other the bridegroom, each of them accompanied 
•five married pairs^ none of whom have any bodily blemish. The 
' gnests are treated to wheat bread and palse boiled with raw sngar. 
In the evening the newly married pair, each holding a winnowing 
basket containing soaked gram, a cccoanut, a piece of dry cocoa- 
kemel, two betel leaves, and nuts, go in state to a well, bow 
before it, and serve the gram and small pieces of dry cocoa- 
kernel to the persons present. Next day is spent in a caste dinner. 
On the third the bride and bridegroom are bathed in a square or 
surpi and seated on a blanket. Ten cakes from the bride's mother 
and ten cakes from the bridegroom's mother are taken and put in a 
waistcloth, and the pair are made to pick up the cakes with their 
toeth one by one. The bride's mother hands her over to her 
mother-in-law, and next day the bride's party return to their homes. 
When a girl comes of age she is held unclean for four days and sits 
apart. In the fifth or seventh mouth of her pregnancy her mother, 
presents her with a green bodice. After death the body is washc 
and dressed in its every-day clothes. If a dead man leaves n 
alive, his wife's parents and in their absence some one of h< 
kinspoople presents her with a robe and she waves a lamp roui 
her dead husband. A wife who takes the robe and waves the lar 
round her dead husband cannot marry again. If the dead is 
woman who leaves a husband alive, her head is decked with a flower^ 
net. The dead body is carried in an old blanket or on a bier, and m 
buried with the same rites as a True Lingdyat. A Jangam is mai^^ 
to stand on the close grave, his feet are washed, hel leaves are laid 
on his feet, and he is given five copper coins. If there is more tl 
one Jangam each of them and each of the Mhdrs, if any are presc 
are given a copper coin. The funeral party bathe and return to 
deceased's house, where the chief mourner dismisses them with the 
hope that they may never again have to come to his house to carry 
a corpse. The chief moamer's kinspeople make him eat a little 
raw sugar. Net day sugar dumplings, boiled rice, pulse boiled with 
raw sugar, and millet cooked with spices are prepared. Out of tl 
food four dumplings and a little out of each of the dishes are laid : 
a platter, and the platter is set on the spot where the dead breathf 
his last. The chief mourner and the four corpae-bearera bow low 
before tho dish. The chief mourner puts one of the dumplings on tho 
right palm of each of the bearers, and on each dumpling lays a little, 
of the food from the platter and brushes their hands with durva graoiH 
The bearers go out of the house, throw away the dumplings aml^ 
the food, and sit to dinner with the other mourners. On the seventh 
or ninth day the chief mourner sets an earthen pot full of water 
and before the pot lays a waistcloth if tho dead waa a man, and a 
robe if the dead waa a woman, and sita to a feast with his caste 
people. They are bound together by a strong caste feeling, and 
their social disputes are inquired into by a council of caste 
ciders. They send their boys to school and keep them at school 




[fli Ujey are about twelve. They take to no new pursuits and sbow 
la of bettering their condition. 

if or Tanners, are returned as numbering 952 and as found 

nunibora all over the district. Their home speech and 

namos and surnames seem to show that thoy liavo come from 

Marsitha country. The names in common use among men are 

RwD, Mahddu, Rtima, Shambn, and Tulj^ram ; and among women 

Bkirra, Lakahrai, Rakhma, and Rama. The men add tippa or 

and the women bdi or lady to their name«. They have a 

i\ total of eighty- four surnames, the chief of which are Bordo, 

Gaikavadej Ingle, Kdvlo, Konkne, Narankar, Pol, Serkhdne, 

and Sonone, Persons with the same surname arc not allowed 

Jtormorry. They have no subdivisions. They are like Mardthas 

ratlier shorter and darker. Their home tongue is Mardthi but 

By of them speak Kdnarese. Most live in poor houses with wattled 

h and thatched roofs. Their house goods include a few quiltp 

blankets, and a few storing and cooking vessels mostly of 

til, Asa rule each house has a tannery attached to the back of 

Their evory-day food is millet bread, split pulse, and vegetables. 

Thry use onions and garlic freely. Their holiday dishes are 'polig 

rolly-polies, kadbns or sugar dumplings, and shevaija or 

lioelli. They say that they used to eat no flesh and drink no 

Now, except on Mondays, thoy eat fish and tleah except 

and pork and drink spirits and palm-beer. Every Dasara 

in Soptomber- October they offer a goat to Yallamraa. They bathe 

tkily and worship the house gods before the morning meal. The 

men shave the head without leaving a topknot and the chin, and 

dn!«8 in a short waistcloth, a shouldereloth, a headscarf, and a jacket. 

The women wear their hair in a back-knot without either adding 

I false hair or decking it with flowers. Their dress is the full 

jViirAtlia robe which is worn without passing the skirt back between 

ftlie feet and a bodice with a back and short sleeves. Both men and 

f women have a few omamouts and the well-to-do have spare clothes 

for holiday use. They are orderly hardworking and thrifty but 

dirty. A man's daily oarninga average about CJ. (4 as.). A 

iwator-bag takes a fortnight to make and sells for l8ff. to £1 

(Rs. 9-10) leaving the maker about 10*. (Rs. 5) for labour and 

(proQt. A coracle or IcDther-boat takes sixteen days to make and 

1! " (Rs. GO) leaving a profit of 16«. to .€1 (Rs. 8-10). Some 

i profits by gathering firewood and cultivating. Boys 

taugtil by their parents, and there is no system of apprenticeship. 

women do not help the men in tanning or bucket-making ; but do 

'sU parts of field work except ploughing and thrashing. They work 

"loming to noon, rest till two, and again work till six. Field 

ra are paid in grain; and field work lasts six to eight months. 

L»tiy hiih(s from Mbilrs and butchers, and tan them. In tanning 

put W!it«^r, tnri'ad or Cassia tora, and bahhul or Acacia 

)ic." earthen vessel and leave them to souk for h 

^ k is taken out and tlio hide is stcepod in tha 

Duxtaro till It grows rod. After dyeing them they clean the hides 

land soil ihem to Chjtmbhiirs or shoemakers. Besides tanning 

[bidoa thoy make leather buckets^ welKbags^ water skins, and 

Chapter U 
Half Li 

[Bombay Oazetteeri 


ipt«r in. 



leather -boats. A bullock hide costs 8*. to 10a. (Ra. 4-5), a buffalo 
hide 16*. to £1 (Ra. 8-10), and a goat skin l^d. to Sd. (1-2 (u.). 
Theii' work is well paid and as a class they are free from debt 
Thoy rank above Mhdrs and Mdngs from whom they do not 
. but are not touched by Bnihmaus, by high ca;ste Brdbmauic Him 
or by Lingdyat laymen. In the cold weather thoy work all 
long ; but they cannot do so much in the hot weather as the hi^ 
suffer from the heat. A family of five spend 18«. to £1 (Rs. 9- 
a month on food and di-ess. A house costs £2 10«. to £5 (Hh, 25- 
to build. A birth costs £1 to £1 10s. (Rs. 10-15), a boy's marriu^ 
£6 to £10 (Rs. 60-100), a girl's marriage £2 lOa. to £5 (Rs. 25-5f 
and a death lOs. to £2 (Rs. 8-20). Though they respect Brahmj 
and are married by them, their leanings are to the Lingayat 
They do not wear the i!{i(«;but worship it with their house gods. Th4 
house gods are Basavanna, Mdruti, Tulja-Bhavdni, and Yallamma.' 
Thoy go on pilgrimage to the shrine of Tulja-Bhavdni at Tuljdpur in 
the Nizam's country and of Yallamma at Parasgcul in Belgaum. 
They keep most loading holidays, bat fast only on the nine nights or 
naviirdtra before Dasara in bright Ashvin or September- Octobc 
Their teacher is a Lingdyat mathpnti or beadle, a Jangam of 
lowest order. Every Monday he goes to every Dhor family, ws 
their faces, and rubs their brow with ashes. Each person whom be 
thus purifies throw himself before him, and gives him money or . 
They believe in soothsaying, witchcraft, and lucky and unlu< 
days. As soon as a child is bom a Dhor midwife cuts the na\ 
cord and bathes the mother and the child in hot wator. Tlie motbe^ 
is given dry cocoa-komel and molasses to eat and for four days 
fed on boiled rice and clanfiod butter. On the fifth day the cl 
and mother are again bathed, and kinspeoplo are asked to a feast 
of polls or sugar roUy-polies. In the evening the midwife worships 
the goddess Jivati, and takes away the wave-lamp under cover, for if 
any one should see the lamp the child or the mother is likely to sicken. 
Early marriage is the rule, widow marriage and polygamy arc 
allowed and practised, and polyandry is unknown. In a betrothal 
the boy's father lays two cocoanuts before the girl's house gods, 
marks the girl's brow with rodpowder, and gives her a robe worth 
14s. (Rs. 7), a bodice worth 2*. (Re. 1), and two pounds of sugi 
He makes a present of a robe and a bodicecloth of similar valuej 
the girl's mother and serves the guests with beteL The boy's fatl 
and his relations are treated to a feast of rice and Jcadbus or su< 
dumplings. On the marriage day, the girl's father sends a man wi( 
a bullock to ask the boy and his relations. On reaching the girl'a 
village the boy and his relations are lodged in a house prepared ' 
them, and the boy and two near relations are taken to the girl'a. 
bride^and bridegroom are rubbed with turmeric and bathed in a 8ui 
or square with comer pots encircled with thread. The bride is ' 
in a white robo and a yellow bodice, and tho bridegroom In a 
of new clothes. Two bits of turmeric root are tied round tho rii 
wrists of the bride and bridegroom with tho pieces of thread tl 
were passed five times round the necks of the four sqtiare-coT 
pots. The Urdhman priest makes the bride stand in a basket 
rioc and pieces of leather, and seats the bridegroom on a low at 




opposite the bride, A piece nf white cloth with a cotitml tnrmoric 
croHs is held between tht-m. Thu Brahman priest recites eight 
tgcrhishtak^ or locky verses, and, at tho etui of the recitation, 
>wfl f^rains of rice on the heads of the bride and bridegroom., 
sr the priest the gaests throw rice and tho priest hiniself • 
or tells the vutlhimd' or Liugdjat hendle to fasten, the bride's 
huira or lucky necklace. The girl's father treats tho 
gnofits to a feast of poliji, /:adbus, and boiled rice. In tho 
etening the vnnit or return pi-oceasiou starts from tho bride's 
l« a temple of Mjlrnti. Tho bride and bridegroom are seated on a 
hnllock and are accompanied liy men and women canyiug waye- 
s. Wlien this procession paases by a tower or a place wliero 
rtxids meet, they break a cocoaniit and throw its two haU'cs 
I tho left and tho right of the bride and bridegroom as an offering 
• snirita. After worshipping Mdrnti the procession goes on to tho 
idogroom's house. When a girl comes of age sho is held unclean 
four days. On the fifth she is bathed aud her husband presents 
liflr with a robo or a bodice. They bury their dead in Liugayat 
ri. On tho third and fifth days after the death they take to tho 
i>niled rice, polls and boiled gram, and leave them for tho 
. They are bound together by a strong castei feeling, and their 
disputes are inquired iuUt and settled by tlw^ir teacher. They 
y send their boys to school, take (o no now pursuits, and as & 
havo steady and well-paid employment. 
Guravs, also called Jirs and Hugars, aro returned as numbering 
1022. One or two families are found in almost all good-siKed 
▼ilbiges. They aro tho niinistrants of Mnruti or Hanumau tho 
monkey god aud village guardian, who wears both tho sacred thread 
and the ling, and is worshipped both by Brahnianic and by Liugdyat 
Hindaa Tho names in common use among men aro Kallayya, 
Mallayya, HAmnyya, Rudrayya, and Sangayya ; and among women 
B»llavva, Baaavva, Bhfigtivva, Gurushidav\'a, and Nilavva, They 
have no family names, and no surnames except place and calling 
names. They havo no divisions, except int<» family stocks of which 
tho chief are Ishvar and Ktishyap. Members of the same stock may 
not intennarry. They speak Kanareso and aro very early settlers 
ro th« district Excei)t that they are a little lighter skinned, there 
in nothing to distinguish them from ordinary husbandmen and their 
lioaaes are of tho usual Kanarese type. The men generally wear 
m waistcloth instead of knee-breeches; and the women wear the 
ordin.nry «iross of tho country, except that a few of them sometimes 
flock their hair with flowers. Like Lingayats they neither eat tiesh nor 
flriuk liquor. At least one family in every village holds hereditary 
rent-free land in return for worshipping tho village Maruti, aud 
lives on the produce of the land aud the offerings made to the god. 
Most Sbiv temples have Crurav priests. The Guravs stitch leaf plates 
and Rupply them to local landlords, village clerks, and others, who 
in return give thorn a daily plateful of food. At harvest time they 
beg corn in the fields. Some are astrologers and fortune-tellers and 
others are husbandmen whose women help in tho field. Some are 
miiiiciana who beat tho itambal or tabor at Brahman, Sonilr, and 
' ivdt weddings, accompanied by Korvis who blow the «anoi or 

Chapter I 





IBombay Garett 



ipter ni. 



clarion. They also make the brow-hom or hdshinrf of flowers whi 

the bridegroom wears, l^ey sometimes, but seldom as it is agair 

their religion, play the drum or fiddie for their spiritual followers 

^dancing girls or Kalflvants. When a dancing girl becomes pi 

• she worships the Gurav, and the Gurav jmta mishi or rayrc 

toothpowder on her teeth. If the toothpowder is not rubbed 

before the child is bom tho Kalvantin is put out of caste. Thou^ 

poor the Guravs hold a good social position. Priestly Guravs take 

BO food except from people of their own caste. Lay Guravs used 

keep tho same rule as priestly Guravs, but they now eat fiT)^ 

Brdhmans, LingAyats, and Sonars, and some it is said from Raj pi 

and Mardth^. Men women and children rise about daybreal 

The men fetch leaves and stitch loaf-plates till ten, the womon 

being busy m the house, and the children at school. At ton tho 

men bat^e, and, without changing their clothes, wash the village 

Maruti) worship him with flowers sandal powder and incense, and 

wait in the temple till some one makes an offering of dressed food. 

The Gurav offers tho food to Miruti and sends it homo by hia wife. 

In the evening the priest's wife lights the temple lamps and imn 

them with oil. In the numerous rainy season fasts and feasts Hindi 

offer their deities rich dishes and the Guravs are well snppHc 

Besides the offering on M6ruti's birthday, on the full moon of Oha{ 

tra or March- April, the ministrant is paid £1 to £14*. (Rs. 10- If' 

They never rest from their work except when a death happens in 

family. A family of five spends I6«, to £1 (Rs. 8-10) a month on fooil 

and clothes. Their houses cost £10 to £50 (Rs. 100-500) to build, at " 

their furniture and house goods vary in value from £5 to £1 

(R6.50-600). Husbandmen alone employ servants, and pay them 

10«. to £2 (Rs. 15-20) a year with board and lOe. to 16». (Rs.o- 

a month without board. Their marriage and other social cxpens 

are like those of Sondrs. In religion they come half-way betwe__ 

Brahmanism and Liugdyatism, some of them wearing the sacred 

thread, some tho Uny, and some both the sacred thread and 

tho ling. Tlieir chief divinities are Maruti, Sarasvati, R&meshvar, 

and family ghosts who are deified to prevent them bringing fever 

and other sickness into a house. They honour both Brdhmans and 

Jangams, but do not ask either to conduct their marriage or oth« 

ceremonies. All their ceremonies are performed by priests of the 

own caste. They have a ytiru or religious teacher who belongs 

the Gurav caste. He names one of his family to act as guru to a groi _ 

of fifty to seventy villages. This man who may be called an assistant 

teacher, gathers foes on marriage, death, and other ceremonies, and 

pays them every year to his superior who gives each assistant gt(,ru 

a share. Occasionally the assistaut guru, with some respectable 

castemen, settles social disputes. The guru is highly respected, evei 

revered by his disciples. His word is law, and they cheerfully contributj 

to his supjwrt. Guravs keep tho usual Hindu fasts and feasts. The 

who do not fast, at least pretend to fast, lest they should be punishc 

by the all-powerful guru, in other points of religion they diffc 

little from Sondrs or Brahmaus. Like Sondrs and Brahmaus Gura^ 

keep tho sixteen saci-anients or sanskdrs. Their customs 

little from Soudr or Bnihtnan customs. From Siiolapur to Bdg 



if not over tbe whole district Guravs are married by priests of their 
own caste, who are found in Bijapur, Maindapur^ Bcl<j;aam, and 
other large villages. Like Jangams these priests take to wife the 
daughters of ordinary Guravs, bat will not give lay Guravs their 
daught^rg in marriage. They eat no food except what is prepared *. 
by uther Garav prieets. At a marriage four drinking vessels are 
placed at the four corners of a square, a fifth is sot in the middle, and 
a string is passed round the necks of the jars, cut, and fastened to 
the wrists of the boy and girl. Those who wear the ling bury and 
the rest burn their dead. There is the usual stop half-way to the 
buruing place, the usual change of bearers, and the usual carrying of 
an earthen water vessel round the pyre. They take the J ivkluulu or 
Jife-stonej the stone with which they cut the cord that binds the body 
to the bier, and this stone is buried at the burning place until the 
priestcomes to make the mourners pure or shiiddh. It is then taken 
oat, set ap, worshipped, and thrown in a well. On the tenth food is 
taken to the burning ground. Guravs are bound together by a strong 
caste feeling, and their social disputes are settled by their teacher 
or by one of his assistants. Tbe teacher has great authority over 
his disciples, and is succeeded by his son or other heir. Tliey keep 
their boys at school till they have a good knowledge of reading 
writing and arithmetic, and their girls till they roach the ago ol 
tm. Some Gurav Ixjys have passed the vernacular public service 
examination, and are employed as clerks. Others study under 
singing and muiiio masters whom they pay ds. to 4$. (Hs. H • 2) a 
month. Though it is against their religion some of them learn enough 
singing and music to accompany a dancing girl on the fiddle 
sdranyi or on the dnim tahhi. There has been no recent change 
in their state. Guravs and Jir Lingdyats, who are entered in the 
census as separate castes, are the same caste. 

Hatka'rs, or Handloom Weavers, are returned as numbering 
about 12,751. The name is commonly derived from the Manithi 
haH obstinacy. Except in Bijapur they are raro north of the 
Krishna. South of the Krishna they are found in and about 
Bilgi in west Bagalkot, thoy are specially numerous at Bilgalkot 
and Ilkal, and at Guledgudd in Badd.mi they form the richest 
and most important class of cotton cloth weavers. They call 
themselves DevAngAa and claim descent from a seer named 
Dovang, who is believed to be the ancestor of all weaving 
classes except the Patvegdrs. The names in common use among 
men are Basitppa, Ishvardppa, Konappa, Krishnappa, Malhippa, 
and Phakirippa; and among women Biilavva, Baudavva, Blidgavva, 
lAkshtnavva, Parvatevva, and Shankaravva. Men add appa or 
father and women avva or mother to their names. Thoy 
bavo no surnames except such place and calling names as 
Vikiir, Kerurkar, and Ramdurgkar. Marriages between persons 
bearing the sumo sumarae are allowed. They aro divided into 
Kuiiichiirdavrus or obsei-vors of family rites and ShivAchardavrus 
or followers of Shiv. Tlie Shivachaniavrus have been descriljed 
among Hindus aftiliuted to Ijngayatism under the name of 
KhivAcbiiri.»i. The Kulachardavrua aro the Brahmrlnic half of the 

ItOL They wear the sacred Ihrood, grow the lop*knot, and neither 

Chapter I 


ITkhit LisoLt 



TBotnbay Oaietteer, 

^tor III 






oat nor marry with the Shiv^hardayrus. Some of them have taken 
to wearingthe/utjf, though tlioy do not shavo the topknot, and though 
they marry with those of the class who do not wear the ling. All 
HatkArs belong tooneof eight bedngs or family-stocks ; ArshandavroM 
•Devenavru Gadgiyavru, Houuabagindavru, Hounungdavru, Kalasfl 
* davTU, Sakkariyavru^aud Shiv^laaudaTru. Members of the Bame family 
stock cannot intermarry. Inappearance they differlittle from other local 
middle-class Hindus boing of middle height and sallow. Like other 
people of the district they speak Kdnarese though a few maderstand 
Mnrathi and Hindustani. They live in ordinary one-storeyed houses 
with stone and mud walls and flat roofs worth £o to £^0 (Rs. 50 - 
500). The houses are fairly clean and the furniture and house 
goods are worth £2 to £10 (R8.20-100). Thoy have no hous 
servants and few own cattle. They arc moderate eaters and 
cooksj the staple diet being millet bread, split pulse, vegetable 
millet grit cooked like rice, and occasionally rice. Furanpolis of 
stuffed cakes form one of their common hohduy dishes. They neither 
use flesh nor liquor, but most smoke tobacco and a few indulge in 
hemp and opium. Though some men do it they are not bound to. 
blithe before the 6rst meal, and women bathe only on Mondaj 
Tuesdays and Thursdays. Those who bathe daily worship the hout 
gods after bathing. A family of five spends about £1 10s. (lis. 16) 
a month on food and dress. They dress like True Lingiiyats, the 
men in a waistdoth, shouldercloth^ jacket, coat, and headscarf. The 
women wear the robe like Lingayat women without passing the 
skirt back between the feet, and unlike them they mark their brows 
with vermilion. Both men and women have ornaments which 
do not differ from those worn by Lingayats. Weaving 
their hereditary and leading calling, though a few of the 
trade and a few own land, which they cither rent or get tilloc 
by their servants. None of them are day or field labourers. Thoy 
weave cotton and silk. Besides the day's earnings, which, according 
to the weaver's skill, vary from Qd. to 3s. (4-8 us.), they 
make IJrf. to 3i. (l-2a.s.) on every article woven. Those who 
have no capital work as weavers in the establishments of the 
rich. Both women and children help the meu. Though thoy 
suffer from the competition of English and Bombay good.s, they cUtJ 
well-to-do and form the most important class in Ilkal, Gnledgudd and 
Bagalkot. Men women and children work from morning till evening 
resting at noon like other workmen. They stop work and rest on 
all full and now moon days and on other leading Hindu holidays. 
They rank below Komtis and above Kurubars who eat from their 
hands. They oat no food but what is prepared by their own caste. 
Though thoy have an hereditary feud with the Time Liugdyats, half 
of them have gone over to Lingsiyatism and the other half have 
begun to feel its influence. It is not uncommon to see a /Vhj/- wearing 
sou of a sacred-thread-weariug father. As has been mentioned aboi 
the Shivdchurdavnis tu'o married by Jangams and do not dii 
from True Lingayats in their religions beliefs or practices. Thouj 
the Kulachardavrus are the Brdhmanical half of the Hatkilrs, thoy 
are not imirricid by Briihinatis but by gurus or religious tccKdioj 
of theii" own caste. The oflBce L* hereditary and there is gent 





one in each peth or division of the larger towns. Those toachcrg are 
called Devdngayjas, and their chief who is called Muaaugayya lives 
at Httinpi thirty-six miles north-west of Fellari. He ia a manied 
man und his office is hereditary. He is believed to bo a direct 
deecenthmt of the j^reat Devitng, the suppf)sed ancestor of all Hatk^ra.*. 
Their house gods are Virbhadra uud Malhiyya, and they are Hpecially 
devotiid to IBauashankari; whose chief seat is the famous templo 
of that name about tliree miles south-east of B/idami. Some yearly 
Yi»it the shrines of Banashankariiu Baddmi andof Vithol» at Pandhar- 
pur in Sboldpar. Their only fust days are Sliivrdtra or Shiv's Night in 
January-February and lunar elevenths or ckddaxhis. They occasionally 
worship village gods, and believe in soothsayiug. They profess to 
have no faith in witchcraft, but some of them are believed to 
have groat power over spirits. Unlike Sdlis, after the worship of 
ktviii on the tiftli day after child-birth, they do not cover the lamp, 
id they name the child on the thirt^-'outh. ITiey cut the hair both 
male and female children on any lucky day during the first year. 
The heads of boys arc shaved, except their topknots, in the third 
fifth or scvL'uth year. The boys of the uoa Z("m/-wearing Kuldchiir- 
jJavTiisare girt with the sacred threadaa parte f the marnage ceremony. 
Tho ShivAchilrdavrus are married by Jauganis with the same rites 
as I/ingayats. Tho Ilatkilr's marringo preliminaries do not differ 
£n»m those of the SAlig. Tho marriage ceremonies last four days, 
two days before and ono day after the marriage. On the first day 
the bridu is tuken to the bridegroom's and both are rubbed with 
turmeric paste. Next day comes the dovkdrya or gud-humnuring. 
In the evening seven large and small earthen vessels aro brought 
fn.»m a potter's, marked with white and red stripes, and laid before 
the house gods. On the third day tho bride and bridegroom and 
their mdlhers are bathed in a square with corner drinking pots, 
roun<l whose necks a thread is five times passed. The thread is cut 
and tieil to the wrists of the bride and bridegroom. Both are led 
on horseback to worship the village god and the bride's father asks 
IK-oplu to attend the marriage. When the guests come tho bride 
anil bridegroom are made to sit on two low stools sot opposite each 
other ami a curtain is held between them. Tho Devangayya 
or oHleiating priest and the gnosts shower grains of rice on their 
heuds and the pair are husband and wife. After tho marriage is 
over a burnt-offering is made, and tho bridegroom's father feasts 
riends and kinspeople. On the fourth day in the sdda or cloth 
uromony tho newly married couple and their parents aro presented 
riLh clothes. Child marriago ia a rule among all Uatkitrs, and 
fidow nmrriiige is allowed and practised. Polygamy is allowed 
id nnictisod to a small extent and polyandry is unknown. When 
girl comes of ago she is hold unclean for five days. On tho sixth 
«hc is batlu'd, and, on a lucky day within tho first fortnight, she is 
.s«Mit to her husband. Tho 8liivacliJtrdavr«8 and the /tHi/-wearing 
Kuhtoh.irdavru.s bury their dead, the others burn. Among liug- 
ing Knlaclnirduvrns the four bearers are impure for thi-oe 
!_.,.., and tho sacnsd thread wearers aro impure for eleven days. 
Ou the eleventh day the religious teacher is asked to dine with tlie 
moiirnerK. Tho only poculirtrily in the KnldcliJinlnvrn's funeral 
is that the heir carrier lire ixu>tcad of water round tho pyre. They 





tBombay OazetUer. 



Br III. 



bold the asoal yearly mind feast. Social disputes arc sottled by the 
religious teachcra, whose decisions aro obcyoU under pain of loss of 
caHto. They aro intelligent and send their children to school. 

. Helavs (K,), also called Pa'llgal8( M.) or Cripples, aro rotnrned ; 
'numbering (319 and as f on Dd in small numbers all over the disfcric 
They say that the foander of their tribe was a cripple whom Bass 
took under his protection and told his followers to give him almswlw 
he comes to beg riding on a bullock. The names in common us 
among men are Amannn, Avanna, Baldppa, BasAppa, and Pdva; an< 
among women Bhdgavva, Gangavva, Gauravva, Iravva, and Yallavvi 
They have no surnames but add their caste name to iheii 
personal name. They have seven leading bcdags or family stocki 
Andhamnavru, Bhandeuavru, Imdcuavru, Parsabdtenavru, Sadri| 
navru, Pankravru, and Vanraanuvru. Members of the same famil 
stock cannot intermary. Their borne speech is Kdnarese, but the 
often speak Marathi. They live in ordinary one-storeyed hous 
with stone and mud walls and flat or thatched roofs. Their hous 
goods include a few quilts and cooking and storing vessels chie6j 
of earth. Most of them own cows, bullocks, and she-buffaloes. 
Their cvery-day food is millet bread and a garlic relish, and their 
Bjiocial dishes are^Jo/f« or sugar and boiled gram pulse, rolly-polieaM 
kadbus or sugar -dumplings, shevaya or vermicelli, and husko^l 
millet or spiked millet boiled with molasses. They eat goats, 
hares, fowls, and fish, drink liquor, smoke tobacco, and use othe^ 
narcotics. The men shave the whole head and the chin, and drosfl 
in a short waistcloth, a shouldercloth, a jacket, and a headscarf^ 
When they go begging they sit on & bullock and wrap the body 
from the neck down in a quilt or white sheet to prevent people 
seeing their feet which aro tied to their thighs. They alone have 
the privilege of passing through the village gate without alighting 
from their bullock. The women wear their hair in a back-knc 
and dress in the foil Mardtha robe without passing the skirt btic 
between the feet and a bodice with a back and short sleevol 
They aro orderly and thrifty but dirty. They are hereditar 
beggars. Some of them are husbandmen, and most of them, when 
supplies fall short, work as field labourers. Their women mind 
the house and work in the fields but do not beg. The daily life 
of those who are husbandmen does not differ from that of other 
husbandmen. The beggars go begging on bullocks in the moniing 
and return home at ten. If they have gathered alms enough, the 
spend the rest of the day in idleness. A family of five spend iU, 
lOa. (Us. 3-5) a month on food and dress. Their houses cost £1 J< 
to £.5 (Rb. 16-50) to build. A birth costs 8.s. to £1 10s. (Rs. 4-15) 
a boy's marriage £3 to £5 (Rs. 30-50), a girl's marriage £2 10«. 
£5 (Rs. 25-50), and a death 12*. to £1 (Rs. G-10). Thoy say thi 
they used to eschew flesh and liquor aud wear the Ung, and that the 
practises and ceremonies did not differ from those of True Lingdyat 
Their family deities are Revaneshvar and Yallamma, and the 
make images and worship their dojtd ancestors to prevent thel 
bringing sickness into the family. They respect Brdhmans thon^' 
they do not call them to conduct their ceremonies. They hat 
neither priests nor a guru or religious teacher. They do not be 





on HitiJa holidays. On Shrdvan or July-Augost MoDclays, 
tbey tako only one meal in tho evening, and keep Shivniti'u in 
January -February as a total fast. They believe in srKjthsaying and 
witchcrafts After delivery, tho midwife, who ia a Holav by ca.stC|^ 
cuts the child's navel cord, bathes tho child and mother, and f ami- • 
gates tho mother with tho smoko of garlic rinds. Tho mother is 
given di^ cocoa-kernel, molasses, garlic, and clarified butter to cat. 
Id a corner of the lying-in room a pit ia dug, where the mother is 
bathed for four days. In the morning of the fifth day the midwife 
lays sandal paste and rice close to the pit and fills it with earth. 
Iq the evening she worships the gotldess Satvai, offers her food, 
waves a lamp, and takes the food and the lamp to her house. Tho 
lamp is kept out of the child's father's sight, for it ia believed that 
if ibe father sees tho lamp either the child or the mother 
will sicken. Child marriage and widow marriage are allowed and 
practised ; polygamy is allowed and practised to some extent, and 
polyandry is unknown. In a marriage engagement the boy's father 
marks the girl's brow with vermilion and is feasted by the girl's 
father. In a betrothal the boy's father gives the girl a robe and a 
bodicccloth, and her father 10*. (Rs. 5) who feasts him. The boy 'a 
father fixes the marriage day and sends word to the girl's father, who 
sends a man and bullock for the boy to ride to his village. On coming 
to the girl's village the boy 's fat her gives £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30) to tho 
girrs kinspeople, and 12«. (Rs. C), a bodicccloth worth 1st. {8 as.), and 
wven more bodicecloths of less value to the mother. On tho 
tnrmeric-mbbing day the boy and girl are seated on a bahuh' or altar 
in the girl's marriage porch. The girl's maternal undo draws five 
streaks of ashes with his five fingers, first on tho boy's brow 
and then on the girl's, and tho married women rub the pair with 
turmeric paste. Ou the marriage day the bride and bridegoom aro 
fieated ou two low stools facing each other and a curta,in with a 
central turmeric cross is held between them. An old man comes 
and drops grains of coloured rice on their heads and tho eldest 
tnarried woman of the boy's family fastens the lucky thread or 
viangaUvira round tho bride's nock. In the evening, on their way 
to the bridegroom's, they worship the village Mdruti. The god's 
priest takee a cocoaout from them, breaks it before the god, fills 
one-half uf the nut with ashes from Maruti's censer, and lays it in the 
bride's lap. When a girl comes of age she is unclean for four days. 
On tho fifth she is bathed and fed in company with her husband 
on a sweet dish. They bury the dead. On tho third day the heir 
carries rice cooked in a small earthen vessel, milk, and molasses, and 
them on tho grave for crows to eat. On the fifth tho house 
and walls are plastered with cuwdung, the clothes of tho 
ed are washed, a goat is offered to the clothes, and in tho 
evening a caste feast is given. They have no headman, and settle 
■ocinl disputes at a meeting of tho castemen. They do not send 
ihoir childron to school, nor take to now pursuits. Thoy are badly 
off and .nhow DO signs of improving. 

Kabbers are returned as numbering 2173 and as found throngb> 
out tho district, except in Ihigcvatli and Bijapur. Tho nnmos in 
common use among men arc Bowippa, Bhikdppa, Malhlppa, Raydppn, 

'-^ ^^-^^ 

rBombay Gazetteer. 





i KabOeri. 



aud Satlnippa, and among women Lakshmavva, Mnllawa, Sangn' 
Seciavva, IShidliavva, and Soinavva. The men jjoncrally add iijtpn 
fftlhur mid llie women nvva or mother to their names. Their s 
Dames aro Itliaudard.-wru, Hallannanavru, Heinieyavru, Uatjgai 
, varu, Ilahnaneyavriij Nadj^addcyavrn, and Tupadavaru. Excel 
blood relations families bearing the same surname interuiurry. 
Their family gods are Bharmappa and Okliparm^nand, and fh' 
family goddesses aro Dyimavva., Durgavva, Gangavva, and II 
gavva, who have shrinca in most villages. Their home-KAnar 
docs not differ from that of Kabh'gera or fishers. They are divid 
into Barekaris and Kabbors who oat together and intermarry. 
They live in one-storeyed houses with mud walls and either tiled 
thatched roofs. They are poor cooks and are fond of hot and hoi 
dishes. Their ordinary food is Indian millet bread and spilt pu! 
curry, and their special holiday dishes are wheat cakes .stuffed wi 
boiled split pulse and molasses or pumnpolU, boiled rico called ann 
sweet wnoat-gruel or khir, pancakes or dosh,a,nd vermicelli or sJu-i^at^ 
They use all flesh except beef and pork and drink country liquor 
especially on Saturdays. The men shave the head includiug t 
tcip-knot, and the women wear the hair either in a braid or in a kn 
but do not nse flowers. They aro rather careless and dirty in th 
dress. Men dress in a waistcloth, a jacket, a headscarf, and .sjitula 
and women in the short-sleeved and backed bodice and the hujilc 
robe without passing the skirt back between tho feet. They w 
local hand-made cloth. The well-to-do have a store of good cloth 
for holiday use and the poor wear their ordinary clothes wjwsh 
clean. Both men and women wear gold and silver ornaments, 
glass bangles and tho lucky necklace being tho signs of 
niarried woman. They are orderly and hardworking but not cleai 
Their hereditary calling is husbandry and they also ply boats 
rivers. Some take laud from over-holders on lease, and some ti 
their own Innd. Women as well as children help the men in th 
work. They raise loans on personal security, at twelve to twont 
four per cent. They rank with Kabligers or fishers and 
food cooked by Karubars, Koratis, Mariithas, SiUia, LingA}'^! 
Brahraans, Jains, and Rangaris. They hold themselves superior 
Jingars, Barbers, Dhobis, and other servant classes. Men and child 
work in the fields from morning to evening and women besid 
minding tho house help tho men. Grown children tsiko care of 
the cattle and help their parents. Their busy season lasts from 
June to September and from December to April. They rest frf»m 
work on every Monday and on tho Jrntlui or May- June full-moon. 
A family of five spends £1 to £1 4*. (Rs, 10-12) a month on food and 
on dress. A house costs £6 to £1 (Ha. CO -100) to build and 6rf. 
Is. (Re. i-i) a month to rent, and the house goods are worth 
to £5 (Rs. 20-50). A birth costs 6«. to 10«. (Rs. 3-5), a marnai 
£4 to £10 (Rs. 40-100), agirl'scomingof ago 10*. to £1 (Rs,5-1 
and a death 4«. to 12s. (Ra. 2-6). They are religious, their fami 
gods and Miiruti being the chief objects of their worship. T!i 
fantily priests are Brdhraans whom they treat with great respei 
and employ to conduct thoir marriages. They also venoral 
Lingayat priests who officiate at thoir deaths. They go on pilgri 




age to the shrine of Tallamma and keep all Hinda holidays 
especially Oudipddva or New Year's Day in March-Api-il, the May- 
June fall-moon, Ndgpanchmi in July-August, and Dasura and 
/>jt:.i/t in September - October. They never fast and they have 
liritnal teacher. Most worship, that ia bathe and nib with*, 
paste their house gods every Monday, some on Tuesday, and 
Bome on Friday. They also lay before the gods flowers and frankin- 
cense, ring bells, and offer cooked food. The worship is repeated on 
Saturday when they lay before the gods cocoanuts, camphor, sugar, 
molasses, plantains.drydatcs, and incense. They bolievein soothsaying, 
spirits, and ghosts, but some profess to have no faith in witchcraft. 
They think that evil spirits and ghosts have the power of molesting 
men and beasts, and consult mediums who exorcise the spirits, or 
give trinkets which they wear in metal boxes on their arms. If 
the patient shows no signs of recovery they rub his brow, or any 
p«rt of his body which pains, with ashes from the censor oi 
Bome guardian god, which is said to scare the ghost. Sometimes 
Uie poBsesfling spirit asks for certain things which they give to 
Mkiisfy it. They divide ghosts into family ghosts and outside ghosts. 
Family ghosts are humoured by giving them what they want ; out- 
aide ghosts are scared by charms. The family ghost does not 
gfive so much pain as the stranger ghost. The soothsayers 
are of almost all classes and are paid for their services. They 
believe in magic and in the black art. They do not regularly observe 
BAj oi the sixteen sacraments. Aft«r child-birth women are fed 
with vermicelli and other choice dishes. On the fifth day they 
cook a dish of Indian millet, scraped cocoa-kernel, and molasses, 
worship Shatikavva or Mother Sixth, and offer her the dish. On 
the thirteenth the child is cradled and named. They do not 
think that birth causes impurity. Poor women lie-in for five, 
middle-class women for fifteen, and well-to-do women for twonty 
days. Children are shaved when they are six months to one year 
old. The temple priest goes through the form of hair-cutting with 
a pair of leaf scissors, and the barber, who is a Kurubar by caste, 
shaves the head with a razor. The offer of marriage comes from the 
boy's side. The boy's parents with friends and relations go with 
sugar, cocoanuts, and betel leaves to the girl's, and lay the 
articles before her house gods. They ask some people to attend, 
put a little sugar in the girl's mouth, and hand betel to the 
gaests. A feast of rice and curry and vermicelli is served and the 
boy's party and the guests withdraw. Some time after the bride- 
groom s people go to the bi-ido's with a liigds or robe worth 8s. (Rs. 4), 
four pieces of bodicecloth each worth Is. (8 as.), five halves of dried 
cocoa-kernel, five pieces of turmeric, five pieces of rough sugar, four 
fKJUnds of arecanuts, 200 betel leaves, and gold and silver 
omatnoats, and dross the bride in the robe, make her sit before the 
god, and lay in her lap rice, cocoa-kernels, arecanuts, and betel 
Hiftves. They are feasted with sweet rico gruel and next day with 
broad and sweetmeats and return home. On their return, at some 
lucky hour, they cowdung the floor of the house and ornament it 
^^^ quartz powder traceries. On an appointed day the bride's 
como with the bride to the bridegroom's and both the bride 


Halv Linc 

[Bombay Gazetteer. 



ipter UI. 


and bridegroom are nibbed with turmeric paste. Next day, 
the dcvkAnja or god-humouring, thuy worship two posts calU 
in K^inareao kdl ghmnUt or milk post and handar ghumhha 
mamago booth post, and uso them in building the marriage boot! 
.'The building o£ the booth is followed by a caste dinner. In the 
evening they go to the potter's house with ten pounds (5 sherg) of millet, 
ten quarter-anna pieces, and food enough for a holiday meah Thej 
bring from the potter^s fonr email pots or mcjds, two middle-sia 
pots or ffadgds, a large pot or ghdgar, and two pot-covers, and 1 
them befoi-o the house gods. On the third day the bride and brid^ 
groom and their mothers sit together, bathe themselves with wat< 
fipom the four small pots, and dross in new clothes. A country blank^_ 
is spread, the pair are seated on the blanket, and rice is dropped on 
their hc«,ds. They are brought out, rice is strewn on the alt 
a blanket is spread on the rice, the pair are seated ou the blankc 
and mb each other with turmeric paste. Thoy stand in the centre \ 
the booth on low wooden stools separated by a cloth curtain. A 
with millet and copj>or coins is handed to the priest. The guests tal 

millet grains from the priest, the priest recites verses, and the guoa 

throw the millet giains over the bride and bridegroom. Th6^ 
turmeric thread or halad kavJcan is next tied to the wrists of the pair. 
The priest rubs the lucky necklace against the bridegroom's hand 
and ties it round the bride's neck. In the evening after tho sdda 
robe-giving the girl is made over to tho bridegroom's mother. '~ 
bride is afterwards taken to her parent's house, and, on a lucky daj 
returns to her husband. When tho girl comes of ago a lap-iiUi 
is performed with tho same details as tho Mudhdr lap-filling. Thei?^ 
other customs and ceremonies are like thoso of Lingdyats, 
officiating priests being mafhpatis or Ling^yat beadles. The or 
marked difference between their and the Lingayat practice is tl 
after the burial tho funeral party come liome, and bathe in col 
water holding durva grass and patri or bel leaves in their banc 
which they wash in a metal pot full of water placed on the coi 
dimged spot where tho dead breathed his last. On the tbii 
day tho mourners take rdgi gruel or avibli and millet bread to 
tho grave, lay them on the grave, and bum incense close by. 
They retire to some distance to allow tho crows to feed on the 
offerings. If the crows refuse to take the cakes it is held a bad omen 
and tbo food is given to a cow. They slaughter a sheep and feed 
their caste people on tho ninth. They perform no other funeral or 
after-denth ceremony except, in the case of parents, presentii 
clothes to a person of tho age and sex of tho deceased on Mdmavi 
that is tho day l>eforo Da^ra and in the Divdli holidays. Girls 
marrietl before they come of ago. Widow marriage and polygamy 
allowed and practised, and polyandry is unknown. They are boui 
together by a strong casto leoling. Social disputes aro settled bj 
tho castemcn under an hereditary headman callod kxUtimani, Tho^ 
headman has power to put out of caste and to give leave to con^H 
b«ck. They send their boys to school and often keep them there t^^ 
they aro sixtoenyoars old. They take to no fresh * 

FaritS, or Waahermon, are returned as numbLi...^ .;_15 
found all over tho district. The names in common use mw 

_.o Amiim, DavaUppa, Davrayya, Haseni, Ealdppa, Maddr, and 
Talja; and amonjr women Anandi, Kdlavva, K^shibdj^ Khubavva, 
Marerva, and Sayavva. Thoir commoa surnames are Bdlgavi, 
Baradkhdn^ Balagdinni, Hali, Malkanna^ Murori, and Vara. 
Persona bearing the same sumamo are not allowed to intermarry. 
Au a class tliey aro dark, of middle stature, with round faces, and 
thick noses. They are strong and muscular, and are more liko 
Kurubars or shepherds than any other caste. Their homo tonguo 
is K^nareso, but they also know Marathi and Hindustani. They 
are moderate oators, their daily food being millet, split pulse, and 
vegetables. They are fond of soar and sharp dishes. Thoir holiday 
dishes are poUs or sugar rolly-polies, Icadhue or sagar-dumpliugs, 
ilievatja or vermicelli, and boiled rice. Besides grain pulse and 
vegetables, they eat fish, fowls, shoep, goats, deer, and hare. 
Every Damra in September- October thoy offer a goat to Tulja- 
Bhavdni, and, after offering its life to the goddess, eat its flesh. 
They bathe daily, but worship the house goda only on holidays. 
They drink spirits and palm boor, smoke tobacco, and quiet infants 
by opium. The men dress in a headscarf, shouldercloth, waist* 
cloth, aud jacket ; and tho women in the ordinary full robe and the 
backed and short-sleeved bodice. Thoy aro almost always drassod 
in clothes which havo boon sent to them to bo washed. Both 
men and women havo a few silver ornaments. They havo no 
Boparate clothes for holiday wear, but pick out somo good ones 
which havo been sent them to wash. As a class they are orderly, 
hardworking, honest, and thrifty, but rather dirty. Washing is 
thoir hereditary calling, but some of them aro husbandmen. They 
boil, wash, starch, and iron clothes. To starch rich clothes they use 
rico-grnel etrainod through a cloth and mixed with talc powder 
which gives tho clothes a gloss. In washing cheap clothes millet 
gruel is used instead of rico-grnel. Boys of ten or twelve begin to 
earn 4s. (lis. 2) a month, and men earn Ss. to £1 lOa. (lis. 4-16). 
They wash clothes at 2a. to 3s. (Rs. l-lj) the hundred pieces and 
charge extra for fine clothes. They also get dressed food from rich 
persons for washing theirclothes when thoy are ceremonially impure. 
Tho washerman is one of the twelve village office-bearers or balutediirs 
and is paid in grain by tho villagers. At a well-to-do village 
marriage the two whito sheota on which tho boiled gi-am pulse is 
laid aro given to tho washerman. Uo washes the robes worn by 
BrAbman women during their monthly sickness and is given cooked 
food. Among BrAhmans and other high class Hindus the robe worn 
bv a girl whon she comes of ago is given to the washerman's wife. 
Their women and chihlrou help in gathcnng clothes, drying them, 
and giving them back to thoir owners. They always find well paid 
work and aro fairly well-to-do ; but on account of nmrriago aud other 
Special expenses most of them aro in debt. Thoy rank abovo Kabligors 
or fishers and below Kunbis or husbandmen from whom thoy cat. 
Tbcy work from morning till evening with a midday rest. They 

IBdco five vearly holidays, ono of them Musalmdu at the Moharravi 
nie, and four Hindu, Uoli in February -March, tho Hindu Now 
Year's Day in March -April, and Basara aud Bmdi in Soptomber- 
Odobor. A family of five spend 12*. to £1 (Ra. G-10) a month oa 


IlAt.F Ll 


[Bombay Gazetteer, 



ipter III. 





food and dress. A house coata £5 to £20 {Ils.50-200) to bnild. A 
boy^a inanMago costs £3 to £12 (Ra. 30-120), a girl's marriage £2 1 
to £8 (Rs. 25 -SO), and a death 10«. to £3 (Rs.o-SO). In religii 
they arc balf-Br4hmanic and half-Lingayat, honouriug both Janga: 
and Brahtnans. They often worship Musalm^n saints and ma! 
them vowa. They are married by BrAhmans and buried by Jangams. 
Their gum op hereditary religious teacher is a mamed Lingd.yat 
called Mddivalayya that is the teacher of the Mddivals, the Kanareso 
for washermen, who is held in high honour. Yallamma of Parasgad 
in Belgaum is their patron deity and they often make pilgrimages 
to her shrine. They keep moat Hindu holidays and fast on the 
lunar elevenths of Afihadh or June- July and Kdrlik or October - 
November and on Shivrdtra in January-February. They have strong 
faith in soothsaying, astrology and witchcraft. A lying-in woman ^ 
held unclean for four days. On the Cf th she and her child are bath 
herclothesarewashedj and the wholehouse is plastered withcowdanj 
In the evening the goddess Satvdi is worshipped and kinspeople 
fed on mutton and sugar roUy-poUeB. The child is cradled and nam' 
on the thirteenth. They have no marriage engagement, but havo! 
betrothal in which the girl sits on a blanket and the boy's father 
marks her brow with vermilion, gives her a robe, a bodicecloth, and 
two ear ornaments, and lays in her lap five bits of cocoa-kemel and 
fivo dry dates. Girls are married between ten and twelve, and boys 
between sixteen and twenty. Widow marriage and polygamy are 
allowed and practised, and polyandry is unknown. Aiter the boy's 
father has fixed the marriage-day the girl's father sends for the boy, 
his father, and kinspoople. The boy with his party is lodged in a 
house made ready by the girl's father. Next day the boy ia rubbed 
with turmeric paste and bathed in a $urgi or square with a drinking 
pot at each coraor and a thread round the necks of the pots. NVTiile 
the boy is bathing, four men stand round him each with his right 
second finger up and a thread ia passed round the four fingers. 
After bathing, the boy stoops under the thread and stands near the 
square or sunji, where a married woman waves a lamp and grains of 
rice round him, and throws away the grains to prevent spirits from 
attacking him. The girl is bathed in the same way at her housa 
On the marriage day the boy is dressed in new clothes and taken to 
the girl's, where the girl is dressed in a robe and a yellow bodice. 
At the girl's the boy and girl sit side by side on two low stools, 
the girl on the boy's right ; and a curtain with a central turmeric 
cross is held between them. The Brahman priest drops grains of 
red rice on the couple, ties the lucky thread or mangalsutra round 
the bride's neck, and l-ankana or thread bracelets with bits of 
turmeric roots on the bridegroom's right wrist and the bride's left 
wrist. In the evening the bride and bridegroom go to his lodging 
worshipping the village M^ruti on their way. When a girl comes 
of ago she is held unclean for five days, and on the first lucky day 
is sent to her husband. Like the Lingayats they bury their dead. 
The mourners and other members of the funeral party on their 
return from the grave, bring blades of durva grass, and throw them 
in the pot full of water which is set on the spot where the dead 
breathed bis last. On the third dressed food is carried to the grave 

and on the tenth a caste foost ia given. They aro bonud together 
by a strong caste feelings and their social disputes are settled at 
casce meetings under the guru or teacher. They neither send their 
children to school nor tako to new purauits. On the whole they are 
a well-to-do class. 

Sails, or Weavers, are rotumcd as numbering 1174 and as found 
in Bagalkot, Guledgudd, and Ilkal. All Salis claim descent from 
Dev^ng Rishi who married seven wives, each of whom became the 
mother of a separate class of weaver& The seven classes may be 
divided into fonr groups. The first group is known under the 
general name of Salis and includes the three classes of Padmsillia, 
ouksalis, and >Sakkulsalis ; the second ia called Hatkars and includes 
only one subdivision of Salis the Devsalis ; the third includes the 
Padsdiis and Lingtlyat Samasdhs of whom the l^adsdlis are the 
most important in Bijapur; the fourth group oontainstheShuddhasdlia 
who are rarely found in the district. All the Salis formerly ato 
together and intermarried. Since some have become Lingayata 
&nd others lean to Lingiiyatism none but the Padmsalis and Suksdlia 
eat together, and none intermarry. The Salis or weavers, as the 
Padmsalis Suksalisand Sakkulsalis are generally called, are next to 
the Hatkdrs the richest and most numerous weavers in Bdgalkot, 
nkal, and Guledgudd. They are said to have come from the north. 
Of these three classes the Padmsdlis aro the most numerous, and 
call thomselves S^lis. The names in common use among men 
are Bosdppa, Hanumanta, Malhari, Nar^yan, and Vishvandth; 
and among women Bhagubdi, Gangabai, Krishnabai, Laksbmibai, 
~ " Sitabai. Their commonest surnames are Chillalo, Chandri, 
otro, Gddmode, Jinde, Kamble, Kondapuri, Kordo, Stlkhre, 
Sapdre, Sursultdne, Tambe, and Ekbote. In appearance they 
differ little from Rangdris or MarAthda. They are said to 
speak a dialect of Marathi at home and use Kanaresc abroad. 
Their homo tongue contains many peculiar terms. They live 
in dark one-storeyed honses with mud and stoue walls and flat 
roofs. Except the rich who have brass and copper cooking vessels, 
most of them cook in earthen vessels. Some of them employ servants 
and those who have land own domestic animals. Their staple food 
is millet bread, a sauce of split pulse, and some vegetable. A day's 
food costs 2\d. (1^ as.) a head. Their holiday dishes are j;o^« or 
sugar roUy-poliea, boiled rice, and sweetmeat balls. They bathe 
daily and put on a fresh washed waistcloth and worship tho 
house gods before eating their morning meal. Those who do not 
wear the ling eat flesh. The animals they eat are the goat, hare, 
fowl, and fish, and they drink palm beer and palm spirits. Besides 
liquor they use hemp flowers in different forms. They say that a 
oentory and a half ago they worshipped the Shaligrdm and did not 
nsd animal food. They have given up the Maratha turban and have 
adopted tho Kdnarese headscarf, and the rest of the dress both of men 
aod of woniou is the same as that worn by the local True Lingayata. 
Thoy art) also fond of ornaments. They are hardworking, but rather 
dirty and thriftless. Their hereditary calling is weaving cotton 
cloth. They sometimes combine weaving with husbandry, and a few 
of Uicm aro moneylenders. Boys begin work as apprentices with a 

Chapter I 

RALf Lll 

"^ ■■*'• 


[Bombay Gazetteer, ^ 



ptor ni. 

. LruoAvATS. 

qnalified weaver without wages. After learning to weave, a boy 
servos under Bomo well-to-do man for 10s. (Rs. 5) a month j and 
when ho has gathered funds enough to set up business ho begins to 
work for himself. They weave cotton waistoloths, shouldorcloths, 
and robes. They buy the cotton or silk from merchants in Bagal- 
*kot, Sholapur, and Shdhdpur in Belgaum, weave it into fabrics, and 
retail them to their customers. Their women help by preparing 
the raw material for the loom. They clean the yam by folding it 
over a cross frame or baili, brushing it, and starching it. They novop-j 
sell the clothes. Monday is held a lucky day for beginning to learaj 
weaving. Weavers get Gd. (-4 as.) as their profit on a pair of shorl 
waistcloths worth 2«. 6d. (Rs. 1|). They take five or six days 
weave a pair of waistcloths ten yards long aud are paid 2s. (Re. 1). 
To weave a first class pair of waistcloths requires twelve days and 
tho payment is Ss. (Rs. 4). These articles are made to order or for 
sale. Few of them till with their own hands ; those who do are helped 
by their women especially in cotton ginning. They suffer from the 
competition of foreign goods which are both showier and cheaper. 
As they are careless in money matters and are given to drink many 
of them are in debt. They eat with Dhangars, Mardthas, 
Patvegars, Rangaris, and Shirapis, and hold thom their equals. 
Their daily life does not diffor from that of other weavers. Though 
all of thom seem to be Brahmauical Hindus, being married by Brdh- 
mans, marking the brow with sandal paste, growing the topknot, keep- 
ing the sweet basil in front of their houses, and having no connectiou 
with Jaugams, some Padmsalis wear the Ujuj and some wear tho 
sacred thread. Tho Suksalis and Sakkulsalia wear neither thoi 
thread nor the ling. The chief divinity of tho /in^-wcaring Sdlifi 
seems to bo Mallikdrjnn. All three divisions have as householdl 
gods Yallawa of Parasgad in Belgaum and Vyankatraman of Tirapatij 
in North Arkot. Some of them have Tulja-Bhavdni and Khandoljaj 
in their houses. Some who do not wear the linrf sacrifice a goat to 
Yallavva or Tulja-Bhavaui on Dasara in September-October and feast 
friends and kinspoople on its flesh. They sometimes visit tho shrineaJ 
of these deities, and keep almost all Hindu fasts and feasts. Thai 
chief spiritual teacher of tlio ling-vrotiriag Salis lives in Kanchi or 
Con jcvoi*am. He is called Mdrkandeya Riahi and little is known about , 
him as he never comes to Bijdpur. The roHgioas teacher of other J 
Sdlis is called Bodhlobava. He is a married man and is snccoeded ' 
by his eldest surviving son. Ho lives at Dhdmangaon in Sholdpuf ] 
and visits his disciples periodically, making now disciples and gather- 
ing money from old ones. They occasionally worship village goda^ 
aud local doitios. If a child suffers from small-pox, its parents 
worship the village goddess and make a vow which they fulfil after j 
its recovery. They have strong faith in soothsaying and witchcraft,B 
and are much afraid of ghosts. They never visit haunted places,™ 
nor do they ever go to lonely spots at noon, twilight, midnight, or 
in tho early morning, as these are the hours when ghosts are most 
abroad. After a birth the midwifo cuts tho navel-cord and bathes tho 
child and mother. After she is bathed, tho mother is laid o?i a liajl<: or^ 
cot, and is fed with molasaoa, dry cocua-koruol, aud rice with clarified] 
butter. On tho ovoniug of the fifth day tho midwifo worships the 

Saro&tak- 1 


goddoBS SatvAi or Jivati, presents hor with aweotmoata, and waves 
a lamp roand her. Thia lamp is taken homo by the midwife and is 
not shown to any one lest the mother or child should sicken. On 
the twelfth day the child is laid in a cradle and is named. If 
tho child is a boy, except his topknot, his hair is cut for the first 
time lit the age of five or six. At a marriage engagement a cocoanufc" 
ond three-quarters of a pound of sugar are laid before tho girl's house 
gods and bet^l leaves are served to all present. In the bdshtagi or 
betrothal tho girl is given a robe worth lOs. to 12*. (R3.5-6), two 
pieces of bodicecloth each worth about 18d. to 2*. (Re.f -1), twenty 
to twerity-eight pounds of sugar, and ornaments. The girl is seated 
on a blanket, her brow is marked with redpowder, and sho is told 
to pnt on the clothes and ornaments. When she has put on tho 
clothes and ornaments, tho boy's relations fill her lap with dry cocoa- 
kornol and sugar, declare that tho daughter of so and so has been 
ftocepted by so and so as his daughter-in-law, and distribute sugfir 
among all. Tho girl's mother is presented with a bodicecloth and 
the boy's relations are asked to a feast of sugar rolly-poUes. After 
the marriage day has been fixed tho boy is taken to the girl's or the 
girl is brought to tho boy's ; and, on a lucky day, the bride and bride- 
groom are mbbed with turmeric and a casto feast is given. On tho 
marriage day the bride and bridegroom are bathed and the bride ia 
given a white robe and a bodice. The bridegroom is dressed in hia 
holiday clothes, and is made to stand with tho bride facing each other 
on low stools in an open space in front of the house. The Brdhman 
astrologer tolls the bridegroom to tie the luck-giving necklace or 
•mamjahntra round tho bride's neck, holds a cloth between them, 
chants the eight luck-giving verses or mangaldshtakSf and, along with 
tho guests, throws coloured rice on their heads. Betel leaves are 
served. In the evening the boy is dressed in a silk-bordered waist- 
cloth and a chintz coat, and the bride is decked with many ornaments. 
If tho parents are poor and do not own ornaments they ask tho rich 
people of their caste to lend them ornaments. Two tinsel chapleta 
are tied to the brows of the bride and the bridegroom. They aro 
seated on a ballock or a horse, and go in procession with musicians 
to worship tho village Mdruti. They break a cocoanut, wave a piece 
of burning camphor before the god, and bow to him. Padmsdlia 
who do not wear tho linj bum the dead ; those who wear the ling 
bury. The Suks^is bury ; and tho Sakkulsdlis either bury or burn. 
Those who bum differ from the Brahmans or Komtis in having no 
jivkhaJa or life-stone ; in not keeping a lamp burning on the spot 
where tho dead breathed his last ; and in carrying fire round the 
pyro instead of wat«r. On the second day parched split pulse and 
parched rice are taken to the burning place ; and on the third day 
the bones aro thrown into water. They hold a yearly mind feast. 
They have no headman, and their social disputes are aettlod by a 
council of Brahmans and respectable castemen. 

Samga'r8(K.)or CaAMDiiAiia (M.), both meaning Leather-workers, 
are returned as numbering SGGl- and as found all over the district. 
They aro divided into Are Samg^lrs literally half leather-workers, 
Liogad Samgdrs or /irm- wearing leather- workers, and Mochigilrs or 
shoemakers, who neither eot together nor intermarry. Of these 




tBomtay Oazet 






divisions Lingad Samgdrs are rare in this district. Are Bam] 
wbo are generally called Samgdrs, are spread pretty evenly all 
the district in small numbers. Their home speech is Kanarese am 
they seem to be one of the early elements in the local population.' 
^They are fairer than the ordinary husbandmen perhaps because 
thoy work so ranch in the house. The only occupation of moat of 
them is making and patching shoes and sandals. They are marriedj 
by Brdhmaus and buried by Jan gams. They hold yearly anniver^B 
Baries or mind feasts. Their chief deities are Yallawa, Tnlja-Bhavani,^ 
and Mallayya. Social disputes are settled by hereditary heads or 
chaiidharU of their own caste. In other particulars they differ 
little from Mochigars or shoemakers. 

MochigArs are found in Bagalkot, Bijapur, Mungoli, Sindgi, Ukli, 
and other towns and large villages. They claim descent from one 
Haralayya Sharan, Basav's first disciple, who presented his teacher 
with a pair of shoes made of hia own skin. They call themselves 
Adi-Munchgdrs or first disciples. The names in common use 
among men are Deu, Honkeri, Parbhu, and Parsdppa ; and among 
women Basavva, Gangawa, Malavva, and Lingavva. They have no 
Bnrnames. Their stock names are Dabardbadiyavrn, Diggavi, 
Hasargundgiyavru, and Ittagi. Persons belonging to the same stock 
do not intermarry. They look like other Samg^rs. Their home 
tongue is Kanarese and they live in poor houses with flat roofs and 
mud walls. Their daily food is millet bread, pulse, and vegetables. 
They eat fish and flesh except beef and pork, and drink country 
liquor. Men shave the whole head and the chin. Both men and 
women wear the ordinary local Hindu dress. They do not engage 
in husbandry or any other pursuit except their hereditary calling 
of shoemaking. They claim to rank above the Samgdxs and never 
•mend old shoes. They look down on Dhors or tanners from whom 
they get readymade soles for their shoes. Dhors make cow-hide 
water-bags or mots. Mochigdrs make none except of sheep or goat 
skin. They are much better off than Samgdrs, and in some places 
do a good deal of moneylending. The Mochigars are entirely 
devoted to the Jangams. Their chief gods arc Mahdbaleshvar, mi 
Sangmeshvar, and Yallawa. Thoy are married by Jangams. The fl 
Jangam priest ties tho lucky necklace, throws grains of rice on the • 
pair, the guests join the priest in throwing rice and the ceremony is 
over. They bury their dead in a True Lingdyat grave, and carry 
food to the grave on the third day. They are bound together by a 
strong caste feeling, and their social are settled by a costo 
council headed by their katUmani or headman. 

^Besides the two main divisions of Brdhmanio and Lingdyat 
Hindus there b a small body of 2G80 Jains. Jains or followers of Jin 
the Victorious are found in and about Bilgi, Bdgalkot, and other largo ^ 
villages south of the Krishna ; at Talikot, Kuntoji, Muddebihal, ■ 
Somnal, and other thriving villages immediately to the north ™ 
of the Krishna ; and in Indi further north. As a rule not more than 
two or three Jain houses are found in each village. Even in Indi 



they form but a small frnction of the population. The home speech 
of the Jains is the loc;»l Kanarese. They never were lings, though 
in Indi they are occasionally found as ministrants or pujdris in 
temples of Mahddev aa the littg. Unlike Lingdyats Bijapur Jains 
live on good terms with BrAhmaus. Among the Juius ia an hereditary *. 
religious class called upddhyds or priests who serve temples and 
conduct marriages. The priests eat with the lay Jaius, but do 
not give their daughters in marriage to laymen. Their brow sandal 
paste or gandh mark is of the same pattern as the Vaiahnav brovr 
mark. They say that their chief priest, to whom the others owe 
obedience, is a celibate Puncham Jain called Devendrakirti. All lay 
Jains form one community freely eating together and intermarrying. 
All men keep the top-knot and wear the sacred thread, but have no 
tidas or sweet basil plant at their doors and do not celebrate Tula's 
marriage with Vishnu in November. Most Bijdpur Jains are 
husbandmen. Still as selling metal cooking pots and selling 
iglea are common Jain callings, a Jain in a court of justice 

ften gives his caste as Bogar that is coppersmith or Balgar that 
Ta bttngle-sellcr. No Jain eats after sunset, and no Jain ears with 
any one who is not a Jain. Their temples, which as at Bilgi are 
sometimes merely a room in the priest's house, contain about 
twenty gods. Their chief divinity seems to be Adeshvar, a naked 
figure without covering or ornament, except some gandh or sandal 
posto marks on Ida chest. They also worship Padmivati and 
KAlamma. The details of a Jain marriage differ little fi-om those 
in nso among local Brtihmanic Hindus. They put some precious 
metal in the corpse's mouth, make the usual stop and the usual 
change of bearers on the way to the burning place, and bum 
the dead. There is the usual carrying of water in a madka or 
earthen pot thrice round the pyre, the usual pot-piercing with a 
Atone at each turn, and the usual worship of the pot-breaking stone 
as the jivkkada or life-stone. On the third day the bones and 
ashea are thrown into water. On the fourth the burning place is 
cleaned and smoothed with clay, the jivkkada or life-stone is struck 
on the spot where the body was burned, is sprinkled with water, 
marked with sandal paste, and flowers are laid on it by the upddhya 
or priest, and the dead man's heir. On the eleventh day the house is 
rlfuued and sprinkled with water in which their god has been washed 
aud puja or worship is performed. On the twelth the upadhya 
lights aud feeds a horn or sacred fire. On the thirteenth friends are 
dined, but they seem to take no food to the grave and they have 
,%o yearly mind-feast. Like Bijdpur Lingiyata, Bijapur Jains must 
not be judged by what is written of them in books on Jain customs. 
Jt is true they abstain from animal food and they veil their waterpota 
and Gltor their water to prevent the destruction of insect life, but 
in unictice the book rules about wearing a strainer over the mouth 
iMjd brushing a seat before using it are ignored. The priests are 
aware that their books lay down some such rule but they never 
attempt to put the rule in practice. The BijApur Jains are an unob- 
trusive and respectable clatia. The husbandmen and bangle-sellers 
lire poor ; but some of the Bogdrs or coppersmiths are well-to-do, and 
i» few ai-o ri<"h bankers. Jain children, especially Bogar children, 

a 877 - .■?« 




(Bombay Q^setteei*- 


HI. occasionally go to school . They are a steady class, neither rising nor 
ion declining. Thoy gain no new adherents, but at the same time lose 

no old ones ; their numbers and their position will probably long a 
remain stationary. fl 

im. . Musalma'ns^ number 67,066 or 10'50 per cent of the population. ^ 
They include thirty-eight divisions of whom fourteen intermarry 
and are separate in little more than in name, and twenty-four form 
distinct communities marrying only among themselves. All are 
Snunis in name, but most know little of their religion, and are 
half Hindus in feeling, thought, speech, customs, and dress. Most 
are the descendants of local Hindus. Some of the cultivating classes 
are said to represent Jains who were converted by Pir Maliabir 
Khanddyat an Arab preacher, who came as a missionary to the Deccan 
about the beginning of the fourteenth century H. 704 (a.p. 1305) an4^H 
is buried in the Ark fort or citadel at Bij^pur. Some represeit^^ 
(Jonverts made by the first Bijapur king Yusuf Adil Shdh througll 
the exertions of Arab missionaries ; some by the Moghal emperor 
Aurangzib (1686- 1707), and a few by Haidar and Tipu of Maiaur 
(1760-1800). It seems probable that the number who represent 
Bahmani and Bijapur converts is larger than is suppo.sed, and that 
those whose origin has been forgotten attribute their conversion 
either to Aurangzib or to Tipu the two best known of modora y 
Mnsalroiin rulers. fl 

The thirty-eight divisions may be arranged ander two groups, ™ 
general and special. Under general come the representatives of 
the four leading classes Syeds, Shaikhs, Moghalw, and Path&ns, 
and of ten local classes who are separate in little more than in name 
and marry with the general classes. Of these the members of the 
four leading classes and of two of the ten local classes claim a strain 
of foreign blood. Of the twenty-four special classes who form 
distinct societies keeping to themselves in matters of marriage, J 
five are of part foreign and the remaining nineteen are of l^lfl 
origin. Of the four general classes who have or who claim a strain ^ 
^!iTXnJ?rl' 1 ^°g,^^^« ^'-e very few, and the Syeds, Shaikhs, , 
^Ln^i^ ?n ^i^.l^^S^ bodies found all over the district the majority J 

S conferts wl,^"* . /i^^^'° '''''^'"- ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^'^ descendants of ^ 
of lrSousor;nl'^'^'""^°f ^^'^' 'conversion, took the tiUo^ 
Lldm ASonr4vi]l %';.'''\"i'=''^ '^^^^^ under whom they adoptedl 

call their children by Lch Hinr ^„^ °^ ""'H^^^^' Kdnarese. They 
or add the K^narese^ 4A to^MuXl^' Hush^ppa and BhasAppa 
HassanAppa. The woriln'« ., ^^"^«'°^^n names as Hussaimippa or 
Though they generaTlv 2r " '' ^re Chdndbi, Jamilbi, and LAlbi 
the Im cla^ssfs som"fir:Z,.r°"S themselves, the Musalmins 

the main classes sometimes take wives frnrnfKi , *™.^ ""^ 

The to.vnspeop.e are either taU 0:71^^^-^^-^]^ 

rhe towusjnen shave the head, and we^r th 
, and dress in a coat, a shirt, a waistcoat. 

brown or olive skinned 
beard either short or ful 

> From materials xapulied lit? m^ q_ j » 

PP by Mr. Sred Diud, B..„,Uy Monidp^lity. 




isers or a waistclotli, and a headscarf or turban, wbicli Syeda 

Iwear green and the other classes wear either white, or of some other 

'colour, generally red. The tovmawomen, who are generally of 

middle height, delicate, fair, and with full regular features, dress in 

the Hindu robe and bodice. The village men, who are either tall 

>r middle sized, strong, well made, and dark or olive-skinned, shave 

le head, wear tbe beard either short or full, and dress in a turban 
headscarf, a waistcoat, and a waistcloth or dhoiar. The village 
'women are like the men in appearance and dress in the Hindu robe 
and bodice. Except villagers the women of the general classes do 
not appear in public. Townswomen belonging to the general classes 
are neater and cleaner than village women, but they are lazy and 
add nothing to the family income. Village women, though neither 
neat nor clean, are hardworking, and besides in minding the house 
help the men in their work. Village Musalm^ns are chiefly busband- 
haen, and are hardworking and sober; town Musalmdns are land- 
lords, servants, messengers, and constables. Though many are 
lazy and fond of liquor, as a class the Bij^lpur Musalmans are hard- 
working and thrifty. They suffered severely during the 1876-77 
famine and many have not yet paid o£E tbe debts which they then 
incurred. Townsmen of the general classes are fond of pleasure 
and good living. 

Their houses are generally one storey high and flat or terrace 
roofed, and many have a front or a back enclosure surrounded 
by stone walla five to seven feet high. Some of the bettor class 
of Bij^pur and Bagalkot houses have walls of cnt-stone and cement, 
a framework of good timber and cement-lined roofs. But the 
walls of most are of rough stone and clay smeared with a wash of 
cowdung, timber is scantily nsed, and the roof is of earth. In most 
cases the furniture is scanty. Of tables, chairs, and other articles of 
European fashion there are few or none. The usual stock of house 
goods is confined to low stools, a oot or two, some quilts or blankets, 
and cooking and drinking vessels. Some of the rich and well-to Jo 
at Bijdnur have Indian carpets and mats spread in their haithak or 
daldn that is the public room. The Bijfipur and Bagalkot Musalm^n 
bouses are the best in the district some having four to six rooms, 
with a central square, the front room being set apart as a public 
room, and tbe inmost room aa the cookroom, the rest of the rooms 
being kept either as sleeping or aa store rooms. Village houses are 
built in much the same style as tbe poorer town houses. They have 
generally three or four rooms. The front room, which is always the 
biggest is set apart for the bullocks, cows, and buffaloes, the middle 
room or rooms are for sleeping, and the back room is for cooking. 
These village houses have little furniture, a cot or two with blankets 
and quilts and a few brass and clay vessels. Barbers, washermen, 
and water-carriers work for several families, each of whom pays tbe 
washerman £1 to £2 (Ra.10-20), the water-carrier 10«. to £1 
(R«.5-10),and the barber 8s. to Via. (Rs. 4-6) a year. Except tbese 
three town Musolm&ns seldom keep bouse servants. During harvest 
village MusalmJlnB generally employ daily labourers to reap the corn. 
MusaltnAns of all clnsscs take two ineals a day. They breakfast 
:i1>.,M( till .>fi inill.-i Kit 1.1 nnrl pulso with chillies, tamarind, vege- 




[Bombay Gazetteer. 





tables, and if ricL mutton ; they sup about oigbt on pulse and millet, 
OFj in some of the richer families, on wheat and rice. Husbandmen 
and some other classes take three meals, a cold breakfast about seven, 
a midday meal in the fields, and a supper on reaching home. Among 
/ the rich public dinners consist of putdo a dish of rice and clarified 
butter, and ddlcha a curry of pulse and mutton. Public dinners 
cost £2 to &3 (Rs. 20-30) the hundred guests. Among poor 
townsmen and villagers a cheaper dinner of rice and pulse curry 
is served at £1 30s. to £2 (Rs. 15-20) the hundred g\iests. A 
few rich families eut mutton daily, and most manage to have 
mutton at least on the Ramazdn and Dakar Id festivals. All 
prefer mutton to beef, and many local communities will on no 
account touch beef. Buffalo meat is avoided by all. Fowls and 
eggs are used only by the rich at special dinners to a few friends or 
relations. Fish are eaten by all whenever they can bo bought 
or caught. The staple food of all classes is grain and pulse. Among 
the rich and well-to-do, perhaps about ten per cent of the whole, 
the grain in ordinary use is wheat, Indian millet, rico, and pulse, the 
rest, that is nine-tenths of the whole, seldom eat any grain but Indian 
millet and pulse. On tlie basis of the average rupee price of grain 
duriug the ten years ending 1883 which was 60 pounds for Indian 
millet, 20 pounds for rice, SO pounds for wheat, and 35 pounds for 
pulse, the monthly food charges of a rich Mnsa!m6n family of five 
vary from £2 to £3 (Rs.20-30)j of a middle-class family from 16s. to 
£1 10s. (Rs. 8-15), and of a poor family from Gs. to 12«. (Rs. 3-6). 
Water is the usual drink. A few rich and middle-class families 
take milk with bread or rice either with breakfast or supper. Tea 
and coffee are seldom used. In spite of the religious rulesagainst their 
use intoxicating liquors are largely drunk. On account of their cost 
imported wines and spirits are seldom taken. The two chief drinks a«M 
the local sondi or fermented juice of the wild date palm and boja a^ 
millet beer. The craftsmen, almost all of whom are of pure Hindu 
descent, are the most given to the use of fertnented liquor. Spirits 
made from the bark of the babhid tree, raw sugar, and dates are also 
much used especially by craftsmen. Of other stimulants and 
narcotics tobacco is smoked by almost all and snuff is taken by some 
old men chiefly traders, opium is sometimes used by servants, con- 
stables, and religious beggars who also smoke gdnja and charas or 
hemp-leaf juice. Except the men of the leading Musalman classes 
who wear the Musalman turban, coat, shirt, waistcoat, and trousers, 
all classes dress in Hindu style. In-doors men dress in a headscarf 
or rumdl, a shirt and a waistclothj out-of-doors the rich on all 
occasions, and the middle-class and poor on festive occasions 
or holidays, dress in a Hindu turban, a coat, and a pair of 
shoes. The whole of the every-day dress is made of cotton, but, 
for festive or ceremonial occasions, almost all wear a silk turban 
and a silk-bordered waistcloth. They have their turbans dyed on 
the Tfamazdn or Bahar Id.e generally red or yellow, except saints' 
sons or pirzddaft and Syeds who prefer green. The women of almost 
all the Slusalman classes dress in a long Hindu robe or sddi and a 
bodice or choU covering the back and fastened in a knot in front, 
with short tight sleeves stop]>ing above the elbow. Except th^ 


women of the four gcnei-al classes who keep the seclusion or zenana 
rules, and, on going out, wrap a white sheet round them, most women 
appear in public in the same dress as they wear in-doora. Except on 
festive or ceremonial occasions almost all dress in cotton. The festive 
or ceremonial dress includes one or two sets of silk or embroidered, 
robes and bodices given by the husband at marriage which generally 
last during a woman's life. A rich woman's ceremonial dress is 
worth £10 to £20 (Rs, 100-200) and a middle class or poor woman's 
£1 to £3 (Rs. 10-30), The yearly cost of dress to a rich woman 
varies from £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30) and to a middle class or poor woman 
from 6». to £1 (Ra.3-10). Except in rich families for a year or 
two after marriage when they wear embroidered cloth slippers, 
Musalman women never wear shoes. 

Among some of the lower classes, KasAbs butchers, Bagbans 
fruiterers, and T6mbolis betel-leaf sellers, who, when they can afford 
it, are fond of wearing a large gold ring in the right ear and* a 
chain weighing IJ lb. to 2^ lbs. (50-] 00 tolas) on the right foot, 
Musalroiln men seldom wear ornaments. Almost all Musalman 
women begin married life with a good store of ornaments. Their 
parents mast give tbem at least one nosering, a set of gold earrings 
and silver finger rings j and their husbands must invest in ornaments 
for the bride as much money as the amount of the dowry, which is 
generally £12 Us. (Rs. 127). Among the poorer classes a woman 
seldom keeps her full stock of marriage jewels. Most of her orna- 
ments disappear by degrees in meeting special expenses and in 
helping the family through times of scarcity of food or of work. 

Their faith binds the bulk of the Muhammadans into one body. 
Sunuis by faith, they worship at the same mosque^ keep the same 
holidays, hold the .same ceremonies, and respect and employ the 
same judges or kdzis. The Musalmaas who hold aloof frora the main 
/body of their fellow-believers aro either Musalman sectarians or are 
local converts who have either never given up or who have again 
taken to Hindu practises. The Musalman sectarians who hold aloof 
from the rest are the Ohair Mdhdis or auti-Mabdis who hold that 
the Mahdi or looked-for Ira4m has come, and the Wahabis who 
would do away with the worship of saints and with all respect for 
religions doctors. Among the special communities the Bakar-Kasabs 
mutton butchers, B&gb&ns fruiterers, Pinjdias cotton teasers, 
Kan jars poulterers and rope-makers, and Pendharaa servants and 
^aas cnttera have such strong Hindu leanings, that they do not 
»6sociate with other Musalmdns, almost never come to the mosque, 
eschew beef, keep Hindu holidays, and openly worship and offer 
vows to Hindu gods. 

Of the regular Masalmdns no very large number, perhaps about 
twenty per cent, teach their children to read the Kui^n. All are 
oarefnl to circumcise their male children, to hold the initiation 
or bi»millah ceremony, and to have their marriage and funeral 
services conducted by the kdxi or by his deputy the mulla. Though 
ns a rule they do not attend tho mosque for daily prayers, almost all 
are careful to be present at the special services on the Rdmuznn and Id hohdays, and uro careiul to give alms, to fast dui'ing the 




tBombay Gazetteer, 




thirty dsya o£ Raniazdn, and to pay the kdzi his daes. Their 
religious officers are the A;azt jadge or marriage registrar, the 7n»lla 
priest or deputy kdzi, the kkatib preacher, the mujdvar beadle or 
ministraut, and the bangki caller to prayer. Of these the titles of the 
Adti and the mrtjdvar, and of the hdnghi or crier of the mosque of 
Bijdpur are hereditary. In Musalmdn times the kdzi was the civil I 
and criminal judge. Now his sole duties are to conduct the chief ' 
services of the Ramazdn and Bakar Id feasts in the mosques, on 
which occasions he gets a turban or a shawl worth £1 to £2. 
(Rs. 10-20) from funds contributed by the people, and to perform < 
and register marriage ceremonies for which he is paid 5«. to IDs. 
(Ra 2 J -5). The kdzi's deputy the muHa is generally chosen 
from some poor family and some are, others are not able to read the 
Kurdn. One mulla is set apart for each village. His duties are to 
perform the marriage and funeral ceremonies, and kill with proper 
Mosalmdn rites sheep, goats, and fowls both for Musalmdns and for 
Hindus. Local flesh-eating Hindus do not themselves kill the animals 
which they eat. Thoy employ the village mulla to kill them, and pay 
him l^ci. to Zd. (1-2 as.) together with some of the smaller 
parts of the slain animal. The muUds have to send in their yearly 
income to the kdzi of the district by whom they are appointed, 
keeping one-fourth for their own use. Some village mull4s enjoy 
an allotment of land. Mnjdvars shrine-ministrants or beadles are 
chiefly employed by the descendants of saints to look after their 
forefathers' shrines and to receive the vows offered by the people. 
Mujdvara generally live on the offerings to the shrines which 
include animals, cocoanuts, and cash. Some also live on tillage. 
Of bdnghis or viudzams, the mosquo criers, the chief duty is to 
Btand on the highest balcony of the mosque and call to prayers five 
times a day. The post of crier at the great Bijdpar mosque is held 
by a high Musalman family ; the appointment still carries with it a 
state allowance of 2e. (Re. 1) a day. The saints* sons or pirzddds 
are chiefly Syeds, descendants or saints, who either converted the 
forofathei's of their followers or who were held in high local esteem. 
The chief of the Bijdpur pirzddds are the Bashaiban Syeds, who are 
also called Kadrais, and the Bakharis. None of them of late years 
have made any effort to spread Islam. They content themselves with 
the descendants of the followers whom their forefathers converted, 
who are low class local Musalmdns who pay their teacher 2«. to 1 0*. 
(Rs. 1-5) a year. Besides their followers' contributions, pirzddds 
own large estates or j'lgirs, granted them either by the Bijdpur 
kings or by the Moghals, Almost all of them are lazy and fond of 
pleasure, and some are given to drink and to the use of intoxicating 
drugs. Fakiks or Musalmdn religious beggars are said to get 
their name from their three chief rules of conduct ; Fa standing for 
faka or starving, ki for kinayat or contentment, and r for riydzat 
or work, the rules being that all religions beggars must be content, 
that they must earn their Uving by work, and that if they get neither 
work nor food they must starve. Fakirs belong to two main classes 
Bdshards or law-abidera, also called Mukimshdhis or settlers, who 
marry and remain in one place living either on labour or on alms, and 
Beshaids that is law-neglcctcrs, also culled Darveshis or wanderers. 




who have neither wives nor homes. Both of these believe in and 
follow the foar saints and foarteen khdnvddds or families which 
are sprung from Ali the son-in-law of the Prophet. Of the house- 
holders or Mukimshahia the Kadrias and Chistias are the orders most 
commonly found in the district. They occur in large number a£. 
Bij4pur and B^galkot where they have viakdiis or rest-houses built 
in public places for the use of travellers, who, on leaving, give 
them a present. Of Darveshis or wanderers the orders generally 
seen in the district are the Kalandars, the Mastans, the Jaldiis, and 
the BnkhAris. The desire for school-going has not yet taken hold of 
the BijApur Mnsalmitns. Each sub-division or tdluka in Bij^pur has 
^a Government Urdu school, but the people take little interest iu 
ending their children to school. In the whole district only one 
luhammadan has learnt English. He is employed in the Engineer's 
[office at Bij^pur, and some, who have learnt Mardthi and K^uarese, 
rliave been engaged as clerks and bailiffs in the civil courts. None 
have risen to any high position. 

The main body of BijApur Musalm^ns who intermarry and differ 
, little in look, dress, or customs, includes, besides the four general 
[divisions of Syeds, Shaikhs, Moghals, and Pathans, ten special 
I classes, one of traders Sauddgars merchants, two of shopkeepers 
*Atti,rs perfumers and Manydrs bracelet-sellers, three of craftsmen 
l^dgzis paper makers, Kaldigars tinners, and Ndlbands farriers, and 

four of servants Bedars, Hakims practitioners, Mahdwats elephant> 

drivers, and Sdrbdns camel-drivers. 

Syeds, who claim descent from Fatima and Ali, the daughter 

and the son-in-law of the Prophet, are of two branches, Hassaui and 

Hussaini called after Ali's two sons Hassan and Hussain. Their 

, chief families are the Bashaibdns, Brums, Nazirs, Idrusia, Zubaidis, 

: Hakbils, Bilfakis, and Sakads. They are found in large numbers at 

Bijdpur and trace their origin to some of the Bijdpur saints, who, 

[about the middle of the thirteenth and in the fourteenth centuries, 

[came as missionaries from Arabia and Asia Minor and spread Isldm 

among the people of Bijdpur. The men add Syed and the women 

Bibi or lady to their names. They are either tall or of middle 

height, well made, and fair or dark. The men shave the head, wear 

the beard full, and dress in a green turban or headscarf, a long 

^coaty a shirt, and loose trousers. Of late some of the young men 

' liavo begun to wear the waistcloth or dhotar. Their women, who 

are either tall or of middle height, delicate, with full regular 

featurea, and fair skins, dress in the Hindu robe and bodice, and do 

i'not appear in public. Both men and women are neat and clean. 

The home speech of all is Hindustani. The men are Pirzadas or 

saints' sons that is religious guides, Jagirddrs or proprietors, and 

husbandmen. They are mUd hospitable and kindhearted, but 

generally hizy unthrifty and given to pleasure. Their women add 

nothing to the family income. They suffered much during the 

1870-77 famine, and many of thorn had to dispose of their property 

and run into debt which they have not yet been able to pay. They 

.Mnerally many among themselves, or with Shaikhs. They are 

^Bnnnis vi tiu- Uunufi school, and are .said to bo religious and careful 

(Bombay Gazetteer- 




to say their prayers. They seud their boys to school to learn Urcla 
and Kanarese, but none hare risen to any high position. 

ShaikllB, or Elders, are found in large numbers throughout th« 
fUstrict, They are of two general branches Sidiks who take thel 
■•niame fix)m Abubakar Sidik and Fdmkis who take their name froi 
Utnaral-Fartxk. Besides these two classes many local converts ad^ 
Shaikh to their names. Thoy do not differ from Syeds in look or ii 
dress. The men add Shaikh to their names and the women add Bibi 
Both men and women are neat and clean, hardworking, and thrifts 
They suffered much during the 1876-77 famine. Most of them ha< 
to sell their property and incur debts. The men are soldiei 
constables, servants, and messengers ; and the women, wherever thej! 
can get work at home such as spinning cotton and cleaning silk fo| 
traders, work hard and try to add at least '6iL (2 ae.) a day 
the family income. Most Bdgalkot Shaikhs with their wives an( 
children live on cleaning the silk which is dyed there and sent 
Bombay. They speak Hindustani. They are Snnnis of the Hanai 
school and are careful to say their prayers. They g^ve daughter^ 
to and take daughters from any of the four general classes. The 
send their boys to school, but education has not yet raised any 
them to a high jwsition. 

Moghals, who trace their descent to the Moghal invaders 
the seventeenth century, are found in small numbers. The mei 
add Mirza to their names and the women Bibi. They speal 
Hindustani at home, and do not difEer from tlie Syeds or Shaikhs ii 
appearance or dress. Both men and women are neat and clean 1 
the women do not appear in public and add nothing to the familj 
income. The men are hardworking, thrifty, and sober. They 
servants, constables, or messengers, and are not well-to-do, many oi 
them being in debt since the 1876-77 famine. They marry with any 
of the general classes except Syeds. They are Sunnis of the Hanafi 
school and are careful to say their prayt-rs. They are anxious tu 
seud their boys to school but none have risen to any high poaitioD. 

Patha'ns, or Victors, are found in large numbers throughout the 
district. They trace their origin to Pathtln or Afghan settlers who 
took sei-vice under the Bijapur kings (1490- 1086). They have lost 
all trace of their foreign origin, and are tall or of middle height, 
well built, strong, and either dark or olive-skinned. The men 
shave the head, wear the beard full, and dress in a turban or head- 
scarf, a tight-fitting coat, a shirt, a waistcoat, and a pair of tight 
trousers, or a waistcloth. The women, who are either tall or of 
middle height and of brown colour, dress in the Hindu robe and 
bodice. As a rule, they keep the seclusion or zetvina rules, and, 
by spinning cotton or doing other work at home, add something to 
the family income. Both men and women are neat and clean in 
their habits. The men add Khin and the women add Bibi to their 
names, and their homo speech is Hindustani. They are hardworking, 
thrifty, and sober. Most of tliom suffered severely during thf 
1876-77 famine. They are soldiers, constables, messengers, 
servants. They marry either among themselves or with any of tl 
general classes except Syeds. They are Sunnis of the Haas 




school, but most of tbem are careless about sayiug their prayers. 
Tbey seldom send their boys to school, and none of them baa riseu 
to any high position through educatiou. 

Kabul! Fatha'ns are new comers from AfgbanistJln. Only 
three or four families are found in the district. They are tallstroug* 
and fair with gray eyes. The uicn wear the head hnir nad the beard 
long and full. The men dress in a headscarf or a skull cap, a loose- 
sleeved shirt which falls below the knees, a waistc*Dat, and a pair of 
very loose trousers rather tight at the ankles. They speak Kdbuli 
among themselves and Hindustilni with others. They are traders, 
some dealing in piecegooda and others in moneylending. They 
are hardworking, thriftyj and sober, but bad tempered. As they are 
well-to-do they have found wives among the general classes and 
are permanently settled. They are Sannis of the Hanafi school and 
are s.iid to bo reli^'ious and careful to say their prayers. They are 
illiterate, but on the whole are a rising class. 

Sailda'gars, or Honourable Traders, of wbom there are only two 
or three fjuuilies at Kaladgi are immigrants from Maisur. They 
belong to the chiss of Navdits who represent the descendants of the 
Arab and Persian mcrchauta who settled along the west coast of 
India between the eighth and the fourteenth centuries. They claim 
to belong to either the Faruki or Sidiki branches of Shaikhs. 
Their home tongiie is "Hindustani, and they have still something 
foreign iu their look. They are tall strong and well made, with 
handsome features, large black eyes, long and straight noses, and 
brown skins. Some of the men shave the head ; others wear the 
head hair either long or short and wear the beard full. The women, 
who have thu same cast of face aa the men, bear a high character, 
and are careful not to appear in public. The men dress in a head> 
scarf, a long coat coming to the knees, a shirt, a waistcoat, and 
either trousers loose above and tight at the ankles or a striped 
waiatcloth. The women dress in a gown or petticoat called lahenga 
of two or three yards of chintz or silk, gathered in plaits round the 
waist and falling to the ankle, with the upper part of the body 
robed in a scarf or odni two and a half to four yards long. They 
are piecegooda dealers, and are generally hardworking, tbrifty, 
sober, and well-to-do. They neither form a separate community 
nor differ in their manners from ordinary MusalmAns ; and marry 
either among themselves or among any of the general classes except 
the Syeds. They are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, and are religious 
and strict in saying their prayers. They respect the kdzi and 
employ him to conduct their services. They teach their boys to read 
the Kurdn and send them to Government schools to learn Mardthi 
and K^narese. On the whole they are a rising class. 

Attars, or Perfumers, found in small numbers in different 
parts of the district, have their headquarters at Bijdpur where 
tbey wore formerly numerous, but many have loft either for 
Haidarabad or for Bombay in search of work. They are probably 
tho doaceudants of Jain Hindus of the class of the same name. 
Their homo tongue is generally Hindustani, but they speak K&narese 
Iluontly with Hindus. The men re middle-sieed and dark or olive- 

• W7-W 

Chapter I 


[Bombay Qkitit^er, 




skinned. They shave the head, wear the beard either short or full, 
and dress iu a Hiadu-like turban, a shirt, a waistcoat^ and a waist- 
cloth. The women, who do not appear In public, dress iu a Hindu 
robe or sdJi and a lx>dice or cltoli, and do not help the men in theil 
.'work. Both men and wonien are neat and clean in thoir habit 
In their calling as makers and dealers iu perfumes they at 
hardworking, thrifty, and sober, bnt most of them have left thj 
district as the demand for their wares has fallen very low. Bijdpi 
incense, cosmetics, dentrifice, aloewood preparations, and oth« 
perfumeries are generally considered the best in the Bombf 
Presidency. During and for long after the 1876-77 famine tl 
demand for their wares ceased and they suffered severely. Th©^ 
have shops and do not hawk their wares either from village 
village or from door to door. They form a separate body but d^ 
not differ in manners or customs from ordinary Musalmdns, aii< 
marry either among themselves or with oi-dinary Musahndns. The^ 
are Sunnis of the Hanafi school and are careless about their religion. 
They eschew beef and iu outlying villages are said to worship &nf~ 
pay vows to Hindu gods. Still they obey the regular kdzi in 
matters and ask him to conduct their ceremonies. They send the) 
bo3'8 to school to learn Urdu and Kanarese or MarAthi. Noi 
have taken to any new pursuit or risen to any high position. 

Manya'rs, Bracelet-sellers and Dealers in Hardware, are foui 
in small numbers in some of the larger towns. They are said 
represent local Hindu converts. Their home tongue is Hindusti 
with a sprinkling of MarAthi aud K6nareso and with a stronl 
Deccan accent and pronunciation. Tliey are generally of midc 
height, thin, and dark or olive-skinned. The men shave the liea 
and wear the beard either full or short. They dress in a heads< 
tied like a Hindu turban, a waistcoat, and a waistcloth. Tl 
women are of middie size, thin, and either wheat or olive-skinnc 
with regular features. They dress in the Hindu robe and bodice 
and, except the old, do not appear in public or add to the family 
income by helping the men in their work. Both men and women 
are neat and clean in their habits. They deal in hardware and 
miscellaneous articles, cotton thread, tapes, mirrors, wax-bracelets, 
beads, and Hindu brass ornaments. They keep fixed shops and also 
set up booths at weekly markets and fairs. They are hardworking, 
thrifty, and sober, and, though not rich, make £20 to £40 
(Rs. 200 - 400) a year. As a class they are well-to-do and able 
to save. They do not form a separate community and do not differ 
iu manners or customs from the regular Musalmdns. They marry 
either among themselves or with any of the ordinary classes of 
Muaalniins. In religion they are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, and 
a few of them are religious and careful to say thoir prayers. They 
send their boys to school to leani Marithi and K&narese but none 
has risen to any high position, 

Ka'gzis, or Paper-makers, are found iu small numbers in Bij&pur. 
B4gaIkot, and other large towns. They are said to represeui 
local Hindu converts. Their home speech is Hindustani. Th< 
men are tall or of middle size, thin, and dark. They shave tl 



beftd, wear the beard full or short, aud dress in a round white cotton 
turban, a shirt, a waistcoat, and a waistcloth or a pair of tight 
troasers. The women are like the men. They dress in the Hindu 
robe and bodice, appear in public, and help the men in theii* work.^ 
Neither men nor women are neat or clean. They make rough* 
coarse paper which is used chiefly by local merchants and for 
packets and covers in Government offices. Their rates are 6d. to 
9d. {4-6 as.) a quire. Their trade has suffered much from the 
competition of European paper and as a cla«!6 they are badly off. 
They suffered severely during the famine of 1876-77. Many are iu 
debt, and most have gone to Haidarabad and other places in search 
of work. When they were a large body they formed a well organised 
society. At pi-esent they do not form a separate community nor 
differ in manners from the ordinary Musalmdus. They marry 
either among themselves or with auy of the ordinary classes of 
Musalm^ns, and respect and obey the kuzi in all matters. They are 
Sunois of the Hanafi school, and are religious and try to give their 
boys some schooling. The decline of their craft has forced some 
Kig/as to take to trade and service. On the whole they are a 
falling class. 

Kala'i^ars, or Tinnei's, found iu small numbers in .some of the 
larger towns, are said to represent local Hindu converts. They style 
themselves Shaikhs a title they are said to have received from the 
patrons under whom they embraced Islam. They are either tall or 
middle sized, and are dark or olive-skinned. Their home speech is 
Hindusti.ui. The men shave the head, wear the beard full, and 
dross iu a turban or a headscarf, a shirt, a waistcoat, and a waist- 
cloth or tight trousers. The women, who are either tall or 
middle-sized and wheat or brown skinned, dress in a Hindu robe and 
bodice, do not appear in public, and add nothing to the family 
income. Neither men nor women are neat or clean in their habits. 
Most of the men, though hardworking and thrifty, are given to 
drinking fermented palm-juice and smoking hemp flowers or eating 
opium, practices which have sunk many of them in debt. They tin 
copper and brass cooking vessels for Hindus, MusalmAns, and 
Christians, and are paid 1«. 6d. to 2*. (Re. f - I) for a dozen vessels. 
They suffered much from the 1876-77 famine, as, both during the 

line and for several years after it, to save the cost of tinning copper 
jls, the bxlk of both Hindus and Musalmdns took to cooking in 
jBsels. Many went to Bombay and the Nizdm's country in 
of work. Those who remain are now well employed and well- 
to-do. They do not form a separate community nor differ in their 
manners from ordinary Musalraana. They marry among themselves 
or with the general classes of Muaalm6ns and obey the hizi and respect 
him in all matters. They are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, but are 
not religious or careful to say their prayers. During aud after the 
1876-77 famine, many who did not leave the district became hou5»e 
Bcrvauts. They are auxioua to send their boys to school, but none 
have risen to any high position. 

Na'lbandS, or Farriers, found in small numl)ers iusome liu'gc 
towutij are said to reprosout local Hindu cuuvurts, Like Kuli'iigar& 








I Bombay Oasett 



ipter III. 





they have taken the title of Shaikh. Their home speech is Hindustani. 
The men are of middle height and dark or olive-skinned. They shave 
the head, wear the beard full, and dress in a headscarf or white or 
.red cotton turban tied in Hindu fashion, a shirt, a waistcoat, and a 
' waistcloth or tight trousers. The women who are middle-sia 
thin regular featured and wheat-coloured, dress in the Hindu 
and bodice. None except the old appear in public or add to t] 

family income. Both men and women are neat and clean. They 

farriers by craft, hardworking and thrifty, but most are excessively 
fond of intoxicating drinks, and are badly off. They shoe horse 
as well as bullocks. Their chief customers are Europeans and peraol 
who let bullock carts on hire. Their employment is scanty and mc 
have taken service as house servants, constables, and messenj^ 
Though they form a separate community their manners and enstoi 
do not differ from those of ordinary MusalmAns. They marry eithi 
dmoDg themselves or take wives from any of the ordinary classes 
MusalmAns. In all matters they respect the kcizi. They ai 
Sunnis of the Hanafi school but are not strict in saying their prayei 
Of late some have begun to send their boys to school to learn Ur< 
and K^narese, but none have risen to any high position. On t] 
whole they are a falling class. 

Bedars are found in one or two Kalfidgi families as house-servanl 
They have come to the district from Maisur. They claim descei 
from K.-ibuli soldiers in the service of Tipu of Maisur, but they a| 
probably descended from converts of the Hindu tribe of Bedars 
Baidarus. After Tipu's fall (1799) they moved from Maisur, and 
found in considerable numbers in Sholdpur where they are trade:! 
constables, and servants. They are tall strong and brown. Th€ 
home tongue is Hindustani, The men shave the head or wear loi __ 
hair, wear the beard full, and dress in a turban or headscarf, a coat, 
a waistcoat, and loose trousers. The women, who are either tall or 
of middle height and fair with full regular features, dresa in the 
Hindu robe and bodice, keep the seclusion or zenana rules, and ac' ' 
nothing to the family income. Both men and women are neat ai 
clean. Though hardworking and thrifty they are fond of ferment 
date-palm juce and are badly off. They do not form a separa 
community or differ in manners and customs from oraina 
Musalmftns. They marry with any of the general classes. Th^ 
respect and obey the kazi in all matters. T bey are Sunnis of the 
Hanafi school and are religious and careful to say their prayers. The 
are an.xions to send their boys to school, but none have risen to 
high position. 

Hakims or Practitioners, also called Pahelwans or Wrestlers, 
found in small numbers in Bij.ipui'. Tliey are said to represel 
local Hindu converts. They call themselves Shaikhs and sj 
Hindustani at home. They are tall or middle-sized, well made, 
Btrong, and dark, the men shave the head, wear the beard full, and 
dress in a white cotton turban, a coat, a shirt, a waistcoat, and 
tight trousers, llie women, who are like the men, wear the 
Hindu robe and bodice, appear in public, and act as midwives and 
nurses. They also act as Domnis or songstresses in marriage ai 
other ceremonies. Both men and women are neat and clean. 

Karuitak ] 


men practise inediciuo without any ti*aiuing or learning, Tliey go 
from village to village and sometimes visit distant countries with 
powders and herbs and cajole and frighten i>eople into buying. 
Whatever the disease, from dysent-ery to toothache, the Hakims have^ 
a specific, and the specific is generally the same. They get a fee of • 
ijd. to 1«. (4.-8 a.f.) promising to return but generally moving off to 
cheat some new patient. As a rule they come home for the 
Muharram, and for forty days after the Muharram, they make no 
journeys and do not let their women leave their homes. Though 
hardworking and thrifty, they are much given to drink and to intoxi- 
cating drugs. They are generally badly off and in debt. They do 
not form an organized body and are only a nominal community 
marrying among the general classes and differing little from them in 
customs and nianuers. They obey and respect the hdzi in all matters. 
They are Sunuis of the HanaG school and few of them are religious 
or careful to say their prayers. They have lately begun to senrd 
their boys to school to learn Marathi or Kdnarese. Besides by the 
sale of drugs some eara their living as servants and messengers. 

Maha'watS, or Elephant-driversj occur in small numbers 
in some of the larger towns. They are said to represent local 
Rajput converts. Their home tongue is Hindustani, but they speak 
Kdnarese freely. The men are generally middle-sized and dark. 
They shftve the head, wear the beard either full or short, and dross 
in a Hindu-like turban, a waistcoat, and a waistcloth. The women, 
vrbo are like the men in appearance, dress in a Hindu robe and 
>K)dice, and appear in public, but add uotliing to the family income. 
Both men and women are neat and clean. Under the British, as the 
demand for elephant drivers has nearly ceased, they have taken to 
different callings, working as servants, messengers, or constables. 
Ab a class they are badly off. They do not form a separate commu- 
nity, marry among the ordinary classes of Musalmdns, and do not 
differ from them in manners and customs. They obey and respect 
the kdzi and ask him to conduct their services. They are Sunnis 
of the Hunafi school but know little of their religion and are not 
careful to say their prayers. They do not send their boys to school ; 
Etd none have risen to any high position, 

Sa'rba 118, or Camel-drivers, found in small numbers in some of 
the large towns represent Hin lu converts of the Kajput cast«. 
Their bume 8{)coch is Hindustdni, but they talk Kamirc&e fluently. 
The men are tall or middle-sized, of a dark or olive colonr. They 
shave the head, wear the beard cither short or full, and dress in 
a Hindu-like turban, a waistcoat, and a waistcloth. The 
women, who urc like the men in appearance and wear the Hindu 
robe and bodice, appear in public but add nothing to the family 
income. Both men and women are neat and dean. Since power 
has pas-Sf'd ont of the hands of native chiefs the demand for camel 
drivers has almost ceased. They have taken to new pursuits, some 
earning their living hs servants and messengers and others as hus- 
bandmen. They are hardworking and thrifty but are seldom well- 
lu-«lo. They do not form a separate community, nor differ in their 
manners from ordinary Musulmaus, They marry either among 


Chapter I 



[Bombay Qazett 



kpier III. 



themselves or with any of the orJioary Musaloidtis. Tliey are Suuuis 
of the Hanafi school, but are not religious. They obey and respect 
the kdzi in all matters. They do not send their childrea to school 
nor have any of them risen to a high position. 

Of the twenty-four separate communities who keep by themselvei 
in matters of marriage and have little in common with the main 
body of Musalmiins, six are part foreigners of whom two Labbeys and 
Mukeris are traders, one Oio Kasibs craftsmen, and three Kdkara 
Clihaparbands and Jats are labourers. Of the remaining eighteen, 
of pure or nearly pure local Hiudu origin, nine BAgbAus fruiterers, 
Bhadbhunj^ grain-parchers, Bakar Kusabs mutton butohors, Gaundis 
masons, Jh^rAkars or DhuldhoyAs dust-washers, Mouiins weavers, 
PinjirAs cotton cleaners^ Patvegars tassel-twisters, and Saikalgars 
tinkers, are shopkeepers and craftsmen j three BhatyArds cooks, 
Hajdms barbers, and Pakhalis water-carriers are sorvaots ; three 
Kanjars fowlers and rope-makers, Pendh^rJls pony-keepers, and 
Sivdris hunters or fuel-sellers are labourers j and two Kasbans 
dancing girls and courtezans, Nakiirchis horse kettle-drummers, and 
Tdschis kettle drummers are musicians. 

Ga'O Kasa'bs, or Beef Butchers, found in two or three families 
at Kal&dgi are immigrants from Maisur. They trace their descent 
to Abyssinian slaves in the service of Haidar A\\ of Maisur ia 
(1762 - 1782), They arosaid to have accompanied the British forces to 
the Deccau in 1803. They are found only in military cantonments in 
different parts of the Deccan. They speak Hindustani. The men are 
tall or middle sized strong and dark. They either shave or grow 
the head hair, wear the beard full, and dress in a headscarf, a shirt, a 
waistcoat, and tight trousers. The women, who are like the men 
in apjiearance, dress in the Hindu robe and bodice. They appear 
in public and help the men in selling small pieces of beef. They 
are dirty and quarrelsome but sober and modest. The men, though 
hardworking and thrifty are not clean, and are excessively fond of 
drinking fermented date-palm juice. They are seldom well-to-do. 
They hav^o fixed shops, and kill both cows and buffaloes. The cow 
beef is used by Christians and by some ^MusalmAns, and the buffalo 
beef by Hindu Mhdrs and Bhangis. They do not keep the animals 
but buy them as they require them. They form a separate com- 
munity with a headmsn of their own chosen from the oldest families, 
who is empowered to fine any one who breaks caste rules. The money 
collected in fines is spent in caste dinners. Their manners do 
not differ from those of ordinary Musalmdns. They marry amon^^ 
their own community ouly, but obey the hizi and employ him 1^| 
conduct their ceroraouies. They are Sunuis of the Hanafi schoo" 
and are not religious or careful to pay their prayers. They do not 
send their boys to school, or take to new pursuits. 

Ka'kars, immigrants from Afghanistin, are found in small 
numbers at Kal^dgi. Among themselves they speak a rough 
mixture of MarAthi, Hindustani, and Malvi. The meu are tall, 
well made, strong:, and dark. They shave the head, wear the bearc 
full and large, and dress in a turban tied like a Hindu turban, 
tight-fitting jacket, and a waistcloth. Like the men the womc 

tall aud dark with regular features. They appear ia public aud 
weai' the Hindu robe and bodice. The men are servants, labourers 
and pony-keepers ; and the women soli fuel and grass. Though 
hardworking and thrifty they are neither honest cor cleanly, aud are 
excessiv'ely fond of date-palm juice. Almost all of them are poorly*, 
clad and in debt. They marry with no other Musalmdns and gire 
their daughters to no one except a mombor of their own class. 
They have a strong class feeling, the community exercising a firm 
control over the membors. They are Sunnis of the UaaaQ school 
and are seldom religious or careful to say their prayers. They 
obey the kazi and in their customs do nut greatly diffor from 
ordinary MusalmAus. They do not send their boys to school and 
none of them havo risen to any high position. 

Labbeys, from tho Malabar coast, are found in small 
number& iu different parts of the district. They are said to be the 
descendants of the Arab refugees who fled from tho Persian gulf 
towaj'ds the close of the seventh century through fear of the tyrant 
Hajjaj-bin-Yusuf. As seafarers and merchanti, they, and later Arab 
and Persian refugees aud settlers, until the establish mont of 
Portuguese supremacy (1510), held tho bulk of the foreign sea trade 
Western India. Their home tongue is Arvi or Tamils and with 
hers they speak Hindustani. Their featares hem' traces of a foreign 
igin. Thoy are about tho middle height, muscular, and brown or 
t-coloured. As a rule the men shave the whole head, wear a full 
ird, and dress in a skull cap covered when out-of-doors by a long 
fhtly wound coloured kerchief, a loose and long shirt falling to the 
knees, a tight-fitting jacket, instead of trousers a coloured waistcluth 
• tfr litngi reaching from the waist to the ankles, and instead of shoes 
^tendals. They are generally only visitors, as they move from place 
to place almost every year and do not bring their wives with 
tbem. They deal in skins and hides. They buy hides from local 
butchers to whom they generally advance large sums to keep them 
from the hands of rival hide-merchants, and send the skins preserved 
in salt to Madras or Bombay. They hold a high place in the trading 
community, and bear a good name for fair dealing. They are hard- 
working, thrifty, sober, and generally well-to-do. In religion 
they are Sunnis of the Shafi school and are strict in saying their 
prayers, and keeping the rules of their faith. Thoy take much 
interest in teaching their boys Arabic and Tamil, but none of them 
teach their boys English or MarAtbi. 

Mukeris, or Deniers, are found in large numbers iu 
KalAdgi towu. They are said to represent Hindu Lamanis or 
BanjAris converted by Tipu of Maisur. They are believed to 
have como to KaUdgi as sutlers with General Wellesley'a 
force in 1803. Their home speech is Hindustani. They are tall 
or middle-sized, strong, and brown or wheat-coloured. Some of the 
men shave tho head wholly, others wear tho head hair long, and all 
h»vo full beards. The womeu are like tho men, and have no very 
good uame for morality. Except the old none of them appear in 
public nor (vdd to the family income. Both men and women, 
though noat and clean are very fond of date palm juice. The men 
dresM in a turban or headscurf, a coat, a shirt, a tight jacket, and a 



' .MuaAuci 




(Bombay Qazelt-efi 

^ptor III. 




waistclutli or tight trousers. Tlie women dress iu llio Hm 
robe and n, loug slt'eved bodice. Young girl.s generally wi 
a petticoat banging from the waist to the ankles and cover tl 
upper part of the body with a scarf or odni. They deal in gr; 
"and groceries, and have a poor name for honesty. They are ha; 
working thnfty and well-to-do. They generally laarry auio 
themselves only and have a well organized body under a cliaudh 
or headman chosen from the richest family, who, with the consent 
the majority, is empowered to fine any one breaking their class rul 
Their customs to some extent differ from those of ordinary Musalma: 
Most believe in the Hindu goddess Yallamma of Saundatti in liclga 
to whom they offer vows. They also keep Hindu festivals, 
the same lime they obey the kdzi and employ him to conduct th 
marriage^ funeral, and other services. They are Sunuis of 
HanaB school, and are seldom religious or careful to say the 
players. They teach their boys Urdu, Marathi, and Kanarese, but 
not English. On the whole they are well-to-do. 

Chliaparbands, or Thatchers, said to represent converts of 
the Hindu claijH of the same name, are found in small numbers all 
o^er the district. Their head-quarters are in MuddebihAl and 
Bagevddi. They are said to be immigrants from Gujarat, who 
came to the district in search of work during the Adil Shdhi rule 
(1490-1686). They speak Hindustd,ni with a considerable mixt 
of GujarAti. The men are tall or of middle size, sturdy, and whe 
coloured. They shave the head, wear the beard full, and dress i 
Hindu headscarf, a coat, a jacket, and a pair of tight trousers o 
waistcloth. The women, who, like the men, are either tall or 
middle size well made with good features and of wheat colo 
dress in the Hindu robe and Gujarati tight-fitting bodice 
open backs covering the breasts only. They appear in public 
add to the family income. Both men and women are neat 
clean in their habits. The men in former days lived as highwaymi 
or Thags, often staying away from their home for months. T" 
used to cheat people by making counterfeit coins, and, as thi 
generally rambled in bands of ten to twenty, also robbed travell 
who came in their way. Most of them arc now labourers 
husbandmen. They are hai*d working, but much given to drink, ai 
are fairly off. The women add to the family income by sewing quilts 
and making mats of date-palm leaves. They are hardworki 
but have a poor character for honesty. They have two divisio 
BarAgandAwallAs, or twelve measure men, andCHHAGANDAwALL 
or six measure men that is half-castes. The ChhagandAwdllAs are of. 
illegitimate birth, and their women instead of wearing the Guja: 
bodice, dress in the local Hindu bodice, covering the back 
fastened in a knot in front. The two divisions intermarry an 
marry with no other Musalmans. They form a separate community, 
but have no special organization, and no headman. They settle 
social disputes at class meetings; and the decision of the majority 
is considered final. They differ from regular Musalmans in 
worshipping Hindu gods and eschewing beef. In religion they are 
Sunnis of the Hanafi school, but are neither religious nor car 
say their prayers. They respect and obojf the fcazi, and i 



him to register their marriages. They do not seud their boys to 

J&tS, imnatgi'antB from Sind and the Panj6b, are said to have 
come to Bijdpur during the Adil Shihi rale. They are found in- 
small numbers. They are said to be descendants of the first ' 
converts of the great tribe of JAts or Jats who form the bulk 
of the low class population of the Panjab and Sind. They speak 
Hindusti,ni among themselves and Marathi with others. The men 
are tall or of middle size, sturdy, and wheat-coloured. They shave 
the head, wear the beard full, and dress in a Hindu turban or a 
headscarf, a coat, a jacket, and tight trousers, or a waistcloth. The 
women, who have the same cast of face as the men, wear the Hindu 
robe and bodice, appear ia public, and help the men in their work. 
Both men and women are neat and clean. Formerly the Jats were 
very troublesome, most of them living by plunder and gang robbery. 
Under the British, their power has been crashed and they live by 
tilling the ground and as servants and messengers. They are 
hardworking, thrifty, sober, and fairly ofif. They mai'ry among 
themselves only and form a separate community with a good class 
organization. They settle social disputes at meetings of the 
m^e members under a headman, who, with the consent of the 
majority, has power to fine any one who breaks their rules. 
Their manners and customs do not differ from those of ordinary 
Masalmdns. In religion they are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, 
and are said not to be religious or careful to say their prayers. 
They respect and obey the regular kdzi, and employ him to 
conduct their religiooa services. They do not send their boys to 

Ba'gbft'ns, Gardeners or Fruiterers, found almost over the 
whole district are said to represent local converts fi-om the Mali 
or Ktinbi castes. Their home speech is Hindustani much mixed 
with Kdnarese and Marathi words. The men are tall or of middle 
size, sturdy, and dark. They shave the head, wear the beard 
either short or full, and dress in a large two-cornered turban, a 
waistcoat, and a waistcloth. The women, who have the same 
cast of face as the men, are dirty and untidy, dressing in the 
Hindu robe and bodice, and appearing in public. They are 
hardworking, thrifty and sober, and some are well-to-do. They 
sell fruit and vegetables, the women helping in the work 
of selling. They marry among themselves and form a separate 
community. They settle social disputes at class meetings under a 
head or chaudhari chosen from their richest and most respected 
families, who, with the approval of the majority, has power to fine 
any member who breaks class rules. They are Sunnis of the 
Hanafi school, and few are religious or careful to say their prayers, 
eschew beef and are said to believe in and pay vows to Hindu 
They obey the kdzi and employ him to conduct their 
rices. They seldom send their boys to school and take to no 
now pursuits. 

Bakar Kasa'bs, or Mutton Butchers, also called LAd SultAnis, 
aro found in cun ili-mbli' muiilni^ in nil tho larger towns Tln-v are 
»87T— SI 

Chapter I] 

^ Fopnlatio: 



Bakiir , 

IBombay Gazetteer 






tor K(Ufib$. 



converts from the Hindu casto of LAd Khdtiks ; and are 
to have been brought to Isldm by Tipu of Maisur. They fo: 
two distinct bodies KilundAg and K^ml^B. The Kaundds 
• found only in the Nizam's coimtry, and neither marry nor have 
' thing in common with Kilmlis. Both sell mutton, but Kauu 
sell cooked as well as raw mntton^ cooking it at their hoai 
and carrying the dishes for sale to the shops where shendi 
palm beer is sold. This the K^mlils consider disgraceful. Bo' 
divisions are well organized, each with a separate headman 
ehaudhari chosen from the richest and most respected families, w 
if the majority approve, has power to fine any one breaki 
their class rules. Their home speech in large towns is Hindust 
much mixed with K^narese; in smaller towns they speak KAnar 
They are either tall or of middle size dark and strong ; the m 
shave the head and either shave the chin or wear a short be&i 
They dress in a Hindu-like turban, a tight-fitting jacket, a 
a waistcloth. The women, who dress in the Hindu robe a _ 
bodice, appear in public, and help the men in selling mutton. They 
are untidy and quarrelsome. As a class they are hardworkio 
thrifty, and well-to-do. They are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, bi 
few are religious or careful to say their prayers. To a great ex 
they are still Hindus, worshipping Hindu gods, keeping Hin 
festivals, denying themselves the use of beef, and refusing to eat 
mix in any way with other Musalmflns. Except in circumcisi 
their boys and in having their marriages and funerals performed 
MusalniAu style, they show little respect to the Icdzi. They do 
send their boys to school, nor take to other pursuits. 

Bhadbhunja'S, or Grain-parchers, found in limited numliers 
one or two large towns, are said to represent converts from ti 
Bhoi or Fisher caste of local Hindus. Their home tongue is rou; 
Hindustani spoken with a strong KAnarese accent. They are 
or of middle size and dark. The men shave the head, wear the 
either full or short, and dress in a headscarf tied in Hindu faahii 
a tight jacket, and a waistcloth. The women, who have the sa: 
cast of face as the men, are dirty and untidy. They appear 
public and sell parched grain. As a class they are hardworking 
thrifty but poorly clad and seldom well-to-do. They form a sejjarate 
community and marry among themselves only. They differ fron^ 
regular Musalm&ns in offering vows to Hindu gods and keepiqH 
Hindu festivals. At the same time they obey the hizi and ask hiff 
to conduct their marriage and funeral services. They are Sunnia 
of the Hanafi school, bnt few of them are religious or careful to say 
their prayers. They seldom send their boys to school. Besides 
grain-parchers some earn their living as servants and constables. 

Oaundls, or Bricklayers, found in small numbers in 
of the Inrger towns, are said to represent local converts of 
Hindu class of the same name. They are tJiU, strong, nn<l <la! 
Their home speech is Hindustani spoken with a strong Kanai 
and Marathi accent. The men shave the head, wear the bet 
short or full, and dress in a two-cornered Hindu turban, a 
fitting jacket, and a waistcloth. The women, who are of middle 
siEe thin and olive-akinned, dreu in the Uindn robe aod bodii 


Karu&taJt. j 


ITiey do not object to appear in public and add nothing to the 
faraily income. Neither men nor women are neat or tidy. They 
are bricklayers and masons. The men are hardworking and thrifty. 
They suffered severely from the stoppage of all building which, 
lasted during and after the 1876-77 famine. Their calling was so * 
bad that many bad to leave the district or take to new pursuits. 
During the last three years tbe railway and other public works have 
given thorn constant and high-paid employment, and as a class they 
are well-do-do. They form a separate class, generally marryiug 
among themselves only. They difler from ordinary Musalmana in 
eschewing beef, in worshipping Hindu godSj and in keeping Hindu 
festivals. At the same time they obey the kdzi and ask him to 
conduct their ceremonies. They are Sunnis of the HauaB school 
but are seldom religious or careful to say their prayers. Few of 
them give their boys any schooling. Besides as masons they are 
found as servants and messengers. 

Jlia'Paltars, also called Dhuldhoyis or Dust-washers, are found 
in small numbers in some of the larger towns. They aro said 
to represent Hindu converts of the Dhnldhoya and 8on6r or gold- 
smith castes. They are of middle height, well made, and dark or 
olive-coloured. The men share the head, wear the beard full, and 
dress in a Hindu-like turban, a shirt or a jacket, and a waistcloth. 
The women, who are thin and fair, appear in public, but add nothing 
to the family income. Unlike the men who are dirty and slovenly, 
they aro noat and tidy. Their homo tongue is either Kanareae or 
mixed Hindustani and Kanarese. The men gather the sweepings 
of goldsmith's shops and wash and strain thorn for particles of gold 
and silver. They are hardworking and thrifty, but are excessively 
fond of date-palm beer. They form an organized society and 
marry among themselves only. They eschew beef, worship Hindu 
cods, and keep Hindu festivals. At the same time they obey the 
hhi and employ him to conduct th?ir marriage and funeral services. 
They are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, but aro not religious or careful 
to say their prayers. They do not send their boys to school. 
Besides as dustwashers some earn their living as servants and 

Momins, or Weavers, found in considerable numbers in some of 
the larger towns, are said to represent Hindu converts of the Koshti 
or Sali caste. They are said to have been brought to IslAni by the 
persuivsion of the Arab missionary KhwAja Syed Hnssain Gaisuderaj 
of Gnlbarga who lived early in the fifteenth century, and of Hasham 
Pir Gajarati of BijApur who lived about the close of the sixteenth 
contury.' They still jxiy special devotion to these two saint.^ and 
show great respect to their dL'scendanta who are called the\r pi rsdJda 
or Saints' sons. The men are tall or of middle height and of dark or 
olive cnlonr. They shave the head, wear the beard full, and dress 
ID • Hindu-like headscarf, a coat, a shirt, a tight jacket, and a waist* 

I'lr, Dcphcw of .SJi.ih Wnjihudin ot Ahmad^lMid, came to Bijipar in 
> at tho *^i (.1 fiiiiilKii ill th«" rci^jii ol I>ir«him Adil ShAh. 
Ta>«'(u.ii ui .\>', 11,1 irf Iiij;L(iur wUli lUiii;luJAiiial ml.ilui. 


Chapter I 





[Bombay Gi 



Chapter III. 




cloth or tight trousers. The women, i»ho are generally tniddle-sazet 
thin aud fair with regular features, wear the Hindu robe and bodiwi 
appear in public, and help the men in weaving cloth. They are banl 
• working, but are neither neat nor clean. They speak Hiudustia 
with a strong KAnarese accent. The men, though hardworkiiq 
and thrifty, are exoesaivly fond of date-palm beer. They weavi 
into cloth English and Bombay yam which they buy from whole 
sale Vdui deaJers. Tho chief articles they tnake are robea, waist 
cloths, and striped chintz with silk borders for bodices. They forn 
a separate community, and their civil and sometimes their crimioa 
eases are tried at class meetings under a patil or headman chosei 
from the richest families, who, with the approval of the majority, ti 
empowered to fine any one breaking class rules. They marr] 
among themselves only aud have often more than one wife, as th< 
women are not less thrifty or hardworking than their husbands 
During the last two or three years cheap grain and a brisk demant 
for their goods have helped them to recover most of what they losi 
during the 1876-77 famine. They are Snnnis of the Hanafi school 
but are seldom religious or careful to say their prayers. At th< 
same time they obey the hdzi in most matters. They do not sent 
their boys to school. Besides as weavers some earn their living ai 
servants and messengers. 

Pinja'ra's, or Cotton-cleaners, found iu small nnmbere in som* 
of the larger towns are said to represent local converts of the 
Hindu caste of the same name. They generally speak K^naresc 
and can also talk an incorrect Hindustani- The men are middle- 
sized and of a dark or olive colour. They shave the head and ixuoi 
or wear the beard short, and dress like Hindus in a turban, a tight- 
fitting jacket, and a waiatcloth. The women have the same casi 
of face as the men, and dress in the Hindu robe and bodice. Theg 
appear iu public and add to tho family income by cleaning cot 
Both men and women are dirty and untidy. They are cot* 
cleaners and are badly off, as the decay of hand-spinning ruined 
craft. Of late many have become husbandmen. They form 
8eparateoommunity,but haveno special organization and no headman. 
They marry among themselves only, and differ from ordinan 
Musalmfins in eschewing beef, offering vows to Hindu gods, aol 
keeping Hindu festivals. At the same time they obey the kdzi it 
all matters. They are Sunuis of the Hanafi school, but are nol 
religious or careful to say their prayers. They seldom send fcheii 
boys to school, and are said to be a falling class. 

Fatvegars, or Tassel-twisters, found in small numbers in som* 
of the larger towns, are said to represent local converts of the 
Hindu class of the same name. Their home tongue is Hindustan: 
spoken with a strong KAnarese accent. The men are tall or of middlt 
size, well made, and olive-skinned. They shave the head, wear th< 
beard either short or full, and dress like Hindus in a headscarf, s 
waistcoat, and a waistcloth. The women, who are middle-siaed 
thm fair and with regular features, dress in the Hindu robe and 
bodice, appear m public, and add nothing to the family income 
ti4hmenand women are neat and dean. Though hwdworki 

SI 7.1 


thrifty and sober, they are not well-to-do. They make tassels, 
deck jewels and gold and silver ornaments with silk, and prepare 
false najr for women. Though their work is well paid it is not constant. 
and most of them have taken to new pursuits. They generally 
marry among themselves only, but have no class organization, and 
form a separate body in little more than in name. Their manners 
and customs do not differ from those of ordinary Masalm^s, and 
they respect the kdzi and ask him to conduct their ceremonies. 
They are Sunnis of the Hanafi school and are neither religious nor 
careful to say their prayers. ITiey are anxious to send their boys 
to school. Besides aa tassel-twisters they earn their living as 
servants and messengers. 

Saikalgars, or Armourers, found iu small numbers in some of the 
larger towns, are said to represent converts from the Ghisddi caste 
of Hindus. Their home tongue is Kinarese. They are tall or middle? 
sized, strong, and dark. The men shave the head or wear the hair 
long, and either shave the chin or wear a short beekrd. They dress 
very poorly in little more than a dirty rag one and a half to two yards 
long which they tie round the loins as a waistcloth, and on going 
out, add a small dirty headscarf and a jacket. The women are 
like the men in face and in the uacleanness and poverty of their dress 
which consists of a Hindu robe and bodice. They appear in public 
and help the men in their work. They chiefly repair and sharpen 
knives and swords, and though hardworking and thrifty, make 
little by their craft, and spend most of their earnings in date-palm 
beer. They form a separate community with a headman of their 
own, through whom they settle their social disputes ; and who, with 
the approval of the majority, is empowered to fine any one breaking 
class rules. Casto fines are spent in dinner and drinking parties. 
They marry among themselves only, and differ from ordinary Mnsal- 
mans in eschewing beef and worsliiphing Hindu gods. At the same 
time they obey the kdzi and ask him to conduct their marriage and 
funeral services. They are Sunnis of the Hanafi school, but are 
seldom religious, and almost never come to the mosque. They do 
not send their boys to school, and on the whole are a falling class. 

The three classes that come under Service are the Pakhd,lis or 
water-carriers, the Hajdms .or barbers, and the BhatyAras or 

Pakhalls, or Water-carriers, found in small numbers atKaludgi 
and in one or two other large towns, are said to represent converts 
from the Hindu class of the same name. Their home speech is either 
Kduareso or Hindustani. The men are middle-sized thin and dark. 
Thoy either ahave the head or wear long hair, wear the beard short, 
and dress in a Uindu-like turban, a tight waist.coat, and a waist- 
cloth or tight trousers reaching the knee. The women, who hare 
the same cast of face as the men, dross in the Hindu robe and 
bodice, appear in public, and help the men in their work. Though 
neat and clean both men and women are excessively fond of date- 

Im juice. The men carry water on bullocks' backs in leather 

>, soiling it from house to house, being paid by monthly wages. 

aro chicOy employed by Musalmiuw and Christians. Tbo 



I Bombay Oft2etleer 
^' ' * DISTKICTS. 

monthly wages paid by a Enropcan master, who requires tht 
trater-uian to giro him his full time, vary from IGs. to HU- 
(Rft.8-12), and by a Mosalman master, who shares the watcr-cai 
^with foar or five other families, from 2«. to 4s. (Rs.1-2). Tht 
» hardworking and thrifty, they are generally badly off and in 
They marry among themselves only, and form a separate commi 
under a headman chosen from the richest and most res] 
families, who, with the approval of the majority, is empowered to : 
any one breaking class rules. The money collected is spent on 
dioner or a di-iukiug p^rty. They diSer from ordinary Masahn^JiB u 
esdiewiag beef, worshipping Hindu gods, and keeping Hindu fosti 
vale. They ai-e Sunnis of the Hanafi school in name, bat are seldot»| 
religious or careful to say their prayers. They obey the kdzi and 
ask hira to conduct their marriage and funeral services. The j do j 
not send their boys to school and take to no new pursuits. 

Haja'lUS, or Barbers, are found in one or two of the larger t«>wn8. 
They are said to represent converts from the Hindu caste of the • 
same name, l^eir home tongue is either KAnarese or HindostanL i 
The men are middle-sized and dark. Thoy shave the head, wear' 
full or short beards, and dress in a Hiudu-like head scarf, a tight- < 
fitting jacket, and a waistcloth. The women, who are middlo-si»ed 
thin olive-coloured and with regular features, dress in the Hiudu robe j 
and bodice, appear in public, and add to the family income by serving 
as midwives. Neither men nor women are neat or tidy in their habital 
Though hardworking and thrifty, they are poorly clad and badly off.! 
Their charge for shaving varies from Id. tol JfL(J- I a.). Those who 
always shave certain families are paid yearly by each family 4/«. to 
8». (Rs.2-4') in cash, with occasional gifts of com or cast-off clothe*. 
They marry among themselves only and form a separate body, bat 
have no special organization and no headman. In manners and 
customs they do not differ from ordinary Musalmd-ns. They are 
Suunis of the Hanafi school and are not religious or careful to Bsy 
their prayers j they obey and respect the kdzi and ask bim to 
conduct their ceremonies. They do not send their boys to scbo*:!, 
and are said to be a falling class. 

Bhatyara'S, or Cooks, are found in small numbers in somu oi t u>: 
larger towns. They are said to represent local converts of mixed 
Hindu classes. Only of late years they are said to have taken t«> 
tbeir present calling of cooking. Their home tongue is KindusL^ai. 
The men are tall or middle-sized dark and sturdy. Some of them 
shave the head and others wear the hair long ; all have full - 
beards. The men dress in a turban or headscarf, a waistcoat, aad afl 
waistcloth or tight trousers. The women, who are either tall or 
middle-sized and dark or olive-coloured, dress in the Hindu robe 
and bodice, appear in public, and add to the family income. Both 
men and women are dirty and untidy. They prepare and soil cooked 
bread, pulse, vegetables, and beef Their customers are generally 
^ hungry travellers, or destitute and houseless beggars, both Musalmans 
Kf and Hindus of the lower classes as Mh^rs, Bhangia, and Mdngs. 
F The women generally sell at the cook shops and the men carry 
^ their stuck in day vessels in bamboo baskets to the shops wLck 



spirits and date-palm beer are sold. They are hardworking and 
thrifty, but arc excessively fond of dat«-palm beer and spirits, and are 
always poorly clad and badly off. Though they marry among them- 
selves only and nominally form a separate class, they have no head-^ 
man and no caste organization. Their manners and customs do . 
not differ from those of ordinary Musalmdns, and in all matters they 
obey the kdzi. They seldom send their boys to school. 

The three Labouring classes are Kaniara or poulterers and rope 
makers, PendhdrAs or pony-keepers and grass-cutters, and Sivdris 
or hunters and day-labourers. 

Kanjars, or Poulterers and Hemp Rope-makers, found in small 
nnmbers at Kal^dgi, are said to represent local converts of the 
wandering Hindu tribe of Pdrdhis. Their home tongue is a mixture of 
rough Hindustani Mardthi and K^narese. The men are tall or middle 
sized well-made and dark. They either shave the head or wear the 
hair long, a full or short beard, and dress in a Hindu-like turban, a 
tight-fitting jacket, and a waistcloth. Their women, who are either 
tall or middle sized thin and dark or olive-skinned with regular 
features, dress in the Hindu robe and bodice. They appear in public, 
and are hardworking and thrifty but very dirty. They keep and 
soil hens and eggs, make hemp ropes, and earn their living as servants 
and labourers. Though hardworking and thrifty, they are much 
given to intoxicating drugs and liquor and are poorly clad and badly 
off. They form a separate community and have a well organized body 
under a headman or chaudhari, who is generally chosen from the 
best families. With the approval of the majority the headman has 
power to fine any one breaking caste rules. The money collected is 
spent in dinner and drinking parties. They marry among them- 
Belves only, but in every respect obey and respect the kdzi. They are 
Sunnis of the Hanafi school in name, but know little of their religion 
are said sometimes to worship and pay vows to Hindu gods. 

►ey do not send their boys to school. 

Fendha'ra'B) or Grass-cutters, locally derived from pmdh a 
bundle of grass, are found in small numbers at Kalddgi and 
BAgalkot. They are said to represent converts from mixed Hindu 
classes. During the early years of the nineteenth century the 
Pendhdrds spread over the greater part of India in large bodies, 
plundering burning and torturing without pity. They have a 
strain of Upper Indian blood. Their home tongue is a mixtoro of 
rough Hindustani M61vi and Mardthi. The men are tall strong 
well-built and dark. They either shave the head or wear the hair 
long, wear the beard full and long, and dress in a dirty turban care- 
lessly wound round the head like a Hindu turban, a tight-fitting 
jacket, and a waistcloth. The women, who liko the men are tall 
strong and dark, dress in the Hindu robe and bodice and appear ia 
public. They are hardworking and thrifty but are not sober. During 
the fair months they go about in waste lands, gathering fuel which 
they carry to the towns for sale, and during the moonsoon they 
cut and sell grass. The men keep ponies and work as servants 
and labourers. They are hardworking but are excessively fond of 
and women are dirty in their habits, poor! 





I Bombay Oaset 

ipt«T III. 






s w 


and badly off. They murry among themselves only, and have a 
organized body. They settle their disputes at class meetings andec 
a headman or jamdddr chosen from among their number, wl 
with the approval of the majority, has power to fine any one breaks 
■ class rales. They respect the kdzi and ask him to conduct tl 
marriage and funeral services. They differ from ordinary Musalm^ns 
eschewing beef , worshipping Hindu gods^and keeping Hindu feativi 
They have a special belief in the goddess Yellamma in whose hone 
they have built a temple at Kal^dgi. The temple is opened ev< 
year and special devotions are paid to the idol. They are Sunnis 
the Hanafi school in name, but few of them are religious or caref i 
to say their prayers. Some of them have of late begun to send th« 
boys to school. 

Siva'ris are found in one or two families at KaUdgi only, and ^ 

said to represent converts from the Hindu tribe of Shikdris. They artf 
feaid to have come from Akalkot in ShoUpur. They speak Hinduaidni 
with a mixture of Mardthiand KAnarese. The men are middle-sixed 
and dark. They shave the head, wear a fall beard, and dress 
Hindu turban, a tight-fitting jacket, and a waist^loth. Th^ 
women, who have the same cast of face as the men, dress in 
Hindu robe and bodice, appear in public, and add to the family incol 
by selling fuel and working as labourers. Neither men nor womi 
are neat or clean in their habits. The men are hardworking 
thrifty, working as servants and labourers, but are excessively foi 
of liquor and are badly off. They associate with the Kakars 
Penah4r^,but do not marry with any class except their own. Tl 
have no special organization, and in their manners and customs di 
little from ordinary Muaahnans. They are Sunnis of the Han^ 
school, but are seldom religious or careful to say their prayers. TTil 
obey and respect the kdzi, but do not send their boys to school. 

The three Musicians are Kasbans or Dancing girls and conrtezai 
NakArcliis or horse kettle-drummers, and Tdschis or kottle-drui 

Easbans, also called N^kans, form a community of about! 
hundred at Bitgalkot, and are found in smaller numbers at Kalic" 
and BijApur. They do not claim to belong to any of the general Mus 
mdn classes, and are said to represent local converts from mi: 
Hindu castes who became Musalmans when they either left 
were driven from their own caste. They have no common peculiaril 
of feature or form. Their home speech is either Hindnstdni 
Kanarese. They dress in the Hindu robe and bodice. All 
shoes which is the chief point of difference between the dress 
a Kasban and of a private woman. They also wear loose bell auklc 
known as kadas, by whose tinkling they measure their steps. Sinf 
and dancing or prostitution, or the three together form the 
part of their profession. Some of them are said to be good si 
Chiefly through the depressed condition of the people sine 
famine of 1876.77, the Kasbans have fallen into great povert 
They are tidy and cleanly, bat proverbially crafty, faithlc 
and fond of pleasure, liquor, and intrigue. They l